Diaries 1961

January 5, 1961

My dear Florie:

It is ten o’clock at night and I have had a most busy, and in a sense a most profitable two days. Because I have a certain élan and exuberance many overlook the fact of my age and that I have accumulated a certain quantity of knowledge and perhaps experience, if not wisdom. At this end the general conclusion is that I have wisdom. A small example is that the shoe-shine boys used to charge me 5 ps. or more, 2 ps. is considered high and 1 piaster normal for a shoe-shine. Now they fight to shine my shoes, not for the money but for the Baraka. This, you will please note, is my diary entry and I am not in the slightest degree concerned with the reactions of anybody, especially people in far-away places. For this supposition of my having Baraka has spread far beyond the shoe-shine boys. One guide—who overcharged me—is nevertheless advertising me far and wide because I went to Syedna Zeinab (where a granddaughter or some woman descendent of the Prophet has her tomb) and then the tomb of Imam Shafei who is a great saint and founder of one of the law schools of Sunna.

I have made two visits to the National Research Centre with the final acceptance of my literary proposals. I hope to put these into operation soon to the detriment of certain well-known groups who collect funds. Period. This will be reported to the Embassy tomorrow along with the following two incidents:

I received a call from one of the leading newspapers here. We finally arranged an interview which lasted about an hour and a half. They took at least six pictures with discussion of my scientific work, Sufism, Yoga, etc. It was so long and involved. It came out of the reaction to my poem “Saladin” and my paper on “Surrender Consciousness and Unifying Consciousness.” This received the highest commendation from the savants here and as soon as the present pressure dies down I shall write to Aligarh University in this regard.

As I was retiring last night I received another call which lasted one hour from the Islamic Congress. They not only accepted in full my report on Islam in the United States but held a meeting to work out a program for me when I return. In turn they asked me to write a paper on “How I became a Muslim” and “An American’s Reaction to Ben Gurion.” The latter will be an unusual paper for I shall attack him in part on universal grounds and partly on the strange departure from traditional Judaism which seems to go on indefinitely. If this man is not suffering from megalomania, then he is one of the worst enemies of true religion that ever appeared on earth.

I received one letter from Congress about a new school for international studies and I, stimulated by these events, have entered a strong protest against any further spending of moneys by the Federal Government for European professors on Asian studies. I am going to follow this up by reporting on the strange case of Judith Tyberg, pushed aside after she graduated with highest honors from an American University and received a further degree in India. I shall request she be given top priorities when Federal Funds are appropriated by Asian conferences, or for the projected university. We have not only gained nothing but have lost ground steadily by this interposition of Europeans in Asian studies.

Furthermore my stand that the real Islamic Philosophy have been smothered by Europeans writing books about a few men of the past whose works they happen to know, overlooking the greater works of many of Islam’s top thinkers and muddled explanations of others. The greatest name in Islam is hardly ever mentioned in any courses in the West—which has prompted one Egyptian to disown every European writer, without exception. Maybe he has gone too far, but this is an Egyptian outlook and it corroborates Indian, Pakistani, Indonesian, Malay, Burmese, Thai and Japanese outlooks. I have finally convinced the Foreign Office on this naming names and giving incidents.

January 8, 1961

My dear Florie:

This is my diary entry again. I just came back from a second visit to Sultan Hassan Mosque. It was under Dr. George Scanlon of the American U. here and the party consisted entirely of Americans, mostly those who work at the Embassy. We pay nothing for the tour but baksheesh to the people who work around Mosque. Even at a piaster a piece, the group is so large that they get good largesse.

Dr. Scanlon is entirely opposed to the famed ornate Mohammed Ali Mosque and claims that the Sultan Hassan Mosque is the best in Cairo. There is no argument. He knows the ins and outs of all the art, the historical background, the kinds of materials. I almost got aesthetic fatigue. Last time we walked miles but I did not get tired. Today my eyes are tired and I forgot to change my glasses.

The mosque uses stone, marble, lapis lazuli, glass and wood and each of these has to be treated separately. The monumental wood carving equals anything I have seen in Japan. The marble in-lays are perhaps the best of their kind. This place is so large and with so many details it is harder to visit than the Taj or Shalimar Gardens. But there is a fine feeling of awe and austerity. I want to go to the Rifa’i Mosque across the street again but Dr. Scanlon is stopping for a season and the next tours will be to relics of Ancient Egypt. I do not know at the moment whether I shall make such trips. I have been invited to an Armenian Church and the experience might be worth it. Somehow or other in the midst of so many activities I just cannot warm up to antiquities.

I was sure you have been very busy and thought you had gone to Santa Monica. I have just completed two papers for the Islamic Congress and will outline others which I can write when I return to California, inshallah; or write from Ohio should I go there for research. This morning I thought of the worst criticism of Christianity: “there was no room for him in the inn” but the inn has taken over the religion, especially Christmas. I am getting more and more antagonistic to Christmas.

We are losing ground in the international field. I have written Washington that our politics and economics were fine but we simply have no moral and psychological approach, will not face the fact and are constantly “shocked” by easily predictable events. I am not surprised at the China report. The press, the movies and the literati do not know how to face humanity. The lines came to me in a letter the other day: “Lust is the ghetto of love.” Few of our writers know how to get out of the ghetto and another sees adventure only in the science laboratory. This is utter nonsense. I find adventure every day.

I am running up against a dilemma on the buying of art goods, as to their shipment. This means either purchasing them through a New York Office at a much higher price—which I don’t mind; or carrying them with me, which means I save money but cannot distribute anything for a long, long time.

I think I told you I heard from Abdul Rahman from Abbottabad, and our plans rather coincide. I expect to find Pakistan “easier” than here because there is more openness and more people speaking English. I am now in the midst of biological research, literary work and waiting to see how much of the interview will be published. Tomorrow I go to the Islamic Congress and when I present my papers will see what kind of advice or suggestions they give me.

It would have been a simple and easy matter to have a Mosque in S.F. I am an old San Franciscan. I know people who would have contributed heavily for international reasons and I found today that these people are supporting four students at the University of Cairo right now. Well sometimes other than Allah knows best and when other than Allah knows best you get their kind of Mosque; and when Allah knows best you get His kind of Mosque. But other-than-Allah knows best so many places so you have to have the other-than-Allah Mosque.

More later.

January 9, 1961

My dear Florie:

Please bear in mind that this is my diary, for my records and for posterity and is not any effort to win anybody over; indeed some people will say as they always have said: what egotism! All my early life was rife with suffering and I used to envy Job! I am not fooling. The biblical saying that was before me was “The stone that is rejected is become the corner stone.”

I placed the carbons of my articles in the hands of one Attia who is both a scientist and dervish, but in addition a business man. The next result is that today I have to attend immediately to a scientific matter; then conduct my affairs; than meet a Sheikh and then prepare to meet several more Sheikhs and Allah knows what dignitaries.

I have followed with full faith the instructions given to me by my Murshids, and though there is nothing secret, there is everything sacred about them. Two or three people who have known me all this time and were disciples of my first Murshid are living witnesses of it but most of the disciples were more against me than anybody but my parents and one even more than my parents.

These instructions covered exactly what was the subject of the walks yesterday. Sufism may be called “Operative Islam.” We place God off in the subjective and then try to compensate a la Madison Avenue with a lot of adjectives bribes.

Allah has not asked for bribes. He has asked for surrender and that is exactly the one thing we do not give Him. Everything else. I had to show even those long steeped in Islam that when they bowed their heads to the grounds they empty their heads—their minds, their egos, and when the torso by reflex action even, is raised Allah may fill our hearts and beings with His Grace. But it is this type of Islam which Rom Landau attacked and most everybody but Abbas joined him and Abbas resigned as any devotee would do.

Sheikh Abu Salem Amria who has in part accepted me must be a great man because many of the Ulema from Al Asher ware there last night also to hear him. He gave lessons, mostly moral and spiritual and not the humbug words of lecturers—”moral and spiritual.” This was the real stuff. The Mosque was packed to the doors.

There was also present Sheikh Mohammed to Sidi Sharani. I cannot explain this man. There is such tremendous love between us that is real and the manifestation of it astounded even the Ulema and many of the devotees. And it is Sheikh Mohammed who is taking me out today, and I go with him.

This is a holy week. It is in honor of Zeinab, the grand-daughter of the Prophet. “Women have no souls in Islam” but can you point to a single woman-saint in Judaism or Protestantism? This very subject was touched and I can name several woman saints in Islam.

The first question that Sheikh Amria asked me was, “Have you visited Syedna Zeinab?” Well I had made a special visit to that shrine just before and you can believe or not all our European Orientalists that there is no telepathy or super-telepathy, but why this question as a greeting? I have had many such experiences.

Some day there may be in American schools for religions studies, schools for Islamic studies. Lest night there ware studies—only from Holy Qur’an, many from Hadith and many from the lives of the Kaliphs. This is exactly what I wanted but evidently my Allah whom I hope I worship is not the same as the “Islam” which some people have substituted for Allah and then filled with any selfish content they desire. Allah grants wishes. This god named Islam apparently does not. This god named Islam is just like the old Hebraic is deity, a private one in whose name one can do anything and everything. I’ll have none of it and neither will the world, but we all say “Alhamdu Lillah” and that ends the communication—in preparation for more adventures.

January 13, 1961

My dear Harry:

This is my diary entry and I am sending it air-mail which may bypass other letters and reports. Will you kindly send me air-mail to this address a pamphlet on the Hotel Management Section of the City College. There is a young man working here who wishes to come to the U.S. and take this course of training. He already has many of the qualifications, speaks several languages, and has more than passage money. Details are being worked out with the American Friends of the Middle East, who also have an office down town (323 Geary St.) You do not have to write anything, just please send the folder.

I am in the middle of a rat-race. I use this term although everything is most favorable. I had two other projects outside of Horticulture and not only have they both been successful but have reacted in turn on my Horticulture ventures. One has been my interest in Middle East affairs and the other in the Dervishes. I have no intention to write here on these subjects but I have found many of the Dervishes in important posts in horticulture; and in turn I found one of the chief Islamic philosophers gave me an opportunity about which I shall write next. His name is Attia and he asked me to check on the American Soybean Foundation. I did so and met one André Tawa, Director of the Soybean Council of America.

It was more of a love-feast than a meeting and I am to submit a paper at his request. In my previous journey I was interested in following up the introduction of the Soybean into India despite Clifford Clinton’s “Meals for Millions” abortive experience. The Soybean Foundation is not only working literally on everything from “soup to nuts” but faces every problem from the pests which make growing difficult here to the manufacture of plastics, etc. and all between. On top of that Mr. Tawa heartily endorsed my bringing Horticultural literature to this country and said the Foundation would not only back me psychologically but even financially.

This comes at a time when I can report, with a degree of disgust, that a number of American organizations, purportedly opening in the fields of international friendship and collecting plenty of $$$ for such purposes are not here at all and I never happened upon them before and am keeping a keen eye open. This quasi-fraudulent method is adding more fuel to the fire of international suspicion. But the Soybean Council is doing and what is more is working just in that area of the world which I visit and have been effective so far.

Ali Asad, Chief Geneticist, Vegetable Research Station

Hasan Salah, Chief Plant Protectionist, National Research Center

Sa’ad Kemal, Chief Geneticist, En-Shams University

Murtaz Billah, Director, Vegetable Production, Veg. R. Station

Mohammed Dessouki, Chief, Foreign Affairs Dept., Ministry of Agriculture

Mr. Dessouki is my theoretical host; Hasan Salah, recently from the University of California and friend of many personal friends, has been my effective host. He sent me to En-Shams University where I went before to meet Yusuf Wali, Chief Pomologist. This man, like Murtaz Billah, is a Dervish. M. Dessouki is a first cousin of Murtaz Billah.

The other day I called on Ali Asad first to get a contact with Louisiana State University to report to them on the use of Water Hyacinths as a vegetable. He gave me the introduction. When I met Sa’Ad Kemal I learned that the two men had gone together to L.S.U. and were close friends so all these people are close workers with each other and with me.

I then told Ali Asad that I thought his work on Sweet Potatoes was it. He was doing exactly what I have been arguing about for an integrative resolution of the earlier Lysenko-Mendel controversy. I have asked for a special interview in February so I could enter the report in my diary and carry his work to other universities without infringing on his patent rights. He was delighted. He was further pleased to know my enthusiasm was as great as his. I have since had opportunities to disagree, or argue with other scientists and can see that they have not reach the integral “solution” as I think and Ali does. I hope he is right.

My visit to [En-Shams was something. Sa’ad Kamal used to be Professor of Horticulture but now handles Genetics and Statistics at the university. He took me around the grounds and later to his place. For the record I notice the continued use of Lantana for low shrubs but a form of Bougainvillea also. I do not like the latter for this purpose but there it is. One sees plenty of Jonquils, very fragrant; Stocks, Nasturtiums, Petunias, Geraniums, some Canna, all kinds of Points, but no garden flowers with which you are not familiar. The Roses are doing well now showing they are an all-the-year plant. The chief store flower is the Glad. They look fine and full. Phlox are also in bloom, Violets, etc.

Sa’ad Kamal took me to his farm where he does Cotton Research. He is trying seed-planting, putting some in the ground every 9 days, beginning with November 1st. Those which rooted well before the cold weather are in fine shape, but the others grew well up to about 6” and then the cold wind gets them. It does not kill them, but causes leaf-fall.

There are several reasons for doing this off-season. The first is to see if they can get plants and blooms before the pests are active. The second is to ascertain the actual thermal factors. Light, he tells me, is natural and long- or short-day planting does not seem to be effective. The genetic factors seem to be very dominant over the “environmental” ones and so far as Cotton is concerned Sa’ad Kamal is pretty close to Mendelian orthodoxy.

He has also developed Cotton as a perennial windbreak. This serves several purposes. Thus, no labor of replanting. He has not yet determined the economic benefits or losses to this method. But the windbreak shrubs protect the new plants. He has had laid out both seeds and cuttings in one open field, and on the other side of the road reported his experiments with the Cotton shrubs as windbreaks. There he has had very much greater success with the seedlings and somewhat greater success with the cuttings. The cuttings require more labor, but come free; the seeds less labor but an expense. So it is just the beginning of a season of experimentation; to add the economic facts and factors to the genetic ones…. However, I think these principles might apply to a lot of other crops.

He is also doing work with Grasses and Ground Covers to ascertain their value and usefulness. He sees that the Goat has been the envy of Egypt and that it destroyed all the ground covers but C. dactylon and even much of that. He says that economists, historians and others have overlooked this and tend to blame dynasties and political groups. He says that the Goat eats so close that it does not permit plants to revive, especially the ground covers in Egypt and that this is the prime factor in the centuries of downhill in the history of the soil. He is not trying to introduce many ground covers. He finds his Lippia particularly successful.

We also discussed the relation of crops to soil moisture, atmospheric pressure and ultimately rainfall. My ideas, although worded out logically rather than scientifically, are the same as those of all the men whom I have met who are [?] on this and similar problems.

Sa’ad Kemal’s home and station are about 10 miles northeast of Cairo. The weather there is moderate, warmer in winter and cooler in summer. The soil is rich black alluvial. Until recently he used no fertilizers, part of his tests outside of Cotton being the use of crop rotation to see how far this could be done without additives. Now he must use some N in his cotton work. As both of us were too interested in the experiments, we forgot to go into the rotation program.

It is quite possible that I shall visit this University again. At the moment I have no program excepting the very important one of extracting from the Entomological bulletins, about which I have written before.

I also spent some time at the Library of En-Shams. They claim to have a moral complete collection of Botanical and Horticultural books than elsewhere around Cairo and this is undoubtedly true. I did a small amount of checking but then we had a long discussion on information exchange. The result is the basic working out of a program to exchange first, information between Pakistan, India, Japan, U.S. and UAR. Then go into seeds and later into ropes. Later today I was advised that Mr. Dessouki of the Ministry is going to India next week so I will see him immediately in the morning and extract some names from my diary, especially the contacts at Dehra Dum. If this program can be accomplished, it will round out my general purpose and give me a full-time program, if I wished, for the rest of my life. Of course more countries might fit into the pattern, especially, Indonesia.

At the moment there is also some rivalry between U.S. and U.S.S.R on the World Agricultural Exhibition which will open after I leave. Evan if I get a preview, I could hardly give an objective, over-all report. For Russia’s discoveries or advances would only in a few cases be of benefit to this country. Both the basic crops and conditions are different. But even the wheat research might be further advanced here than in either country, but the press, including even the local press is too concerned with excitement to give a deep, serious report.

I have now written to Mr. Kinoshita in Japan covering the basis facts without details. I may have gotten into too many things but now I am sent for. I have to see Mr. Attia, who is concerned with the commercial side of Cotton but also interested in the basic food problems of this region. He has several contacts for me, the nature of which is not clear.

I have now written asking for an interview with President Nasser. Even if it be granted I am afraid the news value of it would outshine the truth value. For I consider the contents of this letter above of far more importance to the world. Indirectly I feel concerned with the failures of Russia and China in this crops and harvests. Other countries have also suffered this year and the world seems out of focus, with population going up and food going down.

There is a general feeling that the new Administration will be better. I did not vote and while I feel that the State Department is a decided improvement, do not wish to extend my onions, which are not well formed. Mr. Benson was here recently but it did not get into the news, nor did he make any basic pronouncements or suggestions.

I told Sa’ad Kemal that what the UAR needs from the U.S is neither money nor advice, but the tourism of farmers who have grown Cotton, Cane and Rice. I once wrote Senator Ellender on this subject; ignored. Some of those lowly whites from the South, with all their weaknesses, could make better suggestions than the none-contacting diplomats, experts, etc., who visit neither people nor villages. Anyhow I may make arrangements for out-of-town trips next week. The Sundays now give the choice of visiting ancient Christian churches or going on art-jaunts with the American colony. Either of which is acceptable.


January 16, 1961

Dear Walt and Magana;

This is my diary entry and only incidentally a letter. It is evident that my sensitivities or intuitions are growing and the incident last night may fortify the story below it. Ted is a Harvard grad here and has been concerned with going to Iran. He is in some difficulties and I begged him to sup with me. He declined thinking he was a burden. As I sat down to dine there was a man opposite me who proved to be Iranian envoy and had all the answers for Ted both on how to go to Iran and what to do. We also had a very pleasant discussion of Sufism which he says is much alive in his country. Of course the “authorities” deny this just as they deny it is alive here and God knows how many thousands of them I have met and I have two or more spirituals teachers to meet soon.

Yesterday I had to go the Al-Asher Mosque after visiting one Sufi Khankah, and having time went to the bazaars. I had brought a small amount of spending money with me. Now either Allah or my Agatha daemon is with me, for I get pinched and called “stingy.” I had brought the money for no other reason than spending it. I bought some shoes and they will be shipped with some other stuff to Peg Almond, 470 23rd Ave., San Francisco 21.

There was a fine Nefertiti robe, no there were several and there were a lot of other robes. It is very hard to get the merchants to keep quiet. I was not interested in price excepting to see that the package was valued at $10. Well, I finally got a Nefertiti robe and one pair of green shoes to match although I cannot be sure of the size of either, and it does not matter. These were paid for, also postage and insurances to 111 Ellis St. and if they get there I think you have the acumen, wisdom and assurance to know what to do with same.

It is because my intuition or the divine grace has been working and working overtime for me in several affairs I feel this will be included. Anyhow Allah or the Agatha daemon or my conscience or something told me not to be stingy for you folks, and I guess I had better not. There are no orders about other people and I may be stingy there, although here again only Allah knows why or knows best and I shall try to obey orders. (This looks very funny, actually it is most serious.)

I believe at this writing all my major and many of my minor projects have succeeded, alhamdu lillah. I have written asking President Nasser for a short interview and the presentation of my poetry. Also I may try to see the local Mayor and Governor on other matters. This covers a long list of things. I am half afraid, at times, to record even for my diary because things look bloated and egotistic. I once took Dr. Baker with me to an Asian conference and she never again criticized me, but I do not have many opportunities to take people to see what happens when I go forth.

The work being done by scientists here has amazed and delighted me. I am now concerned with cultural and related exchanges. The arts are not so well developed here. Painting is catching up, but dancing not so; the progress in music is malgré lui. I even heard square dance calls in Arabic. You may be glad to learn that some of the Hindus I meet have heard about you and there is no doubt that you could draw many people if you came here. But the State Dept. and ANTA are still too much concerned with brand names and a visit of Armstrong is going to delight the Americans and the American press; but I doubt much whether there will be any valid communication or “meeting the people.” This is something which is not going on at a proper rate.

I leave here in a month and look to a later return. There are lots of loopholes in this visit and thought I just purchased a camera it is for somebody else and I should prefer others talking pictures. It is a burden with all the things I have in tow, and I am not able to carry on my literary work.


Samuel I Lewis

January 18, 1961

Dear Ruth and Everybody:

Please note that this is my diary and only secondarily a communication. I had my fortune told three times when I was an infant and all the people said I would die famous. A number of years ago a woman read my coffee grounds and said that someday I would do something for which the U.S. Government would honor me. My name is already on the roster of famous people at Fort Mason, Calif. just below Carlson’s Raiders. Every time I open my jaw to say what has happened there is a roar of opposition. It is not I but they who have the egos. Anyhow in order to tell what is happening here and happening here in profusion, I have to break this down into a series of incidents. Please bear in mind that this is just one third of my existence here and the other two thirds are keeping pace with it. The top scientists, including a number of Sufis, are my dear friends and I am now no longer controlling my affairs but am a witness and a witness only and this is just one-third of my current existence. As much as possible goes into my diaries but now I am not sure, so much is happening and happening all the time.

Dr. Mohammed Kemal Hussein. The Sufis at Ajmir gave me such a reception that I became ill from dysentery, the only time I was ill on my previous journey—nothing but feasts and teas with milk and sugar between, excepting when we climbed a holy mountain or attended ceremonies. Whatever happened then—and things did happen—were not on the plane they happen now, either internally or externally.

I arrived in New Delhi and had the same rooms as previously and Pir-o-Murshid appeared and said I should go to the Egyptian Embassy. So I went sick—I came back healed. There I met this gentleman. “What do you want?” “I am interested in Moineddin Ibn l’Arabi and Islamic Art before the Turkish conquest.” His jaws dropped. “How did you find me?” “Why?” “I am the world’s greatest authority on these two subjects. This is the first time I have ever left Egypt and have just arrived and you found me!” I told him and we have become most excellent friends.

He has reviewed my “Saladin” and places it in the top ranks of all poetry. He has read my papers on “Surrender Consciousness and Identity Consciousness.” He has seen to it that my name got into the paper. We have outlined a lot of things, firstly in Islamics and later on for horticulture when I return inshallah. This is necessary because of

Dr. Shawarbi. He is now in the U.S. and normally should have been my host. He arrived in S.F. under dramatic conditions summoned by an enemy who was fighting a friend. At the meeting of the U.N. where all the religions came together I showed him a single page of “Saladin” and we walked off, he did not want to see anybody else, and were together constantly. Originally it was planned I was to tell him with his farm. I need somebody here through whom to introduce California crops, all kinds, so these doors are opened.

Newspaper Al-Akhram. Dr. Hussein has not only given me publicity but I was 1½ hours in his home recently for an interview with 8 or so pictures taken. But nothing appeared. I go to Semiramis Hotel all the time and I was told a beautiful woman reporter wanted to see me. Paul Keim of Berkeley was the first American I met here and we have become very, very close. He has a beautiful secretary named Katie whom I had to see in re. dancing. But I told Katie this a.m. I could not stay because a beautiful Egyptian lady wanted to see me. This was so and I had another whole hour and a promise to have a big article or several articles in the paper.

The Jilani Family is descended from Abdul Kadir-I-Gilani, the greatest of the Ghouses (and no nonsense despite the people who want to lead Sufism without studying it). I met a representative of this family in Washington before whom I laid my plans for Palestine. He began by wanting to throw me out of the door; he ended by embracing me.

My plan for Palestine has never been refuted. Everybody accepted it before, and I am resurrecting it step by step. There is an Iraqi in this Pension and he told me a member of the Jilani (or Ghailani) family is here in charge of the legation. I went there this morning and was promised an interview soon. Same stuff—the gruff voice followed by sweetness, light and love.

The Duces. Mrs. Duce who is now a titular Murshida was the only one who knew my plans. Three times I have almost made it in international affairs. The first time I was betrayed by a woman whom I had initiated, my only real mureed. The next time Murshida told everything to Etta who told everything to Mirza Mehdi her husband who told it to his friends. Finis. The third time Mrs. Duce went out of her way to denounce me and my plans, crossed the country, publicly and privately denounced the same. Made me retract this article in the papers which published me, although my view was very close to that of the new Secretary of State, Rusk.

I got kicked out of Fairfax, kicked out of the Sufi Movement and was called all kinds of things for which I could have hailed her into any court anywhere but did not want to disgrace the name Sufism.

I made a friend in Colonel Evenson, new director of the American Friends of the Middle East in San Francisco. He is a very close friend of Terry Duce. Just before I left home—and I may have told you this—as he wanted to introduce me to Mr. Duce I said: “Hello Terry!” He had just told him that my “Saladin” is a most wonderful poem, a prelude to Mohammed Kemal Hussein above. Ivy then came in, hang dogged.

Well today during the interview I heard the name Mr. Duce and found Terry is now here. I immediately went to the American Friends of the Middle East and dropped an indirect message: “All my plans here have been successful.” I may watch for him. The whole world and I mean the whole world has reversed itself.

U.S. Embassy. I had a long and the most important conference I have ever had with a Federal Govt. Official. Roughly I told him that we have not a single book on Islam as it is, nor a single book on the Dervishes which means anything. Without getting into detail he accepted every proposal I put to him and I am to write them out carefully and they will be given every consideration. I think I have things which may affect the whole balance of power in the U.S.

Local Sufis. Sunday I did not have time to complete the trip with the Americans but we visited a Khankah. I got kicked out of a school in California for using the term “Khankah.” I was urged to make this a “cause célèbre” as it is called and I probably shall. I went and greeted everybody there.

I met also this week Sheikh Sharabassi of the Rifa’i Dervishes. I had been to the Rifa’i Mosque and had the most wonderful experience there. Now he has invited me this Friday with my friend, Atila, to be interpreter. He had me stand up in a public meeting and get an ovation—this is becoming common place. In fact I am supposed today to have lots of “Baraka” and most people call me “Sheikh.”

I have been going to “The Garden of Allah” in the Khan-i-Khalili bazaar for purchases. I was introduced to a shoe-maker down stairs who fitted me out. Somehow or other the story got round that I am a dervish. Yesterday when I was in this shop the shoe-maker came up breathlessly, and took me by the hand downstairs. This was surprising as my shoes were not to be fitted until next week. There was an old blind man, a sheikh. We sat silently and I gave him my beads: “Naqshibandi!” He glowed all over—he is the Naqshibandi—teacher here. We embraced and then one experiences Baraka, not just blessing, but the warm fire of love and magnetism and joy penetrating all through one’s personality. It was a tender moment of happiness. There are things beyond words and language.

Prospectus. I am to leave here on February 16th for Port Said and to arrive in Karachi on February 26th. My mail address between February 15 and March 5 will be c/o Consulate, U.S.A., Karachi, Pakistan. Then c/o Abdul Rahman, K-482, Old Kunj St., Abbottabad, Hazara, N.W. Pakistan.

I may tour West Pakistan in many directions, depending on my friends. I have accepted the invitation to stay some time with one Jamshyd Khan, in Mardan, N.W. Pakistan. He is the largest modern farmer who has been most successful. But the truth is that not only am I interested in soils and soil problems—and have a lot of stuff for him, but the sons of Hasan Nizami have a coal company there. The late Hasan Nizami was Pir-o-Murshid’s closest friend and he died in his presence. So if I meet the sons I may question them about Pir-o-Murshid’s last days.

Several men at the Embassy are also going to help me with introduction in Pakistan and Dr. Kemal Hussein above already has.

Islamic Culture. This is very long and very complicated. I have written two papers for the Islamic League and shown them part of “Saladin.” I am also going to Al-Azhar University office Saturday to discuss the whole problem of Islamic culture. They are going to start a radio station and indirectly they need my advice on how to reach the English speaking world.

Roughly speaking the people here are Conservative Muslims, Progressive Muslims, Islamic Sufis and Universal Sufis. It is hard to draw the lines; there are no fixed rules and most are Muslims, but the top men are Universal as I have written before and underneath a lot of other people are universal, too.

Discussions. When I went to the bank last they gave me my money and entertained me and I them. They even forgot the papers which I had to sign! They had me give them sermons and discuss the relative merits of Christianity and Islam. I walked off a hero. The same happened the other night near here. I mingle with the people and they know I am an American. Nobody else does this.

Future. I had to criticize the American habit of raising funds which never reach here. Only the A.F.M.E. mentioned above, the YMCA. and CARE do anything here—and for that matter wherever else I have been. The most disgusting thing is the appeal for literature and funds, and any decent literature never gets here excepting through the Government (U.S.I.A.), which is always being attacked. And the filth that clutters the market—they don’t need Russian literature. What is saving as that the condition in Russia and especially China are terribly terrible and China may even try a suicide war, though I don’t think so. They simply do not have food.

I don’t want to overstate my case and at the same time I don’t want to overlook with false modesty because small events as well as big ones may play a part here. Remember this is just one-third of my program!

Love and blessings,

January 19

Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design,

San Francisco, Calif.

Dear friends:

I begin with my diary entry for the day and then may add to it. I have become very, very tired, largely because of a long parade of successful ventures, so I took the “afternoon off.” I went for a long walk with my friend who operates the book and magazine stand at Hotel Semiramis and he took me to his brother’s.

O. Deirnanjian, 33 Abdul Aziz St., Cairo, has a government job in the morning and operates a photography studio in the afternoon. He has a daughter in the United States. Last year she worked for Mardikian’s “Omar Khayyam.” If you are friendly with Mrs. M. you might relate this incident to her.

I am arranging with one member of the family to have unusual pictures taken of scenes which do not appear on postal cards such as interiors of Mosques, tombs, etc. We shall check carefully. But I shall not bring many cards home. Most of these will go to Pakistan. Instead I shall place a tentative order for Mr. Deirnanjian to make glass slides, perhaps colored, and these could become the property of the East-West gallery. I am pretty sure you will approve. Only at the present time I cannot put out my own money. I have neither the returns from the United States nor the forms for my Income Tax and must keep a considerable amount in reserve until I find out. Besides, I should want to lecture and such lectures could be used for raising funds for the School. I have made some such suggestions before but they have been treated lightly.

In the meanwhile it is possible that you have received the shipment I sent some time ago.

The morning was spent in scientific research mostly for City College and even this was “light” after the engagements of the previous day. Most important may have been another long newspaper interview. I am always getting interviews, but only slight news. I have been promised at least one long notice because my picture has been taken at least eight times and over 2 1/2 hours in interviews and this does not include articles published without my being interviewed. I have sent a number of serious reports to the American Friends of the Middle East, and others in the World Affairs Councils, but this does not cover my scientific or Islamic ventures. I do not have any time “off.”

Before that I had a long interview in the Ambassadorial section of the Embassy. This is the first time I have really stayed for a conference. They want a full report from me, my ventures, contacts, suggestions especially. The day is over when whatever knowledge I have collected or experiences I have had are going to be by-passed. I am quite unconcerned with rejections. The bigger the people the less the rejections. I have long since broken down the dividing lines between the races and social groups. I have done this in every country and I do not think there is anybody I cannot meet anywhere. No, I have not met President Nasser yet but I only recently asked to see him. I have my epic poem for him which has been very highly praised. This was true in S.F. before I left—by outsiders, of course—the poets would not let me present it. As I went along I found my writings evaluated higher and higher by Asians of all arts and now by Americans in the Foreign Service. I have studied more about certain phases of Asian culture than any man I know and have so been received here as I have been in each Asian land I have visited. The magazines want my material, one a local one, but one, thank God, American, due to my work on food problems. And the Agricultural Department has long since accepted my works; they are much easier to meet than the State Department which in turn, is much easier to meet than the press.

From this point on it is difficult for me to communicate. It is easy to meet representatives of any people of the world. One does need linguistic interpreters; one does not need mental or heart interpreters. The United States both as a government and as a compendium of human beings has made a severe error in international affairs by leaning on mental and heart interpreters and not meeting peoples of the world directly. No doubt one needs someone here who can speak both Arabic and English and in Japan or Indonesia bilingualism or multilingualism is important. But art and heart are also important.

The Rudolph Schaeffer School has had some excellent art-and-heart interpreters and there does not seem to be any pretense that such instructors know or knew many languages. A man knowing Arabic, Hindi or Japanese does not necessarily know how to interpret the paintings, architecture or music of those countries and it is doubtful whether linguists, as such, have contributed much to learning outside of language itself—where their contributions must not be under-estimated either.

There is a measure before Congress now for the Federal government to contribute toward Asian studies. It could be in the form of a new school, as in Hawaii; it could be in the form of grants to schools already in existence. But if it comes in the manners now used in the United States by the acceptance of intermediaries instead of direct contacts between East and West it will continue to offend rather than to promote communication. The whole world of music, for instance, is untouched here and will remain untouched until persons can freely cross from Arabian society to American society. This I have done personally. Most of the answers and information I have is in contradiction or direct opposition to positions held by the intermediaries we, as a Nation, have unfortunately accepted. The President has been blamed for our low prestige abroad, the politics and what not, but I can assure you that the low prestige abroad is quite apart from our politics. It comes in the strange almost national behavior in not meeting peoples face-to-face, mind-to-mind, heart to heart.

I can assure you, in closing, that this American is welcome, has been welcome all over Asia and it looks at the moment as if he will be more welcome. And other Americans, all Americans can do this without knowing languages or even religions if they just take other human beings directly as our own Declaration of Independence holds.

It is not easy to live a dual life, to have to transform oneself constantly every day in going back and forth between social groups. That has made my work hard and tiring but it may make it easier for those who come hereafter.


Samuel L. Lewis

January 24, 1961

Dear Tony:

Yesterday I went on a different errand in the Muski district which is just on this side of the Khan-i-Khalili bazaars which are just on this side of Al-Azhar. I passed one synagogue which was closed but was not interested because it is an Ashkenazi or European. We did see an old Sephardic synagogue which is shaped like one or two I have seen in the United States and they use a standard prayer book. I have not contacted the Jews who were here before the Turkish times.

But the purpose was to visit the Franciscan Fathers. I suppose I have two prejudices here. One is that I was not only born in S.F. very close to the mission but socially having been on the “side of the poor,” consider this Order very noble. The other is Puck’s protest against the clerical collar which he considers the worst atrocity—or like the Pushtuns, a masochistic device.

The monastery is for study and research only. They come from various countries and are supposed to know Latin, French and English; Greek is presumed but not so compulsory. However they must know Greek in the course of their disciplines. But Arabic and Coptic are the main courses and no one can leave until he has a working knowledge of these languages.

Studies are made in early Christianity, not only the Church Fathers but all aspects. There is still a big gap between the very early Christianity and the literary periods, however developed before the time of the Islamic conquest. I am not interested in theological differences and schismatic quarrels. I am interested in liturgies, music, ceremonies, monastic disciplines and spiritual experiences.

Although I have been accepted and apparently will be accepted more and more both as a Muslim and a Dervish, I do not criticize Christianity—excepting indirectly for the modernism which has refused to face the facts of filthy literature. So my visit was very pleasant all around. I consider these Fathers clear and clean and while I do not wish to use the term “saint,” in the earlier Hebrew sense of “holy ones” or pure ones (Chassidim, etc.) it would fit very well. I am not trying to flatter you, but to report that the meetings were very cheerful, wholesome, cordial.

They have recommended me to the Dominican Fathers and to two groups of Copts. I may go, but I have not yet warmed to the Copts and can’t explain why. I just don’t know. I feel much warmer toward and with the Armenians, perhaps because they blend my sort of West with my sort of East. That is another story but I am planning several things with Armenians such as getting colored slides for talks; and introducing folk art. I don’t expect to do everything but am planning for my next visit.

However my trip has been successful far beyond hopes and dreams. It is easy to bring East and West together. Only nobody does it. Everybody is trying to remake the other like himself. It is true that I think they need dancing and some gymnastics and sports here to release tensions and energies. Outside of that I see no basic need for alterations which are not taking place. There is some departure of morality with the lessening of religious ties and I do not look on favor of it. They fail to see that if there is anything wrong with the U.S. it comes from just those mishabits which they are beginning to adopt. I don’t think a man is a fanatic if he prays five times a day or gets up before dawn for God.

I am told there is a place where the Holy Family rested. I am not interested in testing the historicity of it. I am interested in the feeling behind it. You will find two books enclosed. I leave them to you to keep or to share with any Church Father you select. I am hoping they get out. I am not trying to send anything which is not in accord with the customs and desires of the U.S.A. officials. I am trying to study this country as it is, not as I or anybody else would desire it. This may not be easy but it is worth trying. Certainly with all its faults this country has made such gigantic strides that not even the apologists can keep up with them. Only, like in India, I hope this can be done without the expense of dispensing with so much of the old. In the next few days I expect to attend more dervish gatherings and to hell with Prof. von Plotz! The U.S. Government is now accepting all my reports on this matter. We need to know the religion of this region and we do not.

Cairo, UAR

January 24, 1961

Pir-o-Murshid Maulana Abdul Ghafoor

Ramna, Dacca, East Pakistan

Beloved Teacher:

Allahumdulillah Rab-ba alamin, Er-rachman, er rachim.

In pursuance of the duties set before me first by Pir-o-Murshid Sufi Inayat Khan and then by your gracious person in the capacity of Khalandar, I have come to this land with many purposes and little external assistance. Nevertheless Allah is Great and though a man walk alone, whether through strife or ease, it is possible that heavy burdens or light may come to successful fulfillments. This is not due to his person so much as to the fulfillment of righteous duties laid before him.

This week two reports are to be submitted, one to the State Department of the United States Government and one to Sheikh Absalem Amria of the Rifa’i Order of Dervishes, each in its way marking the culmination, inshallah, of my external reasons for being in this land. But even before I left San Francisco and more and more as I have travelled, there has been a reversal on the part of others of attitudes and responses; doors which were previously closed have opened wide, and new avenues have stretched before me, of which one had previously been unaware.

On the external side the purpose was to bring having horticultural information first to UAR and then to Pakistanis to assist in the opening and cultivation of desert and salt-encrusted lands. Also to open up for an information exchange of agricultural information. No one seems to have been doing this although vast sums have been collected for such purposes. Nevertheless, I appear to have been the first person to do rather than merely appeal for funds and this effort, this work, has long been recognized by important representatives of the Agricultural Departments of both the UAR and U.S. Government.

One day, in the pursuance of these tasks, I was introduced to a brother in Tarik, one Murtaz Billah of the Shadhili Order of Dervishes. Like myself he was engaged in horticultural research and our private interests are very, very similar. But our grand purposes in life also. Through him many doors have opened, of which here I sketch a few.

1. Yusuf Wali is also a horticulturalist and claims to be a disciple of all the living ktub. I have heard from others that this honored person now lives and functions in this region. Yusuf has given me reports on operative Sufism which are entirely in harmony with what I have been taught or believed to have experienced. I hope to see him further, inshallah, before I leave the country.

2. I have attended many Zikrs, chiefly of the Shadhilis and Rifa’is and have seen some of other Orders. I am hoping soon to go to Tantah which is a large city inhabited chiefly by Sufis and Dervishes and headquarter of the Bedavi Order.

3. I have been blessed with visitations of Saints and Rassoul-lillah and this week am to make a complete report to Sheikh Amria. But I have also met and love deeply one Sheikh Mohammad Dessougi and one Dr. Sharabasi of the Rifa’i Order. All indications have been from the moment I reached UAR indicated my induction into this order.

I must record here one incident. I entered the Sidi Shirani Shrine one night on the occasion of this saint’s birthday celebration. There were thousands of people present. As soon as I took off my shoes and crossed the threshold, two arms seized me. I thought: “Now your presumption has caught up with you; you have dared so many times to enter holy places without permission.” Instead I was immediately conducted to the microphone and found myself guest speaker of the evening! One does not know how these things occur, so thousands heard my voice on a single occasion.

This week also I am to make a résumé of my work and suggestions for the State Department of the United States Government. One by one the members of the Embassy have come to recognize what I am doing and have given complete cooperation. It is an entirely different world.

Also I have had many interviews for the newspapers but so far few articles published. This is always likely to occur. But the other day during an interview the name of one Mr. Terry Duce was paged as I entered the hotel. I was able to walk up and speak to him graciously, ending a fourteen year effort of persecution on the part of his poor wife who, in the name of Sufism, has given out all sorts of false teachings and also had previously done everything possible to destroy my person and all my work. This is a sad, sordid and tragic story which, in the end, has brought no satisfaction to the poor lady who is devoid of any moral vision, alas. She used power and social position instead of appealing to Allah. But there is the incident of the Cave, and I have never forgotten it.

My health, beloved Murshid, has been remarkably good and my strength has been preserved through the years. This story will be given this week; it has already been published at Aligarh University and will probably by known to the world. And last night Sheikh Amria gave incidents also of the appearance of Khidr to living persons.

That this is not a legend is also confirmed in my poem Saladin, brought here to be presented to President Nasser, Inshallah. Those who have read it place it among the great Sufi poems, but I leave that to Allah and posterity. Nevertheless I have a carbon with me and shall be glad to read, or have read, certain sections of it which deal with the more lofty aspects of experiences in fana-fi-Rassoul.

Preparations are under way now for my departure to West Pakistan, but the length of my stay there is indeterminate. It presumably means by going to the Peshawar region where I hope I can meet Brother Ansar Nasri again, inshallah, but I already have many contacts. My presumable home is Abbottabad but also I have been invited to stay in Mardan. I understand that sons of the late Hasan Nizami live in Mardan also, so I hope I may be able to meet them, inshallah.

Much more could be written, all of a cheerful and hopeful nature. I have lived under many conditions and now at a later era in my life Allah has removed many of the burdens and brought either the fruit of effort of the Grace which is needed to follow the pathway of a Khalandar in life.

My love to all.

Ahmed Murad Chisti

(Samuel L. Lewis)

January 29, 1961

Dear Jim:

I am purposely sending you my diary entry because I have failed to keep a record. Today I made a purchase for the Arts Department, Punjabi U., Lahore. Also, I picked up some handmade shoes for myself. £E 2 which is $5.60 in our money, excepting there is a special discount. The shoes are very good, heavy leather. I have already sent some folk-shoes for display to S.F.

I have been going to Al Azhar for some special training in Qur’an and also to Mosques, especially those of the Rifa’i Dervishes. Tomorrow I am going again to the tombs of the Mameluks to meet the Sufis there. I want to get as much material as possible. They celebrate saint’s days here even more than in India and Pakistan. It is partly an inheritance from Christianity, partly from older religions and no doubt come to fruition in the Fatimide Period when Shia’ Islam was in control. They have moulads which means festivals, like the Mardi Gras and includes everything. Last night I attended a circus. This is largely in the form of side-shows but one side-show proved to include the main events, beginning with lion-taming and having a combination of a vaudeville and animal show. I saw the native dancing, perhaps as good or better than at the casinos and much less coarse. I had to buy the candy which is supposed to contain the Baraka. Later I may go to Tanta, inshallah, where the Bedawi dervishes hold forth, whose candy is particularly sacred. Evidently just as monks make wine or liquors, dervishes make or cause candy to be made. It is quite different from most forms at home. They have some like peanut brittles and New Orleans types.

I am now writing out my reports for the Embassy covering everything. I am not holding back. Thus Rom Landau is getting the works. I mention Alan Watts with his control of radio stations and their refusal to permit lectures on Islam. I mention the German professors without names for they do not give any clear picture of Asia. Anandamaya was Spiegelberg’s favorite for one year, a woman who has a big following and who claims to be God-conscious, which Koestler says isn’t so and the infallible Jung says Koestler is right which makes Fred look like a plate of spaghetti, which he is. But what I object is that the Spiegelbergs get jobs and the American Judith Tybergs who are admired in the Orient go around begging. I am all for Spiegie in his languages and his Tibetan stuff, but outside of that, what does he know about Asia? I have completed my Indian studies and they are way off from both him and Chaudhuri but not at all different in anything from Satya.

No doubt Blanche took on too much karma. She did not know how to rest. But I do not know whether I know enough to preach about it, only I am very much alive and getting very strong.

I have also written to Connaughtons and sent it air mail because I have not heard from Bill Hathaway whose mother lives just below you. His father was the only one who ever briefed me in diplomacy and by God, he briefed me correctly, regardless of any and all sundry.

I suppose I may run into Claude some day. To me he is a symbol other than a person but I guess there is nothing wrong in having a symbol.

At the moment with my interest in dervishes I may seem over-enthusiastic. Religions are like trees and when we try to describe them in seed-form we are projecting and differentiating and not describing. Islam, even more than the Catholic Church, includes all sorts of phases and institutions. To regard them as “wrong” is like regarding the oak as a “wrong” Rose-bush or “wrong” Pine tree, there is no “right” or “wrong” about the so-called accretions. They are there, there are part of life. We can study and even come to understand them, but to give them moral or personal judgments is totally nonsensical. It prevents communication and lack of real communication prevents understanding and peace. At least I am interested and may go more deeply into it, only I am not going to be given the cold-shoulder any more. My editors and publishers, yes they have the right, but those people who run after funds and keep them and do not dispense them for the purpose presumed, that is different.

I’m quite satisfied with the personnel selected by Kennedy. I find the Massachusetts educated people by far the best in the U.S.A. They are objective and impersonal, so it is easy for them to be fair-minded. Being fair-minded they are accepted. All the propaganda in the world cannot change that.

I am glad you are working steadily. I certainly hope you are in California when I return. At present my presumed travelling will be:

Leave February 15th. Mail until March 10th c/o Consulate U.S.A., Karachi, Pakistan

After that unless otherwise directed K-482, Old Kunj St.,

Abbottabad, Hazara,

West Pakistan (c/o Abdul Rahman)

I am presuming a trip north in Pakistan, then a short visit to Lahore, with a later stay there afterwards and to many places in Northwest Pak. This subject to change.

I am satisfied I came here and expect to be back in a few years, inshallah. But I am not sure of my geographical future, occupation or pre-occupation.

If you even go to S.F. call at the Yoga Centre, the Baptistes. Do not know what came of the Academy. Want an objective one and am trying to see if the Fed. Govt. goes into the Asian business; they have real instructors and not dopesters. There are plenty of real men in the U.S. and plenty in Asia; we don’t need Europeans or Suez-Canalers in that field.

I have written complaining that the real life situation is the refusal of editors, and until recently of the State Department, to American citizens who have been to such places and have alarming news. They are always brushed aside as trouble makers and then we are “shocked.” Fiddlesticks. We deserve to be shocked and I expect more shocks from South America and Asia until we trust our own citizens in some things besides trying to raise funds for them.

See, same old sour cayenne disposition but I see straight, I teenk.

Cairo, UAR

January 30, 1961

Beloved Ones of God:

Toward the One, the Perfection of Love, Harmony and Beauty, the Only Being, United with all the Illuminated Souls who form the Embodiment of the Master, the Spirit of Guidance.

One is forced constantly to choose between a personal report and a sermon. I would much rather the personal report but it is received as a personality report and not so much as an objective one. This makes communication very difficult. One cannot compel the surrender of any ego but despite all the words in all the scriptures on “surrender” it is not usually a living function.

In Pir-o-Murshid’s original teaching there were two paths distinctly marked out: a) the path of progression in Zikr; b) the path of progression in fana, which comes in three stages, fana-fi-Sheikh, fana-fi-Rassoul, fana-fi-lillah. In practice there has not been too much understanding of these ways of progression and I can only refer to them here as part of one man’s biography, regardless.

In Moral Culture we have reference to the Law of Reciprocity, Law of Beneficence and Law of Renunciation. Reciprocity is the Moral Law for ordinary persons. Call it karma or not, it operates and in the teachings one should take advantage of all the suggestions. Beneficence comes from the Spiritual Path or Tarikat, and in Holy Qur’an we find Bismillah er-Rahman er-Rahim which indicates the identity of surrender, (fana) with beneficence. But people identify these qualities with God and do not usually try to live Akhlak Allah which is to say, in the manner of God, or, in the presence of God.

I find myself at a distance from Orthodox Muslims who place all the virtues in a Deity and do not try to develop these in themselves. No doubt it is a first step to see them in God, but it is not a last step and it is not a Path or Progression. Whatever way you place religion, it universally teaches: “Guide us on the Right Path” but it is not the prayer, nor the words; it is the adaptation of the life within oneself. This is the greater Jihad.

Paul had to correct the people of his time with too much attention to fana-fi-Sheikh and he tried to universalize fana-fi-Rassoul, whether people were ready for it or not. In bringing the Message to the West, people became enamored with fana-fi-Sheikh and they do not rise to fana-fi-Rassoul, as the words of Salat become empty. They remain just words. If a man wishes to change these words into truths he will be misunderstood, but if a man desires to change these words into truths he will gain understanding, and perhaps wisdom.

Here there is a great deal of difference between any invocation of “United with all the Illuminated Souls Who form the Embodiment of the Master” and the direct understanding thereof. It has been insisted by many that there is a living Kutub in this area. I cannot argue though I have not met him yet. But I have met many Sheikhs and from them received so much love and Baraka that I can never thank Allah enough.

Years ago I wrote “The Bestowing of Blessing.” The copies were all lost or destroyed but one which Edward Connaughton may have in Santa Barbara. I wish to get that book, for it would be easier to explain the whole science and art of Baraka.

In “Marriage and Morals in Morocco” much is said on this subject and I think there is a Tractus berachoth in the Hebrew Talmud on the same subject, but I have not read that. Jesus started with the Beatitudes but there is a dichotomy between bliss and happiness, that we do not see “blessings” as “bliss” or “bliss” as happiness. Actually there is a living function here. I have received Baraka both from human beings, usually Sheikhs and Khalifs; but also in the Mosques, especially the Rifa’i Mosques. But there is another form of Baraka which comes in fana-fi-Rassoul.

Pir-o-Murshid gave us a long list of Messengers ending with Mohammed. I have experienced the fana-fi-Rassoul in and with Mohammed, but immediately after that with Jesus; and in the course of time with Buddha and Siva and then under the guidance of Mohammed with all the prophets of God of all religions. In theory this completed the path of fana-fi-Rassoul. But when one regards God as the only being, one does not, maybe one cannot of himself distinguish between fana-fi-Sheikh, fana-fi-Rassoul and fana-fi-lillah; nor does one care for as Pir-o-Murshid said: “Thy light is in all forms, Thy love in all beings … in an inspiring teacher.”

Following the literary method of the Zoroastrian religion I must paraphrase, for my own record, the teachings in fana-fi-Rassoul received today wherein Mohammed seemed to play the part with me that the Angel Gabriel did with Him:

Sage: What is the difference between prayers in no direction as Kabir and others taught and prayers in a direction, say, as inherited from Judaism?

The Spirit of Wisdom: In effect there may be none. If one accepts the Fatherhood of Allah, He is everywhere in everything. But if one also accepts the Brotherhood of Man, there should be kibla. The effect of the apparent universality of Kabir, in breaking down certain Islamic institutions has been the dissolution of the spirit of Brotherhood. The Sikhs carried the “logical” argument to the extreme and analytically were right but instead of Brotherhood, nothing but strife followed. So kibla is advised.

Sage: What is the difference between Jerusalem and Mecca as kibla?

The Spirit of Wisdom: Jesus spoke of Jerusalem as being the city which stoned its prophets. Despite the Hebrew claim that only Jeremiah was persecuted, we have no record of any prophet of God actually being welcomed in Jerusalem. Indeed the career of Jesus there ended in failure.

On the other hand Mecca has been the kibla of success, both with Abraham, the Friend of God and Mohammed, the Messenger of God. One does not like to put forth the argument that Jerusalem has been the kibla of failure and Mecca of success, but you can still see the Christians fighting each other there and the Zionists are all divided as to religion.

Sage: The Muslims always mention your name with a special praise.

The Spirit of Wisdom: That is all right, but it is not my way. Qur’an distinctly says that there are no distinctions between the Messengers of God. And though it is said that prayers are not made to me, there is psychological intercession. The psychological intercession falters if it becomes merely theological, which it usually does; and benefits when men learn to pray with the Seal of the Prophets, and not mention his name at all.

This is very difficult but the errors in religion usually come from too much zeal and zeal alone is not bad but it becomes a substitute for morality and selflessness. There is too much praise for literature called Holy Qur’an and Hadith and too little concern with the contents thereof. The same is true with most scriptures.

Sage: What then is the “Right Path?"

The Spirit of Wisdom: Allah has already shown you that Path and therefore it is not for me to add. Many will reject you but that is of no importance; what is important is what you accept and do, not what others say or think about it.

Now the initial stage in fana-fi-lillah follows the same pattern as took place with Pir-o-Murshid in his 1911 career. Then he was using mostly music and concentration. He often broke into ecstasy and sang loudly in praise of Mohammed. This probably did not go over big. But I have found there are three sorts of praise of Mohammed and they all look the same, but are different:

a. The initial stage is that one praises Mohammed and it may even be that he has inherited this phase of religion. He is using it as a crutch and it may be a crutch; he is using it as a ladder and it may be a ladder. Actually it is no better or worse than the praise of Jesus or Buddha or Krishna nor anybody, but neither is there any gain by dispensing with it.

b. The second stage is that one praises Mohammed because that is the experience. He is really talking about himself and he is not talking about himself. The change from fana-fi-Sheikh to fana-fi-Rassoul in one’s life is revolutionary. One is no longer restricted in vision or in faculties and he finds a tremendous universe before him. Time and place and stage and condition become small things. He cannot prove this nor is he doing this by himself.

In his first sessions on Sufism Pir-o-Murshid placed Mohammed as the Perfect Man of all times. I shall explain this a little below.

I think the Sufis in Islam generally work from this position.

c. The third stage seems impossible, that while one is being immersed in God the praises of Mohammed become grander. Dante had it of Jesus but I don’t think Dante reached the highest stages. He held on to selfhood. Even among the mystics of Christianity excepting a few like John Tauler never got above the selfhood or to the Unitarian realization.

Nor does it seem that God praises God. This seems a contradiction. There are two aspects of Allah, the silent and the creative although neither of these words is exact. The silent praise is discussed in The Mysticism of Sound both in the chapter called “The Silent Life” and in the final chapter which is partially a dissertation on Zikr.

The Bible says that God created Adam in His image, but Adam is usually associated with “sin.” There had to be a perfect man for redemption. Now, there are all kinds of correct men and as perfect men I do not wish to raise any distinctions or differences between them. But the Buddhist does not live like Buddha, nor the Christian like Christ nor the Hindu like Ram or Krishna. We wish to live in an operative world, to raise families and go into business and study and do all those things which we consider human. It is on this point that Mohammed excels. He does not excel in being nearer to God, the Creator, but he does excel in being nearer to man, the created.

Anybody has a perfect right to differ from him here, but the point is not argument, but demonstration. He does not see people demonstrate what Jesus did, or Buddha did; we do see people demonstrate what Mohammed did. Therefore the idea that God created the world through Light and this was a living light which also had to become the essence in and of humanity. The idea of Adam, derived from dam, earth, is that the Light of Allah had to come through the earthly forms. But how did it come? In Masnavi the cosmic evolution is taught ending in man; and the cosmic evolution continues until the perfect man, or as I see it, the perfect-perfect-man.

Buddha was a perfect man who showed the way to Nirvana and in the Southern Buddhism this teaching is kept. But it is a limited Nirvana and not the perfection. But the layman has received perfection and so the later Buddhists said, no, that creation and Nirvana were identical. Only this means that the common man could attain perfection. But what common man has attained to perfection? One cannot call Rama common because he was a king and Krishna also had a special place in society and Jesus and Buddha became monks. There was only one ordinary man who represented both Adam and perfection and when an ordinary man reached perfection, this closed the revelation. So with Mohammed the revelation was sealed, which does not take away from any Scripture or teaching.

I do not wish here to go into the stories about Mohammed which substantiate this point. What I am really telling you is my experience. As Al-Ghazali said: “Sufism consists in experiences and not premises.” Only previously I have told my experiences and there is a personality reaction. So I have clothed what I am experiencing in philosophy which is a veil over it and is not it.

I have written before that I came here with three missions and have accomplished a dozen. Pir-o-Murshid Hazrat Inayat Khan and Pir-o-Murshid Mavlana Abdul Ghafoor have given me the whole world to work in and with the intellectual people. So I transfer my experiences into philosophy. But some day when people want truth and will accept from the simple man he will give the simplicity. As the simplicity is rejected he gives the philosophy.

Jesus taught that one must be like a little child to receive the kingdom of heaven. One can always be open to blessings. One can always listen to the “Voice which constantly cometh from within,” constantly, always, but if we keep on using the mouthpiece we can’t hear what is coming over the receiver.

I am sometimes destined like Pir-o-Murshid wrote, about the career of the dog who took 2 days to go from Basra to Baghdad instead of twelve. “I owe it to the kindness of my fellow dogs. Whenever I stopped to rest they came and barked at me.” So the more humanity barks the faster the progression. Every time a rejection or a seeming failure, Allah comes and brings me blessings and success and this will probably be my career until I am called hence. I, Samuel, have nothing to do with it.

There has been a school of Sufis called “Nalamatiyya” which depended upon public blame; only they sought it. I do not seek and I am not checking on reactions. Every rebuff is followed by meditation and/or prayer and in turn, something pleasant follows, usually much more pleasant than conjectured. So one comes back to the first lesson; Subhan Allah, Alhamdu Lillah, Allaho Akbar.


Samuel L. Lewis

Ahmed Murad Chisti

Cairo, UAR

February 2, 1961

My dear Rudolph:

With less than two weeks remaining in my stay here I am trying to close up loose ends. Whatsoever my intentions had been originally the visit here has far exceeded these intentions and I have been compelled rather than impelled to walk in many places where nobody else has walked—although there is no reason for it. It is just not done. An American going to Paris who frequented out of the way places might be regarded as a wholesome adventurist. In the Orient one immediately becomes a sort of tramp. Besides we have all kinds of rules and protocols which having nothing to do with life or humanity and we are hedged by those rules and protocols to the extent that communication with people becomes difficult. A Professor Burdick may insist that one must know native languages; there are plenty of Americans here who know Arabic, but they don’t know the Arabs.

Today I made another trip to the Islamic Museum where there is some unfinished business. I am buying a number of post-cards and pictures and I can have colored slides made. I have put in an order for about 100 slides already. These are to be divided between Pakistan, Northern and Southern California. I think the man’s name is Darmirjan, his daughter worked for the Mardikans as I wrote in my list. He has suggested that I purchase just one slide for California and have duplicates made in the States. So I am having the art-slides sent to the Hollywood Artists. This is a long and complex story involving my dearest friends who live in Hollywood and who have gradually risen socially during the years. I expect to go there and talk in Southern California on Islamic Art and Modern Cairo. I’m having slides of flowers and trees, etc. sent to my friend Harry Nelson, Greenhouse, City College. While this operation is simple the hours kept by the photographer and the sales staff at the Museum are so different that it is hard to get together and I am compelled to run back and forth.

Tomorrow morning I am supposed to meet Darmirjan’s nephew to discuss further photographs which he will take, so I can end this business.

Last week instead of going to some recently uncovered pyramids I revisited the Mameluk’s tombs and was privileged to climb to the top of a very high minaret, on the top of a hill on the East side of the city. This excited me to look out for a long distance besides the exhilaration both of climbing and the view. Tomorrow night I am scheduled to climb the big pyramid by moonlight, which will please others, because that makes one a hero—part of the pretense!

The great art of the tombs is that of glasswork. I think it is the supreme work. Just before the Turkish conquest, the substitution of Venetian glass for the local industry resulted in the disintegration of this art and I understand that all the late glass fabrications were impacted during the Turkish occupation. This art seems to have been entirely lost—not socially necessary.

The glass-art shows up in three types (a) Arabic script (b) flowers (c) non-objective beginning with simple symbology and then crisscrossing with the other styles. It is to the Mameluk buildings as coloring was to the Persian manuscripts. One notices, however, that in Egypt the dead get better buildings than the living even in Muslim times as well as in the ancient periods. Of course this has changed and although I saw some more recent, 16th century tombs, quite ornate, they did not squander the wealth of the country for the dead. Even Farouk and his immediate predecessors at least wasted luxury on the living.

I was suddenly called to Alexandria as a guest of EARIS, the Egyptian American Rural Improvement Society which is the institution for American cooperation or aid here. This is a grand social and scientific experiment which I shall write about elsewhere. When I was through I called at the Tourist and Information Bureaus in Alexandria and had one of the most delightful experiences in this country where I have nothing but scores of delightful experiences.

The woman in charge of the Tourist Information desk is one of the most beautiful women I have ever met. This is important not because she is beautiful so much that she attracted all kinds of persons and there was a continual parade mostly of men, not interested in tourism at all, and by this means I met quite a few notables which will enhance my enjoyment when I should visit Alexandria again. As it was raining torrents I remained in those offices all afternoon.

I had hardly had a chance to call to this woman when a man, the manager came in and said, “Ah, there you are. I have been waiting for you.” Shades of Paul Brunton. He had eyes exactly like those which appear in the last part of A Search in Secret Egypt and he could read my mind like a book. He claimed to have the faculties of telepathy and clairvoyance and it was obvious that he has them both from the statements and questions he regaled me with.

Like myself he is a dervish and that as yet means nothing in the U.S. Soon is must mean because all my reports are accepted most seriously in the Embassy Compounds and evidently my last reports were given consideration because I am regarded there as a V.I.P.—and I entered this country also as a V.I.P. But I shall not relate here the political details and conclusions connected therewith. They are stories by themselves.

At seven o’clock my host, Mr. Fuad Laithi, the district attorney of Cairo and another man went with me to a studio. The artist’s name is “Seif Wanli” or something like that. They said he ranks among the great artists of the world and has won prizes all over. I do not place him with anybody but Picasso. He started out in the orthodox styles attempting for the element of integration, bringing Arabians and African materials together with the European; then he worked impressionistically, then went into surrealism and now creates in the modern “geometrical” manners. One could see the great parallels with Picasso, although at times he deliberately patterned himself after one or another of the French masters.

The trouble was that I remained there only one hour as my hosts had other engagements. I told them that that hour was worth the whole trip to Alex, and I am sure I enjoyed it more than I would have to the Greco-Roman museum. Perhaps this came as an aftermath to the visit of the Modern Art Museum which is right close by (so not visited until recently). I found much there to duplicate what has happened in India—the last threads of decadent tradition re-enforced by elements from the traditions of Europe and offering nothing but techniques. The ceramics are ornate but never “strong” nor impressive. This museum is for tourists, that of the Wanlis for art-lovers. There was a brother also who recently died who was more “traditional” or “objective.” I also found a strong Degas influence in both as they used dance and theatre motifs, but their dancers covered many European forms. They went beyond Degas in the use of various types of perspective such as the Chin as birds-eye and Japanese rain-perspectives, etc. All this keeps one busy and whenever I go to Alex. again I want to visit with these people and the studio—in addition to whatever else is in store.

I also spoke to the Curator at the Islamic museum about books on art, which are mostly in French. I cannot put out any more of my own money now but hope to take this matter up with you when I return. But it is always possible that some angel or foundation will interest themselves in this and other projects which I am carrying on alone. In the beginning of this letter I said I was venturing forth where Americans have seldom if ever gone. This illustrates in part this approach.

Today I learned there is a schism between the intellectual and diplomatic groups here in their approaches to local situations. The former are interested in culture, the latter in people, and the two have not coalesced. Mr. Bowles, I believe, is or has been here. I don’t know what this means, but I do know my “missions” must continue on.


c/o Abdul Rahman K-482 Old Kunj St., Abbottabad, Hazara Dist. W. Pakistan

Cairo, Feb. 6

My dear Rudy:

This is my diary entry for today though it may include a list of events of the last week. I have written elsewhere about these events but even if I make a duplicate diary entry on some points it will not matter.

On January 30 I was able to submit a full report to the Embassy on my experiences including many of the past, and my proposals. There is no question, to begin with, that lines of communication here have not been established with many lands of Asia and Africa. Sending a special diplomat or famous person no doubt results in widespread headlines home, but it seems little or nothing to a foreign country. Everybody does that and everybody is self-deluded by doing that and there are very few indeed who avoid even delusion and deceit. As I have just written, what we need is more communion and somewhat less communication.

My reports are sometimes strong and unfavorable. I have placed one copy in the hands of the American Friends of the Middle East here and another copy to S.F., the copy here to go to Washington. This is one of the few organizations collecting funds and functioning; a lot collect funds. Period. Next paragraph.

Then we teach bosh, partly through European misfits and exiles and partly through Zionists who are usually of European birth also. So we don’t know the Near East. Of course my pet peeve is that we don’t recognize the dervishes and I shall probably refer to that further along in this letter. There are far more dervishes than we surmise. I meet them everywhere. I am regaled by them everywhere and I am the only foreigner who goes back and forth between the societies. This is a tragedy. Even the Muslims from abroad restrict their peregrinations.

I no sooner filed this report than a group of Kadiri Sufis came to my hotel. At that time I could not see them for without any notice I was asked to go to Alexandria which I did. I spent Jan 31 at Abis which is the joint undertaking of the Egyptians and Americans (EARIS–Egyptian American Rural Improvement Society). In a sense I found myself in a new world brave or unbrave. In another sense I saw exactly the society forming which had been previously “revealed” to me and recorded though never taken seriously. It is here now and will have to be taken seriously. My works on social reconstruction and brotherhood were much more prophetic than logical, psychic than physical, but there are here now. I have to write this up in detail elsewhere so you will excuse me if I don’t say much here.

Anyhow the dispossessed are being placed on reclaimed land, given small homes, private barns which can also be used as storage, farms, animals, seed and a small space for a garden of any kind. At present people are not settling as fast as necessary; perhaps this is because the Egyptians have in all ages been good builders and not nearly so good in some other aspects of life.

Paul Keim asked me not to come the next day as the visit would be too technical and perhaps monotonous. Anyhow it poured terrifically and meanwhile I had gone to the Tourist Bureau, Alexandria. There I met Nadya, one of the most beautiful women I have ever seen and this attracted many men there who were not interested in tourism but in Nadya and that meant I met a lot of cordial persons and had really a wonderful time.

Well, I did not have much time to get acquainted with Nadya when her supervisor, Fuad Laithi walks in. “Ah, there you are. I have been waiting for you. How much do you remember of your previous incarnations?” Shades of Paul Brunton; that was it. I did not get it at the Valley of the Kings, but at the Tourist Information Office, Alexandria. He told me I was travelling to escape, that there was a woman in my life and I could not think who it could be. When I got back to the hotel (Leroy) I do remember one such woman with whom I have had a sort of aeonic romance but she had long gone out of my memory. I had forgotten all about here; but whether it is she or another I don’t know. However I have had my fortune told five times, all the same and all stressed romance—Sufi Sheikhs, card readers, everybody, so we shall see.

Fouad claimed to be telepathic and clairvoyant and you can put it in my book, he is. He read many things which I have told nobody, almost secret experiences I have had at holy places and which, in a certain way, affect my international peregrinations. I told him that his eyes and forehead look very much like those published in A Search in Secret Egypt by Paul Brunton, in the last pages, where he mentions an adept. He told me personally that all adepts here are Sufis.

Anyhow among Fouad’s visitors, or rather Nadya’s, was the District Attorney of Alexandria. He began by challenging me right and left and ended by cordiality and we had a delightful time. The result was that the conversations reached a higher and higher pitch during the day. I stayed until 7 o’clock when we went to the studio of Alexandria’s greatest modern painter, named Wanli, or something like that. I was shown many of his works and excepting Picasso, I don’t believe there is a contemporary or near contemporary artist whom I admire so much.

I told Fouad the next day. I then saw Nadya’s cousin who works the morning shift and again the conversation was on Sufism. At Cory’s I had the same conversation over again with a different man. Everywhere I go here I find people interested in Sufism but quite unaware of the Dervish orders where they can learn about it, and the multitude of them in their own midst. It is fantastic.

I later visited the Information Office upstairs and had another delightful few hours, then back to Fouad until he went on a errand for President Nasser. I definitely recommend him to any tourists coming this way and I wish you would tell your colleague about this. Anyhow Fouad’s name goes down in my address book and we both feel very assured we shall meet again. But I wish to go to Alex. when the university is in session, rain or no rain. So I missed touring the city again which may have been no loss. For one comes back to a multitude of correspondence and the need to get ready for the next step.

Yesterday was a theoretical “Sufi” celebration being the anniversary of the death of Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan. I had one of the dreams of my life fulfilled—riding an Arab horse. Went from the Pyramids to Sahara city and back. I originally took up horseback riding because I said that someday I would go to Arabia and I might as well learn. I had forgotten all about the incident. But the reason I went was quite different.

I had gone to Mona village (near the pyramids) at the invitation of two close friends and they introduced me to a Sufi Sheikh. He earns his living by renting horses. So on account of this I hired him. On our way back we had a “crazy” time chanting sacred phrases. I don’t think any Egyptian ever before had such a client. He then took me to lunch but while waiting I danced for his children. I also left a good gift for the children, giving me an idea which I shall discuss forthwith. I was pretty tired when I left.

Came home, took a real hot bath, then hot chocolate and off to the Rifa’i dervishes where I stayed 2 ½ hours and then home, only to meet a delegation of Kadiris from Iraq. They want me to visit their country for spiritual reasons. I have neither the time nor money now but will visit them and then take it up with the U.S. Embassy. For I think one of these days some foundation or somebody should come to my rescue. I am working all alone as in a terrific vineyard with an unlimited harvest and nobody else there.

But at home we listen to humbugs saying there are no Sufis; that is that, and what goes on in the world has nothing to do with what the “Orientalists” teach—if you want to get credits for the course. This is called “international relations.” No wonder we don’t get anywhere.

You can see from my reports—as well as from conclusions reached through many other sources—that there are levels of consciousness and activity. Our conscious sense of assumed superiority is a great bar to international understanding. We are trying to reach friendship on the political level. We are not meeting, not understanding human beings. Our sense of "humanity" has become a thought form which prevents us from communing with human beings.

I am trying to get slides made to send home, so to speak. But I am having a little trouble finding the right people at the museums, because everybody has office hours which run every which way. However the slides made by the government are OK, and I may use them for lecturing both in the States and Pakistan. My main one would go to Hollywood where I could have duplicates made for other purposes. In the end I might have to have several sets. I do not know. But at present I am doing everything on my own—and affairs have gotten beyond me. It is like a man who has planted trees or shrubs and at harvest time finds too much fruit or too many flowers.

Visited Cory Brothers again today. There was another man on duty but just as cordial. He told me where the Bureau of Health was—I had been misdirected. I need Yellow fever shots but nothing else—I have had this checked. I should go to Port said by bus and get my ticket ahead of time. I can the go to Cory who will take my surplus luggage, arrange for my hotel, etc. There is some uncertainty as to sailing time and though I have given myself four days there, it is possible that the "Cecilia" will sail ahead of tie. They have no notice as yet but I phone on the 15th.

I asked several questions about different lines. Having a traveling companion will affect both my dates and tours. He will not fly and I do not see my way to East Pakistan at a time which will interfere with presumable lectures in Lahore and Peshawar. Besides, I may be staying in Mardan which is in between them. This invitation is very important because Jamshyd Khan is the largest successful farmer in that part of the world. I am to learn about his ways and even work there.

I would like to go to Sind before it is too hot. I am assuming a short stay at Hotel Taj, Karachi, where I was before, and my mailing address there is c/o U.S. Consulate, Karachi. After that, unless notified otherwise it will be c/o Abdul Rahman, K-462 Old Kunj St., Abbottabad, Hazara, W. Pakistan. After I leave Sind I do not know whether I shall visit the Indus Valley sites or go to Multan before going to Lahore, and from Lahore I should prefer going directly to Abbottabad to get rid of some of my luggage and then travel as lightly as possible. This is all tentative and I am liable to land anywhere.

I am assuming entry into India in July or August, but this is tentative and excepting for Kashmir, a later time would be preferable, staying in that country the rest of the year with a possible side-trip to Ceylon. This might be by air; then to E. Pakistan and Penang, beyond which I do not care to look and cannot even suggest whence and where and how.

Cory Bros. acts as freight forwarders. There are two possibilities for my next trip. One is, seeing that all prognosticators say I shall be married, that I will be having more luggage. The other—and these two are not in conflict—would also suggest a trunk for gifts. I would like to bring in footballs for gifts for young boys and cake-chocolate or something of the kind for the Sheikhs. I took such gifts to Japan. Cory could handle such luggage for me and Mr. Scarzella, who with his wife jointly operates this pension and the one across the way, have agreed to a storage if necessary—before arrival. It seems looking far ahead. But I also might have such things as a record-player, etc.

Projects Incomplete for the Future:

1. Recording Sufi and Coptic and any other unusual music.

2. Getting certain basic scientific index-works for the national Research Center.

3. Cooperating in getting proper literature in the universities and institutions of culture.

4. Possibly introducing folk-or popular-dancing on the common level, providing same does not introduce on the folk mores.

5. Arrange trip through Syria, possibly from Latakia down and stay according as to needs of any and all kinds.

6. Arrange visit to Bagdad, etc., at suitable season. This especially to see the tomb of Abdul Kadiri-Galani, and other sacred places.

I have not visited the semi-holy city of Tanta here but have little time. I am invited to go to the nearby town of Helwan Wednesday where there is a Japanese garden and hot springs. I do not know whether I shall be writing you again from UAR but will undoubtedly on board ship for mailing from Karachi.

I have entire psychological satisfaction from this trip. I must next write in detail for the San Rafael Journal-Independent. I have to learn to have as little resentment for what has happened to me, but I am making a special division between:

a. Personal resentment which intruded on my ego and does not affect the international situation.

b. Do. Which does.

I have no time to argue with all and sundry of the first class. I certainly have no intention to lecture for Fritzi Armstrong at any level without an apology and certainly do intend to lecture for the Baptistes at any level on any terms they may lay down.

As to the second class. I have already seen the redemptive karma on Mrs. Duce. But I do not like to see these European intruders in the Asian field who misinform our public and control avenues of education and communication. So long as they are "in" I shall not be satisfied and I know foreign governments will be unhappy whether they tell us or not.

I realize I must face a hostile audience of people who have hypnotized themselves in various forms of "Zionism" based on emotion, sentiment, ego-wishing and ignorance. Which does not mean that the Arabs are entirely right so much as that their critics may be entirely wrong. I shall not attack the synagogue and shall resent such attacks excepting on the level of superficiality in religion. Actually I am as much against superficiality in so-called Islam, only the deeper levels here are very strong. This matter I am taking up separately with the Mosque in Washington.

Well, Rudy, I am on the whole very happy, without being entirely satisfied with this journey. You will hear from me again, inshallah.

February 7, 1961

My dear Abdul Rahman:

This is my diary entry for today and I am sending a copy to San Francisco. Yesterday I called at Cory Brothers, the agents for the steamship line which has the S.S. “Cilicia.” It is still scheduled to sail from Port Said on the 20th and to arrive at Karachi on March 3rd. However I am to leave here on the 16th. It is possible that the ship will sail earlier so I will be there four days ahead of time anyhow. I get my bus ticket on the 15th. I shall go to their office in Port Said and they will provide me with accommodations there. If the ship leaves ahead of time, I will also arrive earlier in Karachi, so I might write to Hotel Taj also ahead of time.

I shall have to get inoculated for Yellow Fever but I am told the rest of my health certificate is in order. At Port Said I may turn in Egyptian for either Pakistani or English money—I may use the last on board ship, but if they accept Pakistani money will get rupees. I have been notified by the bank that my money will be waiting for me in Karachi.

I think I have told you my Diner’s Club Card is supposed to be good at Faletti’s at Lahore. I have already shipped some art gifts to Lahore and am trying to buy some pictures from the Islamic Museum here. But everybody at the Museum keeps different hours and I never know when to go and so have lost a lot of valuable time. I shall keep on trying but this means that the slides may not reach Lahore for some time.

I am now thinking it will be best to go to Sind and then North and not leave your country until after July at least. During the warm weather we shall either visit Afghanistan or if God wills, as your brother Abdul Aziz said, we might go to Swat. It will also be necessary to spend some time at Lahore, for lecturing; also with Jamshyd Khan and even more so at Peshawar.

Today I spent a whole hour at the Iraqi Ministry. I do not know when I can go to that country. I have neither the money nor the time now to visit everyone. If I can get funds, this may change plans. Anyhow what I learned was most important. That the Ambassador from Iraq to Pakistan is another Abdul Kadiri Ghailani and I should call on him. I am told he is a very spiritual man and honored in your country. I have reasons, both private and public for wishing to visit him and I am hoping we can go together.

My visit at the Islamic Congress was long and involved. There has been a complete change of administration and the former secretaries went off with my papers. I have no time to write them again. It took me hours upon hours and that looks as if wasted.

I had to go over the program for San Francisco and for the United States. They spend more time crying because the Zionists are strong than in doing anything. The Zionists are strong because Muslims just sit back and cry. They don’t send anybody to present their side. Besides this is political. Then I had to argue against Arabism. I told them I was interested in Islamic teachings, not in the Arab language, that if I wished to see more Arabic I would be studying that language. I told them that one of the great troubles is that everybody says Islam has Five Pillars and when it comes to practice one finds everything but those Five Pillars. Instead of Shahud and Salat, I find zeal for Arabism, converting everybody else to go to Mecca without going oneself, more insistence on others performing wasu than prayer and devotion and a whole lot of crying about Congo. In this Allah is lost and I did not see how they could stop others from spreading Islam while they were wasting time in politics and unnecessaties.

They told me they had started a new school in Somali. They were using the native language and not Arabic. That I like to hear. I told them that all over Africa there were people using Swahili, Hausa and many other languages and I don’t think those people wanted to learn so much about Arabic, they wanted to learn the religion.

There is no question but that the Kadianis and Ahmadiyyas have gone ahead because they are teaching religion, not Arabism, not politics, not agitation, and were trying to bring peace to the world. That it did not good to sit by and cry. Actually the Islamic Congress is not against the Ahmadiyyas. Its purpose is to get all the Muslims to work together. The Buddhists have done this. They have a single mission for sending people abroad and do not use funds competing with each other. On the other hand you have all kinds of missionaries from Pakistan ignoring each other and in competition and so causing confusion. And the Arabs sitting back and crying.

It is true that Sheikh Shaltout of Al-Azhar is now in Indonesia and he has been traveling around. But travels alone do not help the religion. He is therefore trying to get a giant radio station to spread Islam. I think that the policy is to translate Holy Qur’an into many tongues. I approve this, but if it is so, why should they waste so much time talking about Arabic? They talk about Arabic and they don’t talk about Allah and the world needs Allah and evidently Allah has seen to it that people speak in many tongues. If it were not His Will, how could it be so? So, I am compelled always to get into arguments and win and this is no fun, for I don’t love arguments, I am working for cooperation and brotherhood.

I told them about San Francisco. Joseph Di Caprio is crying about everybody also not cooperating and he can’t surrender to God in anything and he won’t learn. I don’t think he has bowed his head to the ground many times.

People are most concerned in Algeria but they are concerned about Algeria one day and Congo the next week and then Laos and Cuba and everything else and so they can’t do anything about Algeria because they are too concerned with everything else. There is another way to win, and that is by surrender to God. I have seen the ways of victory through surrender and evidently I shall have to lecture on this subject in your country. They say “Allaho Akbar” millions of times, but what does it mean? Allah has not decreed the politics, He has decreed religion.

They are doing wonderful things here. The UAR would be the greatest nation in the world only the people are not so concerned with their own country or even their own religion. Islam is supposed to mean peace and there is too much agitation. There is not quietude, softness, generosity.

At the same time we came to agreement at the Congress. We placed all our differences down and agreed. They want to see Islamic teachings in the U.S. and they want all Muslims, Shias, Sunnis and Ahmadiyyas of every kind working together. They would like to see some Imams.

The San Francisco people are crying for an Imam but they ignored their own. They ignored the Ahmadiyyas because they were Ahmadiyyas and they ignored Abdul Rahman Lutz because they did not like him and ignored Abbas because they said he could not speak good English and on and on. And they talk “surrender.” So they will have trouble.

On top of that you have Alan Watts who has control of the radio stations for religion and didn't allow Islamic speakers. And the same with Prof. Moore in Hawaii. It is up to Muslims to provide some kind of teachers. They even told me they had money but I told them not to waste too much money because some Americans who call themselves "Muslims" are greedy and more interested in having fine Mosques than in having fine teachers.

I told them the world needs the teachings because the situations today are international. Book are being translated from Arabic and the American people can read these books but they don’t know the Book upon which all these books are based and nobody is telling them. Fortunately, again, there is an Islamic League in Karachi under the direction of one Abu El-Allah El Madudi, and they want me to call on him.

I could say that this may be one of the first orders of business for me while I am in that city. I also wish to call on the Mardan Coal Co., see about my mail and money and then get out, inshallah, assuming that we shall stop in Sind on the way north. But I am not insistent about the journey and details and want to see some travel agent of the tourist bureau.

Anyhow I shall be writing by air-mail to you from Port said as soon as possible to give you the final information.

I am quite satisfied that I have visited this country and am fairly sure that I shall visit it again. I met several Dervishes Sunday, first those on the desert who have the horses. I rode around the Pyramids to Sahara City. I also met Sheikh Ali Abu Aziz of the Semawi—I think he said Dervishes. But in these last days I cannot call on everybody. I want to get a few more things at the bazaars, if there is any room in my bags and money left over. But I find shipping a problem.

The name of the man at the Art Department in Lahore was Mohammed Nazub. I met a lot of other people but lost my old address book. I have a lot of things to do in Lahore but they do not have to be done in any rush. We shall have to work these things out, also other details, long before we can consider going to Kashmir or anywhere else.

My health has been good but I like rice meals better than other things. I don’t mind curries. The rice here is excellent but it is used mostly as a cash crop to ship abroad. They use leftover bread to cook with rice and sometimes a few vegetables and tomato sauce. It is very enjoyable. They cook their meat separately.

I can’t think of anything else at the moment. As-salaam aleikhum.

Samuel L. Lewis

February 9, 1961

My dear friends:

There is just one week left here before I go to Port Said. Monday I am to get my shots for Yellow Fever. Yesterday I visited the Islamic Museum and got a number of pictures. Today I met an old friend from San Francisco while walking in the street. His name is Claude Dahlenberg, and he used to live at the American Academy of Asian Studies on Broadway St. I am taking him with me to see the man who makes the slides and have slides made for both California and Pakistan. I have also bought two pictures which are being made of places in Mecca. These things are for the Art Department of Punjabi University at Lahore.

I shall write Mr. Jamshyd Khan as soon as possible. If he cannot see me in March I still may be in West Pakistan a long time. I do not want to leave before August unless we go to Kashmir and it is not absolutely necessary that I go to Kashmir. I won’t know until the 10th about the time my ship leaves Egypt and arrives at Karachi. I have two different days. I wrote Hotel Taj that I might be there on the 28th and then they told me, no, not until March 3rd and then it might be between them.

I do not know whether the ship will stop on the way or not. If it does—and being a British ship I think it will stop at Adya—I shall go ashore and try to buy some things, such as a camera. The one here did not serve me much from my point of view. It came to about $14.00 which is less than 70 Rupees.

Yesterday morning was a very busy time. I spent one hour at the Iraqi Embassy. In the end it was decided that the best thing I can do is to call on the Ambassador from that country to yours. He is another Abdul Kadiri Ghailani. All the Ghailanis I have met are wonderful people and they all want to help me visit Baghdad. But I don’t think God wishes it yet. But if I do get any great surprise like a job or more money I will certainly spend it for spiritual things and then I would go to Iraq and visit the tombs in Baghdad and probably the tombs of Ibrahim and Rabia near Basra. The secretary, Mr. Rushdi, here, said that the weather was not so terrible, only the English would not stand it. I know Americans can stand much more heat than English people.

Then I spent two hours at the Islamic Congress. I am sorry to report that after writing three long papers for them, the old secretary took these and went away, and so they may or may not be published. I have not time to re-write them. Besides they were about me and I am not too anxious to write about me excepting for Aligarh University which I should visit later on.

We had a lot of discussions. I differed from them on two strong points—I did not think so much time should be wasted on Arabic, and I do not assent to their views on things. I do not think this sort of politics belongs in an Islamic Center. I am sure the Prophet would not have agreed that Muslims should lay down their arms for a Kaffir, and he certainly would not have assented to Muslims fighting for a Kaffir against other Muslims. Besides how does one know which side is the “right path.” And I don’t like it to go into a place of friendship and brotherhood and have my hosts look for a subject on which we might have a hostile argument when there is so much to be done.

They had to agree with me on Arabic, too. For the Islamic Congress is now spending a lot of money to have an Islamic Center in Somali-land using the language of that country. That is what I favor. They want one to learn Arabic. (Everybody knows Arabic here and nobody knows Hadith and a lot of people do not know much Qur’an either. It is chiefly the dervishes who teach the religion.) The other people just perform the prayers and rituals and give very simple sermons which everybody can understand but that does not help much; it does not add to understanding.

We did agree, and they admitted I was right, on two very important matters: One was that the world needed a lot more of Islam; and second that it had to be taught in all languages—I suggested Swahili, Hausa, Fulani and other languages and they agreed. The same would hold of Urdu and English. We then discussed the religion and culture. In Somali-land they are teaching the religion and culture together. In San Francisco they don’t study either, they just cry for money and they want money and they want an Imam but they want to tell the Imam, not listen to him. I would not be surprised if Abdurrahman Luts came here any day. He was supposed to be an Imam but they would not listen to him or to Abbas or anybody.

The Islamic Congress is very broad. They are trying to have all Muslims work together. They don’t go into distinctions as to sects, and dividing up and the Pakistani method of having a lot of rival missions wasting their money and all doing the same things. They are not even against the Kadianis. It is certain that the Kadianis are making a lot of converts today especially in West Africa. The Sunnis are not doing much. They wait for the Sufis or Kadianis or Ahmaddiyas to do something and then go out and correct. Anyhow I have been told to please call on the representative of the Islamic congress in Karachi and I want to do that as soon as possible.

The Congress is also willing to give money and books but I don’t want any money to go to S.F. and have it wasted. They want social life and I think Americans have too much social life. At the Congress they asked me if Americans did not have a great void and I told them, yes, and that that void should and could be filled. This was a very good visit. But I told them that there had been lots of money in San Francisco and a few people did not like the Ahmadiyyas and would not accept their Mosque; and they would not accept the terms of President Nasser and so the offer from UAR was rejected and they blamed Nasser when it was Mirdad who was to blame.

Now I told them I would open a big school for all religions if necessary, and get Islam in that way. I would see that the other faiths had their teachers and I would see that Islam was presented. You may be glad to know that the U.S. Embassy has accepted all my ideas, many of them. We talked over a lot of things and I will tell you when I see you. It means that everything has turned out wonderfully here whether I see President Nasser or not, and I must return to this place whenever Allah directs.

I shall write Jamshyd Khan and enclose a copy.

Ahmed Murad

(Samuel L. Lewis)

February 13, 1961

My dear Harry:

I am trying to write some notes in my crowded last moments here. There is no question but that I jumped into a grand salon of vacuum which invited international relationships but into which practically nobody has gone, and in some cases not dared to go. I have written detailed reports to the Foreign Service and have come up with what would have been the most delightful response because by and large not only have these reports and suggestions now been accepted but some have gone on with an OK to Washington and even to the UN in New York.

What has been called “diplomacy” is nothing but a fancy game for an imaginary thing called “honor,” the nature of which is not quite clear. And on the other hand, to me, at least hunger is quite clear. And although I primarily started out with the mission of the exchange of international information in horticulture, the contemporary populace/food ration, the failure of crops in certain lands—chiefly behind the Iron Curtain, plus the Congo mass starvation and plus a lot more things make my position logically exceedingly strong. But for that logic, one still must face the fact that there is a second world war going on between the literary tradition and the scientific tradition and the two do not always come close.

My last proposal has not only been seconded, but recommended by the UAR government—to come and work in their library and show them how to use scientific indices, gazetteers, etc. I had a good training in this largely from the Chemistry Department at the college and whatever I learned there has been very valuable, though the department itself has largely changed in personnel. I have learned how to extend over into the whole fields of Botany and Physics the methods taught by them, but I do not find the librarians skilled in this direction. They are excellent at cataloguing and cross-filing, but not in looking up subjects, and certainly not today with the mass of magazines, many of them devoted to a narrow field of specialization.

I suppose off-hand I am most interest in Tomato, Soy Bean and Pest Control, with a narrower field in Weed Control and food crops outside of grains, but less in the need for drought tolerant crops and especially trees of types we have in California and Arizona.

I received an acknowledgement from Mr. Kinoshita which had special letters for Mr. [Tama?] of the Soy-Bean Foundation and fortunately ran into him in the office of Mr. Ferguson, Agricultural Attaché at the Embassy. I also delivered another to the Vegetable Exp. Station and Ministry of Agriculture—which are across the street from each other and had a wonderful final meeting there, perhaps one of the most enjoyable meetings yet. But I immediately went down to the National Research Center to say good-by and this involved me in a number of other subjects, all fine, but the mind just does not adapt and carry on in every field.

The most delicate matter is that of Dr. Salah Hassan, director of the Plant Protection Dept. I had written to Senator Engle on the ironical situation—I came here on my own and pay income taxes. There are several organizations in the U.S. collecting funds to bring about better international relations and that is what they are good at—collecting funds. There is one in particular that has been collecting funds for fertilizer and spray equipment. You give to them and get a deduction on the income-tax form and they are a privileged “non-profit” organization. I found they were non-functioning excepting in more campaigns for more funds, eaten up by more rents and more blonde secretaries.(!)

I had no sooner written this than I called on Hassan again. You see they have a project for soil sterilization as a possible means to combat the pupae of Predonia latura, the Cotton Moth. It is a very complicated subject, but what is not complicated is that they have not the equipment and not the dollars to get it. I blew my top off. I am writing to Lloyd Luckmann telling them that Hassan is one of the prize U. C. men here and what he is doing and trying to do—and that the World Affairs Council has thrown open its doors to one organization which collected funds for pest control equipment and got them. Period. End of page! Hassan needs help.

I visited the 38,000 acre EARIS project directed by Paul Keim of Berkeley. This is Egyptian American Rural Improvement Society. The land is reclaimed from the sea, a big bulwark having been constructed, then flooded. This leaches the salt to a certain level and then sowing is started. The Americans are responsible for the roads, bridges and ditches and they accept it. A slight defect in drainage and Paul took on full responsibility. No hedging and no politicians. Farmers are given homes with sanitation, barns, animals, seed and three plots, one of which must be in Cotton nine months of the year, then in Clover which in three months can give one hay cutting and then is plowed under. This way they have a perpetual green manure feeding. There is sufficient P in the soil, and I presume K. I saw good Cabbages there, but the land is still largely unsettled.

The people pull every which way weed for fuel. These dry out quickly anyhow in the warm weather. In going up through the desert I noticed the sudden change from desert to sown, little transition sectors. This may be due to the fact that much of the desert is sand-gravel and so too large to hold seeds. Water goes down to a table underneath and now for the first time there is serious study of this water table. At that it has to be observed for saline and other mineral content.

Wheat is also grown and each farmer is helped to think out a best program for himself but he has latitude in the choices of all other crops excepting Wheat and Cotton and has room for a small kitchen or flower garden besides. The farmers are settled in villages which also have the proper small tools and things to keep them in shape. But here and there are service-villages which house the cooperatively owned trucks and heavy farm equipment, have the repair and other shops, cooperative store, mosque—and I presume TV or movie, but radios may be owned separately. It is all new.

It is entirely in line with the Integral Philosophy of Oliver Reiser which I hope to introduce elsewhere and which attracted also all the scientists I have seen.

The biggest thing was my final report from Ali Asad on the Sweet Potato experiment. He found definitely that genetic factors are there. There are a number of runts from the seeds that he used. This does not mean to say that there are many runts, but this particular type showed them. All the seeds were from the same plant. He found it was impossible to promote faster growth on these despite a variety of N feedings (with addition of other elements, all sorts). Some plants remained runts despite. Apparently all the other plants grew, with or without feedings although of course N feedings made some run rampant.

But the question was and is, how about tuber production, and what kind of tubers. This is complicated because, although he used 10-pots practically every plant is pot-bound and he has not the time or labor to re-pot because they go into the field in two weeks. The question is largely: what is the relation between the top growth, root growth and tuber-production?

The Sweet Potato can grow indefinitely and produces more per acre than any other starch-root. But Ali is working not to get the largest tubers or most per acre, but the maximum of Carotene. At this time he has no idea and so he has to wait until the plants are put into the field and observed. But the fact is, he says, that you can grow Sweet Potatoes to any size, and there is no need for starvation. In fact there is none here, this being the food of the poor and you can buy them cooked for half a piaster, which means a little over one cent. So he is working on quality. And there is also the question of the increase in vitamins in the plants.

I think in my report on Indonesian crops, they use some of the top growth, but this will have to be studied more.

There is also the problem of control of top growth which takes sustenance and nourishment from the roots and tubers. This has been done so far by making cuttings. Time out.

Note: The Arabian, at least local name for Lettuce is COS and for Banana MUS. This should interest you.

Evening. Today was spent with farewells. I said good-bye to Abu Salem Segag-el-din, the librarian at En-Shems and also to Yusuf Wali of the same institution. Then I called on Mr. Attia, the treasurer of the Cotton Consolidation Organization. He wishes to invest in a Soy Bean industry. I shall cooperate but did not tell him—yet, the problem of pests here. But while I was being kept at the library I looked at their latest acquisitions. One was a purchase of more of Dr. Meyer’s work on Botany and Plant Physiology. His first wife, who was my physician, died recently. In the other book, dealing with Cotton, I found that Tachina larvarum has been found to be the best biological control of Prodonia. I did not shout this, but this enforces my idea that people here do not know how to look up research in books, even though some theses seem overladen with references and not fully enforced with experiments. I shall no doubt write to Hasan Salah after I reach Peshawar or some place and tell him I found it there. (Stinker!) But after all I am primarily an American and I want them to realize that Americans can help them, maybe more than anybody else.

Tomorrow I should say good-by to Cairo University and perhaps some of the experimental stations of the Ministry of Ag. which are in the same general area. Especially I want to see Dr. Mohammed Azauni who is a Cal. graduate, whom I have partly converted, your reverence to Prunus lyonii for experimental purposes.

I still find in general, in eagerness to emulate the great nations, very little attention is paid to xerophytes, and, as Dr. Azauni told me before, there is no clear water program for the different requirements of different crops. I am sorry I could not go there and see the Clerodendron before and will have to chance it now. Not only very busy but a San Francisco protégé of mine is here—I found him wandering around the streets. He left S.F. at the same time I did in the opposite direction!

There is still some interest in Tapioca and I am wondering, too, about the relative merits, or demerits of starch foods in so far as they contain or not, various vitamins, trace elements, etc., the sugar content, etc., and so the value as food. Besides, some, like bananas, are supposed to leave alkaline ash, the grains acid, and others are neutral. I don’t want to preach, I just want to know what I am doing and after seeing you, whenever I do return, I wish to visit the Stanford Research Center.

It is true I have ambitious programs and I know I cannot carry them all, nor do I wish to. But I want them considered and perhaps some money spent on real foreign aid. I have found now some support for my idea of chartering a ship of superannuated farmers who have had experience in Rice, Sugar, Cotton and other food and cash crops of the Orient. This would be much better than hiring, as they do, men like Satchmo Armstrong or ballet dancers and sending them abroad, where 3,000 people attend their performances and they get lots of publicity—home. Here and elsewhere it is not only regarded as an act, but one which is derided. Some day those fellows who write papers on “communication” may have to swallow it, if farmer meets farmer or even merchant meets merchant. This top-level charlotte ruse does not better any relationships abroad.

Indeed I would like to see one Mr. Harry Nelson see more of the world, even if he did not more than see it. The big shots see but overlook and the agricultural engineers are overworked.

I am planning to return here in a few years depending upon what happens. My private life in all respects is uncertain. I am writing separately to Lloyd Luckmann about Hasan Salah and I am planning to write a more complete report on the Sweet Potato experiment aboard ship. If so, I shall send copy.

I am enclosing herewith odds and ends. I did not complete the copying on biological controls, partly on account of time and partly because of the note on Tachina larvarum above.

Roughly speaking I shall be concerned for UAR with

a. Tomato, b. Soy Bean, c. Draft tolerant food crops,

d. Drought tolerant trees, e. Controls P. latura and Agromyza pharcoli,

f. Salinity toleration, g. P. lyonii,
h. New varieties of Citrus fruits.

I must call again concerning the colored slides. I am having three sets sent, the smallest being to you. I have not been able to get more pictures of plant life here and must lay that aside for the future. Somehow or other I think I shall be making a separate trip to the Near East.

I do not, of course, know what reactions I shall have. The newspapers will have to face reality, which does not mean changes in their political and economical views, but certainly does psychologically. We cannot win any wars, cold or not, when the press refuses to interview people who have strange reports. I mean refuse to interview, not refuse to accept. I think there will be less of the latter anyhow. My farewells to and with both Egyptians and Americans has been most cordial, and on Wednesday I must say good-by to sundry Orientals.

My affairs in other directions have prospered socially at least. I do wish more Americans would learn to communicate by finding out what foreigners think and like and play their game a little. None of the powers do that.

My schedule is uncertain due in part to the opening of another “home” in Pakistan and to the fact that one Jamshyd Khan wants to visit the States. He has been in S.F. before and if he goes again I wish he would call on you. He is said to be the most successful farmer using modern methods.

I am tired.


Samuel L. Lewis

Port Said

February 17

My dear Jack:

I have been so busy I have been neglecting my diary and you are it. I left Cairo yesterday traveling by bus. Gary Brothers, the travel agent here did not arrange this and their office was closed so I came to Akri Hotel which is Grik. You know the Griks. Here they are not shoe-shine boys. It is the Egyptians who say: “You wanna good cheyenne? Very good.” It does not matter whether you just had one or are going walking in the mud. They come down in price here but I want to be left alone. Anyhow I have guides with me who have a hard time speaking no Eng-leesh, so I must be kind to them. No, I don’ wanna cheyenne.”

This city is built on the Canal and has water on two other sides. It has a slim connection with Egypt proper across a salt waste which is about half between the area near Great Salt Lake and flats near S.F. Bay. There is nothing there but the unusual. You leave both desert and sown behind.

The weather here is moderate all the year around. It is cool, but not so cold as Cairo which at this season is not so cold as Luxor which is always hot in the summer. This is the season and it is full of Americans. This did not stop a mob from attacking the Embassy and breaking all the windows. The mob was made up of school kids, some left out purposely. They first set fire to the Belgian Embassy and then attacked us. I think they also attacked the U.N. headquarters. The police did nothing. Even a Sam Lewis is worth ten police and I am afraid what a Jack Betts would do to them if they got funny. Anyhow I may have described the police.

When the girls get tired of waiting because the cop is signaling the cars to go ahead regardless they rush out into the street and then the police, afraid of being overwhelmed, turns a right angle. Of course as likely as not both the cars and the pedestrians went at the red light. Other police used to spend all their time watching the lights and paying no attention to traffic. This might have made some of them color blind.

I was given a farewell tea by a Sheikh and his friends. Next morning I made a final plea to the American Embassy, for God’s sake have Arabs teach about their country and don’t subsidize English, Germans, Hungarians and Irish Jews. I made my point but too late for the mob. I had warned USIA long ago that they would remember my words when they were mobbed, but the man I had warned was away.

I think they are fairly well convinced now we don’t need European outcastes to tell us about Asia. Anyhow some of the Embassy Staff was in the restaurant when I was having my farewell dinner and I was warmly greeted. I have been given so many warm greetings you can understand I want to come back. Get me [$30,000] and you can come with me. I may try Rockefeller, Ford or rich widows now. I have the projects. All my projects other than seeing Nasser were successful.

I can have a job, too, teaching at the National Research Center. This is going to be pretty hard on Lloyd Morain who never gave me a chance but I think he is a sick man. I am working with his teacher. I never hear from Gavin and I think he will be different. I love that guy in a certain way but he is too much like the Egyptians, not like the Americans.

I made friends with Onnig Alexian, an Armenian merchant who has a branch in New York. I brought three types of silver work with me, and for Chingwah Lee (or rather Mrs. Margaret) in Chinatown Lane, one for Martin Rosenblatt at Gumps and one for Pakistan. The first is a charm bracelet with ancient Egyptian figurines; the second is fine silver work; the third is Islamic. I also bought some hand cymbals, for myself and for a dancer in Pakistan whom I expect to visit at Multan. I shall try to ship the S.F. things from Karachi where I previously bought a few things and expect to buy more because everything arrived OK.

I also bought one Arab robe and may buy more at Aden with whatever money I have left over. Aden is a free port. But dollars should be waiting for me at Karachi and I have two small bank accounts besides. My friend, Abdul Rahman, may meet me there.

I met Claude Dahlenberg in the streets in Cairo, very suddenly. You may have met him. He managed the East-West house on California St. upon which Gavin tried to arrange his Global House. Claude was once a very devoted follower of Alan Watts. He has learned. But imagine bumping into him—literally, in a city far away from home. That is Zen. Anyhow he knows something about the real Zen now and looks fine. I have also written Norman McGhee about it and have some business positions for Norman. I can’t think anything more at this point because I am tired—I only had three free days in the over 5 months here, so this is a resting period and then one discovers how tired one is.

Now I hope to have a nice dinner. Greeks run the place and as it is Ramadan, the fast month, meals are shifted. It is a relief to get dinner at 7 instead of 8, but here it is now served at 6. I expect to take in a film later.

Well I ate well and then went to the movies. The cost here was absurdly low. It cost me £1 for a ticket at the football game, which, at the official rate would be $2.80. I think it cost about P.T. 6 for a ticket at the movie, first class, which is around 15¢ more or less. There was one Western movie, not bad; the scenery was excellent and the plot, though it could be figured out, was somewhat different. Then an English movie, “The Dangerous Refugee” or something like that, better acting and more “scientific” or artistic light but I preferred the American—give me hamburgers!

Here I had a crab dish which reminded me of S.F. The weather is moderate with the sun again shining. The news indicates that editors all seem anxious to out-ly each other and that proves something although I do not know what. I am hoping to have news when I get to Pakistan but then I will not have too much time for it, maybe.

I can get Rupees at a good price at the moneychangers. I have to get rid of £E which means pounds Egyptian. I think this is all the nonsense in my mind at the moment, the rest being pretty much of a blank. If you can make this out, let Evelyn read it; if you can’t let her read it and then feed it to Cha-cha.

S.S. “Cilicia”

February 20, 1961

My dear Rudy:

I had determined to keep a log-diary and send you the original when I found your letter which is certainly a confirmation of “synchronicity” or attunement. I had written pointedly about Fuad Lauthi and therefore now send his address: Fuad Lauthi, Tourist Bureau, UAR, Port Kest St., Saud Inghlal Square, Alexandria, UAR.

Have insisted you to know about this man for a double purpose—business and avocation and it is difficult to say which predominates. I have a whole lot of material which might fall into articles for travel magazines or tourist-guides and have written a friend about literary collaboration in this field. Then there is an indirect “black market.” You cash your dollars, get UAR premiums, and then when ready to go buy Pakistani Rupees and you get a good price. Actually everybody quotes a different price and if I had waited until coming on board I would have done still better. The Greeks are much better than the Arabs in this.

Port Said is a small city on the canal with a very large Greek influence. I stopped at Akri, which has not very good rooms and plumbing but excellent meals, some say the best in the city, and the cost is ridiculously low, so low I left a 25% tip. But taxis do not have meters and guides misquote and then yell. I was amazed when the man who put my luggage on board did not holler, but I told him I had no more Egyptian money left and he was quite satisfied. I bought a friend a few presents with my last coins excepting souvenirs and have about £3 and Rs.100 with me in case I go ashore at Aden. I would rather spend the Rupees and save the British money for tips and extras. I think I have about a dollar too, which somehow or other was left in my pants. This is a lot of money here! Many Americans abroad get paid in local currencies.

It has been quite cool and is now just warming up as we are going through the canal. The scenery is very varied without being exciting—salt marsh lakes, deserts quite different in nature, and cities between. The canal is historical rather than of scenic interest. Tomorrow I shall wake up either in the Gulf of Suez or the Red Sea. I am anxious to see as much as possible of the sea, but don’t know whether we shall be in sight of land on either side. I am told the sea is rather shallow.

The SS “Cilicia” has many decks. I am on level D which I don’t think has a deck. A above, has, then Promenade, boat and sea decks, at least above. The Promenade Deck has the life-boat stations.

My room is quite small but there is enough space for all my luggage—nine pieces! I met two boys from San Jose State in Port Said who are en route to Bombay. I had seen them in Cairo. Also in Cairo I literally (not figuratively but literally) ran into Claude Dahlenberg of 2273 California St. He left S.F. about the time I did or before going to Japan. Another example of synchronicity. He had been a friend of Alan Watts, but after seeing the real Asia he knows only too well what I mean by “Phantastic.”

I had an English breakfast—figs, baked and with poached egg, sausage, gooseberry jam and coffees. Early in the a.m. we had fruit juice, excellent tea and one piece of dry toast. I liked the tea and will have it from now on. The best coffee I had in UAR was made by an amateur, the wife of a friend who said she did not know how to make coffee!

The passengers seem roughly divided into British, Americans, Indians and Pakistanis. There is no way to estimate because you cannot tell a Hindu Muslim from a Pakistani by name. There are many children on board and much entertainment for them.

A surprisingly large portion of the decks are of wood. This seems to me to require different cleaning methods. The crew contains many Goanese and Laskars.

I am glad to have a chance to sail on a different kind of ship. I feel quite happy to be on board although just now it is more like river or steam-boating on a lake. At least I shall be “house-broken” when we reach the Indian Ocean.

Fritzi is that way which does not help much. My last horoscope reading was by Myra Kingsley and on the whole she has done well. What surprises me is that I have had my fortune told so many times and all proclaimed a surprise romance, and she did not see any in the near future. It certainly did not come in her “near future.” I only mention this so we can determine later on the relative merits of “spiritual” and “psychic” clairvoyance, and astrology.

I am very glad to learn you are busy. I asked all kinds of questions at Cory. The Egyptian in the passenger department was not very helpful, but the Greek in charge of freight was a marvel. I am planning to send a trunk by steamer whether with me or ahead, I do not know, with gifts and personal effects, then load it with my purchases to bring back. I am planning, in a sense an independent trip this far with side journeys to Greece, Turkey, Spain and Iraq, say about 1965. This a rough date but again all feeling seems to be confirmed by some events and from the “synchronous” experiences above I think this is the wisest plan. Anyhow I have the best of introductions especially from the Sufi angle.

A Sufi Sheikh gave me a farewell tea. I left feeling very well and in a sense satisfied, more with my accomplishments than with my ego. I finally put over a strong point—why don’t we have Arabs teaching Near East culture? The excuses are terrible but the point was taken too late—two hours later the mob stormed the place. I saw the mob from the beginning and am writing independently to the San Rafael Paper and Chet Huntley etc. I may be busy on board.

I am going further. I have demanded that American graduates be given superiority over European graduates in Asian subjects. It is utterly ridiculous; even federal moneys are used in the downgrading of our graduates. There is a bill before Congress to establish an American School of Asian subjects and I am going to fight like hell to see that Judith Tyberg gets recognition, and that we stop downgrading her before a lot of European “experts” who are loathed all over Asia while she is admired. She has suffered for being an American and being a woman and it is about time to see she gets her rightful place. Anyhow until this is done we can expect more mobs attacking American properties while European humbugs get lots of money for misteaching us about Asia.

Later. The meals are excellent, but with two breakfasts—6 A.M. and 9:30, I have not stuffed at the other times. Had Indian curries and rice for both meals along with other things. The morning coffee not good, but tea fine, evening coffee much better. Although there is dancing tonight I think I had better rest. I have my blue serge suit and may find out if I can get on the program while here—Hornpipe or Spanish.

Morning. Slept wonderfully. Completely rested and got up and saw the Sinaitic peninsula, mountains and all. Looks like a warmer and comfortable day. Now writing to Mayor Poulson to whom I owe a long letter.

At Karachi I bought some art-goods for Chingwah Lew and sent him a vase which I was given in Cairo. The art theories involved are more important than the subjects themselves. The old bazaar where I bought things before is no more. I mentioned this to Abdul Rahman and he says that I can buy things much cheaper in Peshawar anyhow. I have sent Peggy Allmond some shoes from Cairo and when I get to Peshawar, inshallah, should be buying more things. It is hard to keep a budget because in Karachi it cost me more than I could afford and here it costs me nothing and when the balances are made I come out at least even, sometimes ahead.

This morning Bill showed me a jacket and it comes from Suez. This is on my itinerary. It preserved many folk-arts and also Buddhist relics. So I expect to be buying or receiving things there. I have a lot of moneys owed me and if the payoff is in folk-craft goods or art objects I shall be satisfied. But I mention this specifically because having no home, just as I am sending the shoes to Peggy I would be sending any costumes or costume materials to you, knowing aforetimes “off with his head” if I should even think otherwise which I am not. This, of course, is neither a promise nor an obligation; only no alternate course will be followed.

In Karachi I got rid of clothes purposely, as Zakat and tips, so I could buy local things for myself. I was very satisfied with what I bought before, from every angle. The sari is used here, too, more sombre colors than in India and also they hide the dirt more, but preserve beauty and dignity. Of course as one gets into the Pathan country the clothes will be different and in Punjab they are different. Here too one often sees the women in pantaloons of some kind and the men without pants. There are many kinds of costumes in Multan which is a crossroad of several types of culture. The architecture is predominantly Persian.

There are American engineers here building houses at great speed for the people. Karachi has been marvelously cleaned up by Ayub Khan and the country is so different from what it was before. I have also found much more English than I expected.

At the moment things happen faster than I can record them and much more rapidly than I can evaluate them. On the ship I met at dinner with Sindhis who were Hindus by faith. They lacked the depth of the “Indian” Hindus but we enjoyed the same food. The “Indian” Hindus are about the same as others, philosophical, broad-minded, deep, but not always pragmatic, but who cares? Most of the Muslims showed more heart, if not head and you could feel it. On the whole the Muslims in this region are more heart-centered and less mental than the Hindus, but I am delighted with the universal views expressed by many of them. This is due, no doubt, to Sufism and the Mogul influences.

I am being accepted more and more by our Foreign Service and I am now very satisfied with the attitude toward my experiences, reports, suggestions and what not.

I have to write a letter to City Hall, because I met a niece of Don Cleary here. She was born in S.F. and educated in L.A. The Americans here act like Americans and not like a “foreign colony” which was true of those I have met in Hong Kong, Karachi and Cairo. This made “infiltration” natural and easy.

This city is noted for dust, flies, heat, beggars, dirt and tombs. I visited the tombs before and the dust and flies kept away then. The weather, strange to say, or alhamdu lillah, is perfect at the moment!

I am not used to the postage here. You see while I understand the rupee, it has been changed over to the duodecimal system, divided into tenths and quarters like with us so there are two types of coinage and the Post Office operates on the old system and so do the printed notices. So while I can mentally change from dollars to £ English and £ Egyptian to rupees and all between, I am still unable to adjust to the changing system here and I do not know when I can get to the P. O. either to mail this but will look around for stamps in my bags and take a chance. To complicate this they are getting rid of the “pise” and introducing something called the “paisa” or resembling that and I am all mixed up—the amounts involved are small, the mental calculations complicated.

The people who live next door have enormous albums of records and Bill has tape-recorded these and they are one of the chief forms of amusement. The tapes last a long time. There is also a demanding kitten here so I have right off-hand two forms of amusement. There are also free American movies at the cantonment nearby. Saw an Orson Wells production the other night—so sweetly saccharine, pseudo either, alhamdu lillah.

I brought the folks finger cymbals from UAR They are heavier than the Portuguese but are used like them. I brought in two cameras for my host and showed them at once to customs—and no duty! I learned a lot at Aden besides meeting a Sufi Sheikh.

I came here first-class air-conditioned with bedding. It was a fine trip. The main problem is with bakshish-wallahas. (The tombs have boxes for offerings and I gave to them and nothing to the beggars. I simply refuse and if they argue I yell I am a dervish and they should be giving to me.) The point is that I always prove my point. In accordance with my friend Reps they find I know more of the depths of their religion than they do which leaves them aghast. Then instead of wanting bakshish they want Baraka (magnetic blessings). Those I give freely and thus I am liable to leave this world a “saint” or “mysterious” character. This is to some extent true and is another reason for writing to you in such detail. I am not concerned with reactions in the U.S.

My host is an accepter of Paul Brunton which brought forth guffers and some personal history for in a certain sense I am a successor of Brunton. I met Fuad Lauthi in Alexandria who has the inner sight and gave me the works. That is a story by itself. Everything is a story by itself.

I have written determinately to Washington against any more money in Oriental studies going to phonies who aren’t accepted in Asia. I got tired of predicting a mobbing of the USIA library in Cairo. It came. I saw the attack on the Belgian Embassy, but of course the little man who was there never can face the big man who was not. So I am propounding the Marco Polo Complaint which is a continuum of the old rejection of the explorer whose reports are rejected because he came from the wrong side of the tracks—and who, of course, is the hero beginning with the following century. I know a lot of Marco Polos and I think that the Government is going to listen to them henceforth even if newspapers and Orientalists situated in Leiden, Heidelberg, Berlin, Padua, Oxford and any place far away from Asia do not. I think that day is nearly over. I am breathing fire and thunder now but of course by the time I get back maybe the Americans will listen to the real stories about the real Asia and stop all this anti-Americanism which they themselves are fostering. Why in Cairo who came to watch the Russian ballet? The Americans, certainly not the Arabs. So it goes. That is enough for one writing, or is it?

Love and karuna and ishk.

February 25

We are now on the Arabian Sea north of Hydramout. I am not sure of continuity at all. I am writing a few letters and sending Rudy copies for reasons more or less inherent in the texts, though they are of different natures.

There is one thing that stands out tremendously and I do not think psychologists can explain it—they can explain it away but they cannot explain it. When I went to Luxor the first man I met was the Dervish Sheikh there. When I went to Alexandria the first man I met was a Dervish with clairvoyance.

We landed at Aden and I did not want to spend money and my friend Abdul Rahman wanted a camera. We were taken to a shop (this word “taken” can be used multi-variously) and none of us bought. In the next shop I noticed a man with prayer beads and the next thing I mentioned was that I was a Dervish and then I found the storeowner was the Rifai Sheikh there. We almost fell over each other and the next thing was he was dropping prices. So I spent more than I had expected and can only hope Abdul Rahman will be satisfied. I know I got a bargain but cannot tell what the Pakistanis will charge for customs duty.

Apparently it is easier to get in Pakistan than India so far as red tape is concerned. My former experience was the opposite—the Pakistanis, with their multiple pseudo-governments held me up; then the Indians let me through when I showed the letter from Dr. Radhakrishnan, so I had no real complex experience there, only in S.F. when I originally applied for a visa.

The unconscious attraction to and with dervishes (Sufis) has now multiplied and yet it leaves me wondering. This was also true when Claude Dahlenberg was with me in Cairo.

The next thing which psychologists might consider is the use of “we.” I have been playing around as “Puck of Pukhtunistan.” I have been writing at length about this real-imaginary country. Yet the fact is that on this ship the Pathans have sought me out and taken to me like a duck to water, acting as my friends and protectors. It is seemingly fantastic but like the case of Nila Cram Cook it might be explained by reincarnation or otherwise. The attraction is mental and as unconscious as with the dervishes.

On shipboard now I am getting along with most Asians. The British ice is being broken by children. Some are curious about this typewriter, some are just curious. I don’t care.

I had a most wonderful curry-and-rice dinner at Aden, very reasonable. I changed $50 more leaving my American money low, but have enough English coins for the balance of the trip and, of course, for the moment, enough Pakistani rupees. I am learning many ways to benefit from the black-market, grey-market and other types of exchange. It is complicated but it can become profitable.

Aden is a free port and there are plenty of bargains. But I personally prefer dealing with the Chinese or Japanese so do not expect to buy any complex things until I reach Hong Kong.

It was much warmer at the “mouth” of the Red Sea, but is more pleasant now.

February 22, 1961

S. S. “Cilicia”

Somewhere in the Red Sea

May dear Gavin:

I am writing to you because I feel that when I return you will welcome me. You will change either because of yourself or because of the wind and I don’t care which. The supposition that a man is wrong because more powerful person are against him becomes invalid when it is found that still more powerful persons are against the ones who were more powerful than he was. Prestige is something that works both ways; a man who has prestige in one place may not have it in another.

I am, of course, most concerned with those persons who have or had a pseudo prestige in Oriental matters, I have always assumed that the Orient dealt with Asia. I am therefore not particularly concerned with philosophies and histories or even translations made in Occidental countries concerning this Orient. If the East welcomes those philosophies, histories and translations, well and good; if it does not—and usually it does not, we come abruptly against the nonsense in the words “democracy,” “humanitarianism,” and “golden rule” which words have little to do with democracy, humanitarianism and any golden rule

On this ship I have quickly entered into social relations with a large section of Asians. We can and do discuss the philosophies and religions of their respective countries. What is more, they look up to me. I don’t suppose any of them have heard of the “brand names” which have been or are the fashion in the Western world, men famous or successful as book publishers who are either disregarded or loathed in Asian-Asia. Some have written most terrible books which have nothing to do with anything but their private thoughts and private worlds. Of immediacy, I have been concerned with Dervishes and Sufis, which terms may be synonymous. Their existence on a large scale, a very large scale, is utterly contrary and contradictory with the whole of literature now being on the market or presented in our universities excepting Harvard and Princeton. After continual protest at the USIS, I finally won my point, but too late to prevent the building from being mobbed. We will teach nonsense and we will offend people and they will not like it, they may even resent it. I can assure you that there are books little better than the Protocols of Zion which are American text books and every effort to get interviews on the subject failed.

Back and forth I went between the Arabs and Americans: “Why can’t we have cultural exchange?” “Why don’t they take the jobs we offer?” Something is wrong, fundamentally wrong. Anyhow I have had the satisfaction of all my experiences and suggestions OK’d by the Foreign Service. And my final gesture, also approved, is to investigate every European graduate in any type of Oriental teaching other than language who has not the approval of at least one Asian nation. The nonsense and humbug must go. Of course a Senzaki was at one time an authority on Goethe and a Blythe is an authority on Japanese poetry but these are rather exceptions, and outstanding ones.

Karl Jung is not God. He has made some fundamental mistakes in his efforts to interpret some types of Oriental esotericism and he is way off base on occultism and alchemy. His speculations remain speculations. In psychology and related fields he no doubt is near the top, but that does not make him an authority in Oriental philosophies any more than a star football player is an authority on academy courses in his university.

This is now beyond argument. I have the full support of governments to investigate the courses known as “Oriental Philosophy” or even “comparative religion” to determine whether these are objective, or simply the brain-children of some professor, invalid elsewhere.

This is no longer a subject for discussion, it is subject for action. The world is very different today with all kinds of new nations and all kinds of things that may be known as “cultures.” I have found the Islamic religion totally different from any lectures on it, favorable or unfavorable. People describe their ideals and call them “Islam” or they give that name to their antipathies. The way Muslims actually act is often quite different; the same applies to Hindus and Buddhists.

Claude has learned a lot and I doubt whether he has near the respect he once had for some of his teachers. His direct experience has given him legs to stand on. Whether he is “right” or wrong” he can at least stand up.

I don’t know how long Alan will remain in public life. His private talks, or ravings about something he endows with Japanese names, have nothing to do with anything and are given no serious consideration outside of metaphysical California and pseudo philosophical America. He has any right to have any philosophy, but if it consists in vocabi1arly stealing, there can be nothing but confusion. And the confusion, of course, has struck his own private life: The man who has been a professional psychologist himself needs psychiatry and meditation, and how.

As to other personalities whom you have revered and who will not face me, I may have to, in the course of my future career, simply go over their heads in their respective institutions. It is no use prating the word “peace”—which to me is more filthy the way it is used than some four-letter words, and doing everything to impede anything remotely resembling peace. I met that humbug Fox who had given a lecture on greeting people with “Peace unto you,” went to his office, said: “Peace unto you” and he fell out of his chair. That man was well named, but he did not live long.

I am, it is true, carrying some of Whitman’s poetry but I am more concerned with Whitman’s ability to mingle with human beings and love them and be loved. This is not mere social intercourse, keeping the latch open for every lout or schemer who comes one’s way. It requires some vision and circumspection.

I had only three days off in the UAR in five months, outside the trip I made to Luxor—which was occupied full time. I meet people; I commune with them. I was as welcomed by the top scientists as by the lowest artisan as by the professors and by the common people—but nowhere more than in my own profession and in this by Americans and Arabs alike. So far as official circles are concerned I am made. But there is still the press and the universities. Here again, Harvard is no problem. They said: “We want to learn from you everything you know that we do not.” Imagine some of your “humanitarian,” “democratic” intellectual acting that way! Oh, boy! Who is kidding whom?

I do not like to carry the term “scientists” or B.S. or anything. I like to show my knowledge, or ignorance.” I differ from you widely when you say that the Catholic Church and communists are alike in suppressing thought and self-expression; in what way do they differ from some “brand names” whom you have admired, you also would not let others express thought or present any ideas? The ridiculous part is that every idea on every subject which Messrs: A, B, C and D would not even listen to has been accepted, is being accepted. The term “intellectual” often applies to liberate idiots. Their book reading or book writing gives them neither logic nor wisdom.

I have kept a complete Horticultural diary, but with it are the scientific notes. I was busy all the time—Bureau of Information, Ministry of Agriculture, experimental stations, National Research Center and Dervishes—not to mention all sorts of adventures. I went in where other Americans do not go. There is nothing to prevent them. If a few Americans did what I did we should not have to worry. But our propagandists are neither farmers nor religious men.p>

One of my pet schemes is to charter a shipload of retired farmers, especially from the Southern States, take them to the Near East and South Asia and let them look over situations; then make their reports and suggestions. They will do far more than, let us say. Mr. Harriman, who will do exactly as his predecessors did, only more so. The trouble with traditional diplomacy is that it traditions and does not diplomatize. It is useless. We cry about wastes of money and waste more.

Satchmo Armstrong, at public expense, vitiated UAR, got a lot of publicity in the U.S. and performed before a multitude of Greeks, Armenians, French, Italians, Copts and Americans. Hurray! I bet he did not meet 10 Arab Muslims. We have lots of money for that sort of thing and woe be to him who objects. Not even those who want to “balance the budget” seem to object to anything specific. But we tax ourselves to subsidize people who don’t need subsidies or jobs and that is why I have written also that “we” are mad.

Of course I am mad, too, but my madness pays off. I am always gaining friends, all over, in many sorts of ways. When the usual does not work, try the unusual, and when the unusual does not work, try something else. There is an answer for every problem. Boy, am I preaching!

Anyhow the world news is always most excitable than exciting and today it is a sort of super-amusement for peoples who have not healthy outlets. Multitudes have been thrown upon the world scene and “democracy” almost requires them to make decisions, decisions on problems of which they have not the slightest inkling.

I have been fortunate on board ship to convince the Asians that their agricultural problems are paramount. In the case of Afghanistan, packaging and marketing are as important as producing and that country evidently needs canneries and air-freight. I could write much more, but I must not over-rate my own accumulations even though they are both different and differing. I am going to have more adventures, I know, I am learning strange geographies and am still a long, long way from “home.”


Samuel L. Lewis

On board SS “Cilicia”

February 28, 1961

My dear John:

I am writing on board, en route to Karachi where I shall soon land. This trip has been most important in resting my mind and body and I am so mentally relaxed at the moment that I feel like writing my thoughts on paper. I am writing them to you first to see if they contain any ideas which may be of help directly or indirectly to you and those who have been protesting against “space” experiments. Then, if these ideas are serious enough, to let Paul see or have them in case they give him time or inclination for future research. There is no compulsion in any of this.

I am at the moment convinced that space is living and because it may be living my experimentation prior to explanation is dangerous in two senses: it is dangerous because such procedure is contrary to the whole ethos of science; and dangerous per se because of elements involved. The first may be more important than the second, for heretofore we have made surveys of the territories involved and not just plunged into them. I know you are much opposed to this plunging but here emphasis must be made as much on the plunging practice as on any poisons involved. One does not dive into an unexplored pool because he wishes to go swimming.

The completely different approaches have brought me now to the same point. The first is western and involves Haeckel and Reiser; the second is Oriental and revolves around Dr. Radhakrishnan. Haeckel, for some un-reason or other has gone out of fashion. I am particularly disgusted because I am a very strong anti-Hegelian; and possibly from a minor point of view because my present day interests, and more than that, the experiments I have witnessed in the UAR would have delighted such a man. His monism of matter-and-energy seems to have been substantiated a great deal by modern advances in Physics.

If we turn to the Carbon-cycle and the Nitrogen-cycle we find ourselves in a world of embolism, and operation, strangely identical with Indian doctrines, down to the smallest iota. In these cycles it is obvious that both C and N have functions in- and out- of living bodies. So long as there are no radioactive transformations, there is the operation of cyclic law which can to some extent be examined and understood and perhaps even controlled.

Turning from Biology to Physics, we admit that electrical energy, in its largest sense also operates within and without bodies. The great doctrines of Conservation of Energy and Matter seem, today, to be unified, justifying the monisms both of India and Haeckel. But when it comes to Life we are facing, or rather refusing to face a certain enigma.

Is life energy? Well energy exists within and without bodies. We have the electrical discharges in “space”—and that is a very bad word today. These charges may or may not be limited or unlimited to ionosphere, stratosphere, etc. etc. Are there fields of force around us? And are these fields of force living or dead?

We immediately get into complexities. Our present pseudo-conceptions of life restrict it materially to a Carbon-Oxygen complex both within and without bodies, with chlorophyll or protoplasm. But there is no fundamental reason why life-energy must be any more (or less) involved in chlorophyll or protoplasm than magnetism must be involved in Iron and related metals. We have long since explored electro-magnetism and are now finding an Energy, subject to laws of Einstein, Planck and who not, which is either a Genus to these species, or an integration thereof.

Here we come to a problem, which seems to be overlooked. Are the forms of energies species of a Genus and can energies be correlated like the plants and animals in a Universal tree? Or are they abstractions or differentiations from a Summus, permitting only differentiation and integration in the logistics thereof? This jumping back and forth from Aristotelian-Newtonian thinking to contemporary outlooks itself seems to me to be a source of problem-making.

Field Thinking. I think this is most difficult. Offhand those fields or areas seem to be relation to exponents or logarithms of distances rather than distances themselves. And spatially the fields may run into each other with gradual differentiation, or they may overlap, or they may inter-penetrate. I doubt very much whether there has been any thinking through on these points. Just trial and error with the gross assertion of uniformity where there has been no exploration.

The folly of this uniformity comes when one reads, and reads with all seriousness on the thermal and thermodynamic conclusions to date. They are not only contrary and contradictory (like the Jeans-Eddington differences) but what is worse, vital contentions of certain parties are often overlooked by the experimenters and, of course, the experiments fail.

Is Life Inherent in Space? Is Space Living? Before answering this, or even attempting to answer it, I am placing this question here because all nuclear experiments have assumed to the contrary which is metaphysics and not science. The blind assumption can be disturbing. While some astronomer becomes a prophet by saying the world will come to an end 50,000,000 or 50,000,000,000 or 50,000,000,000,000 years hence, the fact that we are interfering with this Universe may bring grounds for fearing much, creating these speculations, called prophecies.

Any chain-reaction in a controlled field (laboratory) produces end-results which are not always controlled—the field may be, the results not. We are often liable to consider poisons from the toxicological rather than from the energy outlooks. In Bio-physics and Physical Therapy we have studied to some slight extent the benefits the human organism gains from certain kinds of radiation; if it gains from certain kinds of radiation it may also lose from certain kinds of radiation, nuclear or not.

No doubt the atomic results of nuclear experimentation may be limited. We do not know how much “matter” is in “space,” but evidently there is dust, and if it be a material-cosmic-dust, you are so right in your outlook there can be no other determination. But even if there is not such material-cosmic-dust, the fact that we are sending forth uncontrolled energies is itself a dangerous thing. The wise course would to desist—in addition to all your previous claims, until space itself were further explored. But by this space I mean areas or fields, let me say, up to 100 or over 5,000 miles beyond the earth’s surfaces.

When we know the nature of such areas or arenas, we can objectively and logically determine more or less exact results but those we do not, we may be affecting life-energies.

Planetariums have models of the universe, with stress on atomic formations. These Planetariums do not seem to have stressed much the fields-of-force involved, and they have overlooked the forces involved.

The question of life on Venus, let us say—really is a question as to whether biological energy can function other than with Carbon-complex chemistries. I say it might. I do not think vital energy is any more or less concerned with Carbon than Ferro-magnetic energy is concerned with Iron. There is nothing to prove that there may not be Vital, Evolutionary and Mental processes under entirely different systems of Chemistry. We are already finding that Silicon has a wider range of combinations similar to Carbon. Indeed the Chemistry books today assume that the Chain-system of Organic Chemistry is the norm. When we were in school the bond-method was looked as a special order of things to be studied apart. Now the bond-method is applied to all chemistry and next—if it has not already been done—the subjects of saturation, rhythm, light-rotation, etc., etc. found in organic compounds may prove to be universally true.

Then we may find that the boundaries we have placed between chemical-phenomena and non-chemical phenomena are more artificial than we thought and Haeckel’s principles be realized, though not necessarily exactly as he thought.

I am inclined to think that life-energy is scattered in the universe and that the manifestation of life through the Carbon- and Nitrogen-cycles is a peculiarity of earth itself. The life-energy may manifest through other cycles elsewhere and even the beings of other planets may have delivered developed “minds” or “spirits” based on different chemistries than ours.

This would bring up here whether the mind determines the Chemistries or the opposite which I do not wish, or am unable to cope with. But if the life is in time-space, however, and we define or examine space, any interference therewith by radioactive efforts can be upsetting an equilibrium, more dangerous because it is uncontrolled than because it is poisonous. I think in the end we shall find all uncontrolled phenomena poisonous, by separating that word from its toxicological aspects.

I am therefore at the moment at the conclusion that Space may be as varied as earth-matter; that just as the unit-electron manifests by vibra­tional attunements, rings, etc. into the chemical or atomic elements, so space may be as varied energetically as earth is atomically and chemically. We are assuming uniformities based on non-experience and this is a dangerous precedent for science, if it is be science at all.

Of course by assuming that non-uniformity of Space and the existence of multi-various energies, simplified or complex, or engaged in interchanges similar in a sense to atomic interchanges in molecular phenomena, we will ultimately private a background for Astrology and this may well be. Earth—which we may say, is a ring or a round electro-magnetic body, traveling in a circuit around a body like the sun—must be establishing certain types of “fields” in “space.” Whether the nature of such “fields” has any relation to character, “karma,” etc. is another matter. But even the most materialistic scientists have ascribed weather-effects of sun-spots, etc. and it is very strange how many “astrological” elements have come into common conclusions while rejecting that as a field for serious study.

I think the field-theories of Einstein and the corresponding discoveries of mathematicians are been treated as too specialized to affect common logistics and logic. But Professor Oliver Reiser, with his Integrational Philosophy, begins, not ends there. And if we apply these to our thinking, or assumptions, or practice, we shall have to change our attitude toward space and begin to differentiate as was done by the ancient Hindus, between the space as the Grand Totality and “space” concerned with a specialized or limited phenomena.

The Nobel prizes in Physics the last few years have confirmed elements of Oriental philosophies. In 1956, talking to the most developed sage I had ever met we agreed that the next prize would go to Chinese—which proved to be true; and the rotary behavior of light is in strict accord with Yang-Yin teachings. This may be accidental or it may be fundamental.

Likewise the uncovering of “non-matter” may ultimately prove to be more revolutionary than we have any idea about. I cannot overlook these things if one tries to grasp a picture and not just a symbol of the universe. At the same time the Upanishads have given me working models and each year I find the integration of Western Science comes closer and closer to these models. What it means in the end, I do not know. But I see a Universe quite diverse in each of its aspects, areas, arenas, yet; and I have always believed, since a little boy, that actual “space-travel” would show how “wrong” we have been—meaning mostly the humanity and literary traditions, when they dare to hold conclusions as conclusions and continue with their continuum of theological psychologizing outside the field of religion.

At least these are my momentary conclusions. I do not know how clear they are. Clarity is here more important than truth. But I am faced with Max Black’s statement that our vocabulary, inherited from deductional thinking, may prove to be inadequate in induction and integration. And I wish to avoid, even if I could, large masses of integrational formula which often as not, hide the mental condition of the writer.

One does not know how valuable or important this is. But I am scheduled soon to speak on the relation between Oriental Philosophy and Modern Science and to this writing have not run into any objection to my momentary conclusions. Every person I have spoken to or with—mostly scientists but more recently diplomats, businessmen and philosophers (all Asian) agree. The scientists were about 50-50 Western and Near Eastern. All seem to be looking toward integrational approaches and welcome them—even though my own particular conclusions or program are mis-applications thereof.

This may be enclosed with another letter. It is written on shipboard when I had time and relaxation and my mind seemed to be working.


Samuel L. Lewis


March 4

World Affairs Council of Northern California

421 Odell St.

San Francisco, Calif.

My dear friends:

I have now been in Pakistan four days and have had a very rapid start. When I was last here I took out an account in the Habib Bank. When I returned home Mr. Russell Smith told me that he and the Habib family were very friendly, the two banks are co-respondents and this enabled me not only to get my money but in the manner I wished. I am following this up when I reach Lahore by an extra “campaign” so I may write advice to tourists and to those who stay abroad for longer periods. Transactions are performed in various ways to obtain various experiences the benefits of which may be passed on.

I next went to the Embassy where I had three long and successful interviews, more details of which shall be mentioned, and one “unpleasant type” also. In UAR I had to take certain rebuffs from Americans on inter-cultural exchange, and though I lost the discussions, regretfully my predictions of the mobbing of the USIA library came true. There was also there a letter of my close friend, Robert Clifton and between us, in a sense, we cover the whole Asian continent; have been uniformly successful with Asians, and unusually unsuccessful with the press.

Excepting Marriage Ceremonies in Morocco by Westermarck I do not know any books which detail the Islamic religion as it is practiced. I can refer you to a book in the S.F. Public Library on Chinese funeral customs and you will look in vain in them for connections to and with the stuffs peddled out as “Confucianism,” “Taoism” and “Buddhism” by various worthy graduates of European universities. They take you into the higher echelons of wonderful metaphysical speculation, but tell nothing about people as they are.

The political attaché in Cairo finally assented we have failed to establish contact with the public and public mores in the Near East. The political attaché here knows it and is doing something about it. The attaché in Cairo has now asked that I report in detail actual communistic doings which I run upon and the attaché here had me tell him in detail how I turned the mob on the commies in India—the life I saved happened to be my own. I am forced to pun, that the un-usual in Asia is too often the un-news-ual, and this is a cold war.

Actually the commies have started an Anti-American movement here which, as with most such movements, are financed and supported by Americans! There have been reports of conversions to Christianity in Pakistan. The last printed statements were that these were from the Harijans and not from the Muslims. No matter, feelings have run high and commies are undergrounding it that the Americans are behind these efforts to make conversions. Unfortunately some of our staff in Foreign Service are very pro-Christian and make no bones about it. This was not true in Cairo; I met nobody there who permitted feelings to enter into this subject. They were warped on cultural exchange, which is not cultural exchange at all.

Fortunately there are people in Washington who are engaged in objective studies of the culture of the Near East and this means in the end we may cease to rely upon Zionists and displaced Europeans as the “sources” of information (?) concerning this part of the world. The selection of Prof. Reischauer as Ambassador to Japan is exactly what I have been advocating for years. We do have Americans who know something about Asia and are admired in Asia.

We do have Americans who know something about Asia and are admired in Asia. I once proposed that you invite Dr. Kingsley Davis of South Hall on the Berkeley Campus to speak before you. I have been estimating him very highly, but his estimation here both among the Pakistanis and Embassy is of the very highest. It is this sort of man who should be addressing audiences and giving them information. And it would be a wonderful thing if our editorial pundits fished around and found some of these Americans who really know something about Asia or are admired in Asia or both. We might win the cold war very quickly.

Much of my time has been spent with Dr. Farooq, assistant to the Agricultural Attaché, who is at present in Washington. He was very enthusiastic about the program outlined and happens to be a close friend of Mr. M. A. Cheema of the Ministry of Agriculture who was my previous contact. Between these two gentlemen I have gotten a plan for my itinerary which should take me as far as Kabul, Afghanistan, and I may go into unusual parts. I shall not write further on this point but I have still to find an agricultural, or perhaps even a scientist, who is not entirely objective and impersonal, and purportedly practical.

I have already spoken at a Junior College where they train young men to be Agricultural Inspectors and Advisors. The failure of our Point IV program has been that between the colonels and generals on top and the privates (peasants) there were too few intermediaries. Now we shall have corps of sergeants, so to speak, well trained in science, English and accounting methods.

My other contacts overlapped and include both Islamic teachers and Sufis. I am particularly anxious to have some Islamic teachers in the United States at the Universities, or even at centers. I am concerned with information, not “conversions.” The Muslims in the U.S. are very divided and almost as ignorant as divided; this is a private matter. But with the large number of Islamic nations in the U.S. it is time we at least learned about their religion and folk-ways. My own opinion at the moment is that the best presentations of Islam are made at the Seminaries in Hartford and Berkeley. Missionaries are trained in the actual details of the actual religions which they are to face. Other peoples go around with whitewash or tar and so we have little objective knowledge.

The cases of Sufism are an example of extreme stupidity on our part. The two “authorities” on Islam in California are displaced Europeans; next to them come linguists who are Zionists. They have no interest in telling us the facts. I had, again, my farewell from the Indonesian Embassy in Cairo, and those people have again and again invited me to their land to try to bridge the misunderstandings between our countries. I must repeat, it is they who have extended the invitations. For my own part I am pleased to report our Foreign Service is fully in favor of it, but my resources are limited and my successful ventures are increasing.

I think I have already written about the tenders put out by the Sufis (dervishes) in U.A.R., to become better known to and by Americans especially to carry on this Cold War to a success. When I return to California I may even go to court on this matter of nonobjectivity in certain scholastic institutions unless some newspaper is willing to carry on a campaign.

You do not have to believe it, but there is a kind conscious and also a kind of unconscious telepathy or empathy which brings us together. In Alexandria my contact (who has a high position in the U.A.R. government) had the conscious faculty. In Port Said unconsciously my contact was a Sufi teacher. In Aden, where I stopped to make some purchase, my contact was another one. And here I met the Sufis very rapidly and shall meet more.

I am not in the least concerned with the acceptance of Sufi mysticism; I am concerned with the recognition that there are millions of us, and that we are unanimously opposed to those Nations and forces with which the U.S. is combating, but strange to say, we are either rebuffed, or recognized only so far by the foreign service. We have plenty of advertisements about “people-to-people” programs, but the actual operation of “people-to-people” is something else.

Because we do not have a real people-to-people program, even in this friendly government it is easy to start grapevine movements against the U.S. The one on the Christian-Islamic imbroglio above is an example. Monday I hope to visit the American Friends of the Middle East. They have done much to try to establish “semantic” relations between Christians and Muslims and the effort therefore is the success. Getting people to sit down together is to me, the recognition. Agreement is not so important.

The next underground step is concerning India. The selection of Chester Bowles enables the underground-grapevine to say we, the U.S. are pro-Indian. When I was here before I saw the rather successful efforts of the commies to “prove” to the Pakistanis that we were pro-Indian in Kashmir; and to the Indians that we were pro-Pakistani. Our USIA programs, with their noble and lofty overtones, do not reach the masses. Our art and musical shows are nothing but boondoggling for those who need no such support.

Off hand, here, as in UAR, I hope to emphasize agricultural cooperation as the basis for friendliness. Here the whole thing becomes complicated and unified. I have been urging more agricultural literature and less “true immortality” pulps. The Islamic distrust of Christianity here has nothing to do with the missions. The Protestant Churches are blamed for the lurid literature and surrealistic movies, and they themselves protest against them, but not loud enough. Islam now comes out for “home and mother” and in this the whole United States becomes the butt of rather successful attacks. Until Erick Johnston & Co. are removed, or until Hollywood itself supports true art, neutralism will continue and even increase.

The above, incidentally, is the compendium of a large number of conversations held before and repeated now in these last few days.

The percentage of people speaking English here has increased. Urdu, which bears relation to it, is not an exact language. But the government is trying to systematize the teaching of both.

I met a large number of Asians on the ship, giving me more contacts. In general they hold that both Great Britain and the United States are offering the scientific and cultural training needed in Asia. It is only when sensitivities are concerned we fall down. The staff at the Embassy here assents to my contention that it is a myth and a very bad myth that we do not discuss religion abroad. We are held to be materialists. This was the unanimous opinion of Hindus, Pakistanis, Pushtuns and Persian-Afghans, however else they differed. I do not know how long we shall continue to be limited by our myths. We have others.

These people, however they differ live in psychological longevity. Metaphysically it makes them our superiors and more; but physically it tends to have them adhere to principles rather than actions. The two need to be brought closer together.

I shall be with Americans in Multan and learn what they are doing there; then go to Lahore to plan an ambitious series of programs. Then to Rawalpindi where my friend Ahmed Bashir Minto, once of San Francisco lives, and where the government is moving, then to Abbottabad, my “home.” From Abbottabad I must move in all directions.


Samuel L. Lewis

Dear Willie:

I am already very busy, in fact started off right away. I expect to leave here as soon as all my business is completed at the Embassy, but that is something I cannot foretell. Everything has started off very bright but I do not wish to become too involved here. Besides, friends are waiting for me in other cities.

March 7

My dear Rudy,

I started out to keep a log-diary on the “Cilicia” but misplaced some sheets and never kept it up. I was very, very tired after UAR with only three days free in over five months. I did not realize it until I was on board and slept and slept. After I had rested—and the first few days were not easy—my whole body went through a renovation. I’ve felt so fine and both the Red Sea and Indian Ocean were calm. At least so to me. I did not miss any meals and I liked the strong making tea. I drank little coffee, excepting the small blacks after some heavy meals.

My stateroom was small, just large enough for my luggage and myself, but that did not matter. There were so many tables—and three rooms—where I could do my typing.

It is naturally that after I wrote I did not expect to buy anything at Aden I did. When I came to Port Said I found the taxi man was a Sufi teacher—and the next thing I was sight-seeing not because I wished to, but on account of the spiritual bond. When we came to Aden I was almost plummeted out of the first shop.

In the next one the man was explaining these cameras to me but he was not very successful in convincing me that the most expensive was the best. While the bargaining was going on I noticed a clerk repeating the name of God. I spoke to him and found he was a Dervish. I told him I was one. Then he pointed to the store-owner who was trying to sell me a camera. “He is the teacher.” Down came the price of the camera! We reached an agreement and embraced.

Now it seems that I get along fine with the Asians but not always with the British. My companions were a Persian Afghan, a Pushtun (Pathan) and an Indian—quite an international set. We stuck together on breaks but always came back to the dervish (Sufi) merchant. We found he was the most honest and reliable and he certainly got $200 from me, perhaps more. There are plenty of bargains in Aden but also plenty of cheaters—as one might expect. If I ever go that way again I’ll go to that teacher.

Getting through customs was not too hard. They did not examine our health certificate. And as I had all my things to declare and had appeared so open the officer in charge let me through. He was very fair when the people were fair and was as serious to let them through as they were. It was the small people who kept on demanding papers. There was one slight mishap—there was a Miss Lewis on board and they placed one of my bags with her things and also told my friend, Abdul Rahman, that there was no male Lewis on board. This took a while to straighten out.

I immediately repaired o the American Embassy to get my mail and cheque. For the first time since leaving home all my financial papers were together. But I have found it is better to buy cheques in the U.S. than bring in dollars. I am learning a lot of ropes and think I have some other letters for you which will go slow mail, on advice, etc. In fact I want to either speak to travel agents (closed meetings) or write articles on some of my experiences.

Fortunately, again, the Habib Bank, in which I have my account, is the correspondent of the Bank of America. I deposited most of my money and may buy Pakistani Travelers’ cheques when I get to Lahore.

I met Mr. Farooq at the Agricultural section in the Embassy and we hit it right off. We have had three conferences with at least one more coming up. He had me speak at a school where they are training young men to become Agricultural inspectors. The Political Attaché took extended notes and gave me the name of a man in the State Department who is interested in Sufism. After all the tripe they teach in the U.S. it is no wonder that Asians resent us. We brag about ourselves and don’t study them objectively at all. So I have written to this contact, and can at least hope. Step by step I am by-passing all those persons who claim to be Sufi teachers and know very little indeed.

In the afternoon my friend Abdul Rahman (a longtime resident of S.F.) found me and we went to a friend whom I also found to be a Sufi and have met several Sufis among the people contacted here. We have now purchased our tickets, he going to Lahore but I’ll stop off at Multan where I have personal friends. Then I must go in turn to Lahore, Rawalpindi and Abbottabad.

I had a short but most important meeting with Mr. M.A. Cheema, who is now Secretary-General of the Ministry of Food and Agriculture. He had been my contact before. He is now the chief permanent servant of the department and gave me advice which I shall follow. It means most of my time should be spent at Lyallpur, Lahore and Peshawar, all in the North.

But it also means my department by sea again. I do not know whether I shall be going all the way to Chittagong by sea and then visit India later on or stop at Bombay. If business requires my going to East Pakistan first I’ll do that, for after all my present Murshid is in Decca, too.

It is not yet hot here—it gets up to 90 but cools at night and this is even more so at Multan and Lahore just now. In fact some districts are unequally cold at night but Spring and I shall be keeping company. I expect to stay in the North for many months and may go to unusual places.

I now have so many names in my book. I cannot see my future unless I can organize or get help. For my conferences and meetings keep on getting better but this increases the amount of time at the typewriter, which I haven’t. I did a lot of typing on ship-board and get my “heavy” things out but not details.



March 8, 1961

American Friends of the Middle East

323 Geary St.,

San Francisco, Calif.

Dear Admiral Evenson and Friends;

I am making this my diary entry for the day. I am enclosing copy of a letter to a fiend which has some interesting news of you. Most important to me here is your library. I have been presetting and howling and I shall continue to protest and howl over these points:

a. The wide-spread market for lurid American literature.

b. The almost esoteric attitude toward good trade, technical and scientific magazines.

c. The failure to recognize that most people have been attached to the land.

d. The strange acceptance of European authorities on Asia-men who are little regarded in Asia.

e. The strange down-grading of American authorities on Asia-man who are highly regarded in Asia.

f. The refusal to look at the religion, folk-lore and habits of people as they are.

This library fulfills, to me, all these requirements. I am going to write a separate latter to the home office. For although I kept Virgil acquainted with all my doings in Cairo, at first he did not respond to my protests against certain types of books:

a. The bosh at the American university put out as branches of Islamic culture.

b. The bosh at the UISA library put out as Islamic philosophy.

I grant the right of every man to differ, but first we should have the fasts. As a nation we simply do not know what these people believe and practice.

The Indian papers are editorializing about Pakistan’s trend toward neutralism. It is a trend into which they have been pushed. They want Islamic culture and we do not face it. They want certain kinds of foreign aid, and we want to give certain kinds of aid and we have not sat down and talked everything over as it should. As in UAR I have found tremendous anti-Russian and anti-Chinese sentiments, perhaps more so here. But it is based on different premises, premises which we as a Nation should face. We are the strange country with a fundamental declaration of Independence which we do not always appreciate. It was all right for our Forefathers to talk about God, but we are so afraid of stepping on other people’s toes. We keep silent.

The affects of the AFME to have Christians and Muslims sit down together is very much appreciated—abroad. Today a tremendous member of Nations are either Catholic or Muslim—something our press and public does not seem to realize. It is not only to stem communism (and with it mass-starvation and barbarism) but the progressive development of mankind which is in the offing.

I have had nothing but delightful interviews here; with the police; with the Ministry of Food & Agriculture (Mr. Cheema); with our Embassy; with both orthodox and heterodox Muslims and with citizens. There is a plan on foot to have me speak at Karachi University when I return. But I have so many plans for Lahore. I was told your office in Pakistan is there so I shall see them and keep them informed.

My itinerary is very complicated socially but not geographically (in India it will be the opposite). I expect to go even into Afghanistan, inshallah. But I am of those who would rather do then just talk.

The Tomato seeds from Ohio State have been given to Mr. Cheema but my main horticultural work will be in the North. I am stopping at Multan first to visit a Christian mission and may do a little work there.

I understand my arrival has been excellently timed, for especially around Lahore these two things are coming up:

1. A Campaign to speed up the agricultural universities and the research therein.

2. A world gathering of lay Muslims.

I hope to keep you informed.


Samuel L. Lewis

Multan, Pakistan,

March 12, 1961

My dear Magana:

It is now several days since I made any diary entry and many things have happened. I had to meditate very carefully before deciding to whom I should address the top sheet and I think that during or after you have concluded the reading, you will possibly agree that you are the most fitting person to receive the totality of the news which covers many subjects. And to avoid suspense, if this were to have a title it would be: “Dante in the House of Beatrice.”

I did not enter Pakistan as a V.I.P. as was true in UAR. And this produced some complications because I found it necessary to report to police and make my forms over again. For there is a mighty majesty in karma which can, under certain circumstances impel or propel us ahead.

I immediately went to the U.S. Embassy and before a few moments were over found another of those deep heart friendship with Dr. Farooq, attaché to the Agricultural Section. In fact the next day I spoke before a class of his, a junior college where boys are trained to become agricultural inspectors.

My visits at the Embassy were long and complicated. The USIA people simply do not understand the Orient. They are trying to present American culture to other peoples without the slightest effort to understand or sympathize with those people. It is enough to try to bring America to them, it is more than too much to impose even in the most indirect manner, your religion. And today it is much worse because Christianity has lost its soul, and Islam has not.

This last statement should not be taken with finality. In my last days in the UAR I learned that a large number of Gnostic texts have been uncovered. By the time the next generation comes around we shall be examining much more than the Gospel of Thomas. The “truth” that Jesus taught or represented or was is not a different truth from the one you hold.

On ship board I made friends with the Asians and some British observed his and praised me. I do not always understand how this is. When I came into Port Said my taxi driver was the Sufi teacher there and when I went ashore at Aden and went into a shop: the owner was the Sufi teacher there. Pleased don’t ask me how these things happen….they happen.

The next day after seeing Dr. Farooq I called on Mr. M.A. Cheema. He had been my contact before and it was after conversations with him that I have traveled and traveled and spent and spent. Now he is Secretary-General of the Ministry of Agriculture. It took a relatively short time to lay out a program for me which is not being followed at the moment, but no matter. It is there and I most follow it at Lahore and at Lyallpur which I have never visited. The timing has been perfect.

My friend Abdul Rahman, late of Mission St. met me at Karachi and took me to a Mosque. I met a Sufi there. We went to his friend’s house and I found he was another Sufi. I was shown a picture which reminds me of one depicted in the occult work, “Brother of the Third Degree” or something of the kind. Only this is an actual picture and as the father explained that picture to me, he was also explaining me. I told his seem that just before I left. I said: “Not one moment here was wasted. Your father thought he was explaining a picture to me; actually he was reading out of the “akasha records” my duties.” So I left Karachi.

I had originally planned to stop at Multan and visit Dr. Girardeau who operates a mission hospital here. But in the meanwhile “Beatrice” had moved here and she and her husband, Bill, kept on writing constantly to come here and here I am. Beatrice’s actual name has the some meaning, but is in another language. I have written tremendous poetry for her and even about her. But now comes the most fictional-like facts that makes one wonder.

Beatrice has lived most of her life in India. She is the only non-Indian who has been trained in all sorts of Indian dancing. She is a friend of Asoka whom she says is now is Hollywood. I shall come back to her in the course of this record. She married Bill who is an American and who works for the engineers here. I had never met Bill and don’t know what she told him—but he is the spiritual one. He believes in Yoga and occultism. Our views on politics, international affairs and esoteric matters are so closely akin there are at times when it is like looking at a soul-mirror-image. He has also lived much in India. I have not his story yet, but he is certainly another one of us re-incarnates from India is Western bodies, for whatsoever purposes the Wisdom of the Universe wishes. So it is with him and to him I have been drawn. This has produced some strange complications. For these complications are nothing like triangles but follow almost weird patterns.

Yesterday Beatrice and I visited the tombs of saints here. I visited six before. Yesterday I visited four, three of them repeats, the other different, the last being the most “occult.” Beatrice who was with mo and is a skeptic received an earful. Bill who was not with me accepted everything. It extremely different for me to write and yet I have to keep my diary. It is a containing difficult for me to write and yet I have to keep my diary. It is a continuing fulfillment of my friend Paul Reps, who writes Zen material (the real thing). “Sam, you have to go to Asia to teach the Buddhists dharma, the Hindus their religion and Sufism to the Muslims. Now no respecting “Orientalist” will accept such stuff and my lectures in your rooms were full of “egotisms” and “egoisms.”

I met Claude Dahlenberg in Cairo. Literally ran into him in the streets of Cairo. His address is 2273 California St. I don’t know when he will return. He was once the fair-haired boy of Alan Watts. No more. He has been and he has seen. We did not have to talk. He went with me into strange allays in Cairo and saw the people tumble out of shops and bazaars to great me and I greeted them. This was impossible but I have an eyewitness from S.F.

In Karachi the legend also grew and one elderly lady had me go through a Sufi ritual to which I added another—which could only please her more. Well, Beatrice does not believe in such things but here was I at the tombs of saints, giving instructions in Oriental Wisdom to Sufis. It is fantastic, it is impossible, but there was another living witness. And they want me back, everywhere they want me back.

But before I stick too much to “me” I must tell you about Beatrice. She wanted to come to U.S. and continue with her career as a dancer. I was trying to help. Now she has given this up. It does not matter perhaps because she has a husband and is both a professional photographer and painter and her work in either of these two professions is proficient enough for her to make a success in the U.S. I did not mind her giving up her profession—that is a private matter. But she got rid of many of her costumes and that whacked me and is the main reason for my writing to you now, darlings. I don’t want her to give up many of her costumes from this point on.

So I got you into the picture. I told her that what she did with herself was a personal matter, but what she did with her costumes was a public matter. I have begged her not to give up any more costumes of any kind—either to hold them until she ultimately reaches the U.S. or to let me sent them to you under any circumstances, conditions or what not. I don’t have your permission. Queen Nefertiti, but this is one of these cases where the Queen of Hearts will shout, “off with his head” if the subject has not the perspicacity and perspicuity and pertinacity and persiflage, then it ought to come off.

This is, of course, only the beginning but I also told them a little of the story of Ruth Prager who would also want her “ins” so dahlings, I must keep on trying.

Lahore, March 18, 1961

My dear Florie:

I am on the train in the station here ready to go to Rawalpindi. I have no idea as to whether you have sent me any mail as I shall not pick it up until I reach Abbottabad later in the week. But so many, many things have happened that I must record them. And in doing this I shall undoubtedly be omitting many things even many important things. But it must be made clear to you and everybody else that I am no longer the person that left home and the prowess and also power within me has been given full scope. This scope has increased for the numbers of my friends, allies and associates is increasing and at a rapid rate.

I arrived in Karachi on 3rd March. Shortly after that Abdul Rahman met me and took me to a Mosque. There I met the missionary Ibrahim who has been at the Center in San Francisco. Instead of listening to my story he regarded me as an individual and as a possible missionary. And he did not fulfill his appointments. This caused me loss of time for I met a missionary from Ceylon, another one. I have met two in Cairo. They are much better adapted to influence the Western mind; they all dress clean and seem to have high moral outlooks, etc. In other words everything one wants to expect—in others.

My hosts, who were friends of Abdul Rahman, were also Sufis and when I return to Karachi ultimately will help me out. I have most pleasant visits with the Political and Consulate officials but not with the USIA. There is an underground ill-feeling between Christians and Muslims owing to the high degree of conversions to Christianity. In this I find that the missionaries today are highly educated and moral and transfer some of their virtues. The old mullahs simply have not these virtues. But it is not the part of any Federal government official to side in this conflict. The funniest thing is that although the chief of the Cultural Center in Karachi leans toward the Christians, the Chief at Lahore leans the other way. There are psychiatric elements for the Chief in Karachi is a woman who acts like a frustrated female, just the type that goes in for missionary work. But I know “frustrated” women who have plenty of heart and they are successful. On the other hand in Lahore I have been asked by the cultural staff of USIA to give them talks on Sufism and Islamic philosophy. This is a great diplomatic and personal victory. On top of that the Political Attaché gave me the name of a State Department official who is specializing in these studies and I have written to him.

This auspicious beginning has been followed at a great rate. I stopped with some Americans at Multan. They acted like Americans and not like a foreign colony. This made me feel very much at home. I revisited certain shrines and also one I had not seen before. I met the Wali of the Dirgah Shams-i-Tabriz and astounded him and his associates by going deeply into tas­awwuf right off-hand. Before I left we had our pictures taken together which made him feel very happy.

Lahore has been the scene of my happiest moments and if it did not contain the happiest moments at least at no time in my life have so many missions been accomplished in such a short time, alhamdu lillah. In UAR I entered as a VIP. This was not done here and this assumed modesty has made it necessary for me to re-fill a number of forms and required additional visits to police stations and consular offices. In turn this has helped me through conversations, etc.

The biggest thing actually accomplished in Karachi was my meeting Dr. Farooq of the American Agricultural Section. He fell in with all my ideas immediately and the next day I spoke at a Junior College where they are training young men to become agricultural advisors. Dr. Farooq happens to be a close friend of M. A. Cheema who was my contact on my previous visit. I found that Dr. Cheema is now Secretary-General of the Ministry of Food & Agriculture and a most important man. I gave him my reports which were exactly what he wanted and he laid out my general program within a few moments, comparatively speaking, and this is being followed up, alhamdu lillah. (We are on our way so I am stopping to observe the scenery.)

After visiting the consulate I went to Habib Bank to straighten out my finances. It was fortunate for I ran into complexities. On the worst side my hotel bill was higher than I had expected and there was a triple bank holiday. On the other side I found I had much more money than I had expected for there was an accretion of several years’ interest, etc. Then I called at the Punjabi University, wow!

First I met Prof. A.A. Siddiqui, head of the department of Islamic Studies. He introduced me to his staff and we had a wonderful but short visit. He invited me to a special meeting which took place last night and of which more anon.

Then I went to the Department of Fine Arts with which I have been corresponding. I brought them two books and picture post-cards. Next day I gave the Museum across the street one picture each of Mecca and Medina. I told them of my purchases in UAR and will be writing that country to find out about shipments, which seem to have been delayed in transit. But they were consigned to the University, not to me, and should thus be permitted to go through customs.

The new head of the Fine Arts Department is just the sort of woman I might liked to have fallen in love with. She was born a Jewess, in England. She left the synagogue because it was too narrow and became a Christian and left that religion for the same reason. She has married a Muslim and has risen socially and intellectually. Besides this her views on modern art and art in general are about the same as my own. They gave me half a dozen booklets and I found this quickly by reading. At the present moment there is a very vigorous art movement or even groups of movements going in on Pakistan.

I then went to the Botany Department but the interview was technical. I did give them also a couple of booklets, but I held my other things in reserve, which proved to be a wise decision.

I then went to the Tourist Bureau and before I got out they wanted a long article on Tourism which went to one Mohammed Idrees. I typed the article that night and he had my picture taken the next day for the Pakistan Times. I then had to write a short biographical sketch which was done last night and mailed, also for publication.

I next went to Civil & Military Gazette, Kipling’s old paper and was given a hearty welcome by Mr. Makhzan, my previous host here. He introduced me to the editor, and as soon as I reach Abbottabad I shall start a series of articles on Pakistan and my reasons for re-visiting it, etc., etc. This is going to keep me very busy. Then I learned that Mr. Marghrab Siddiqui who originally invited me to Lahore was back and head of the department of Journalism at the Punjabi University. I visited him next day. He was a friend of my friend Surindar Suri, and he also visited the Islamic Center and A.A.A.S. on Broadway where I first met him by appointment. We had a long and cordial visit but on account of my commitments mentioned above, I shall not do much with him until I re-visit the campus whenever that is.

If you think by this time I have had enough and I did have enough, that was not God’s will. I went to the Faletti’s Hotel where I had stayed before and there the clairvoyant Munshi Bashir Ahmed was waiting, saying he knew I was coming, and indeed he stepped out from his desk and saluted me from a distance. The metaphysical materialists who don’t accept such things have much to learn. We made an appointment the next afternoon and he gave me a long reading. In this he certainly surmised some of my deeper intuitions and experiences which are known to nobody. He has predicted an excellent year for me in 1962. We shall see. I did not find my other associates there but met the brother of one. There was no time for further grubbing around.


March 12, 1961

My dear Professor Cutright:

I have been in Pakistan some nine days now and I hope you do not mind some reports. I have disposed of the rest of the Tomato Seeds given me but shall not ask for more until I know definitely the best place to send them.

Sometimes a life story unfolds like a piece or pieces of fiction. My visit to the UAR resulted in series of rather favorable reactions. One of my last ventures was to boldly request a position in the National Research Centre to instruct the librarians in how to utilize the vast collection of materials they have in practical research. The experimental scientists and their staffs do not know how to utilize literatures. The collections tend to be vast because in part, due to cold war rivalries more and more books are contributed, if not purchased by the UAR government.

I have to use here cold-war-rivalries. We think off-hand of the competition between the U.S. and Russia. But there are also competitions between India and Pakistan, between the Arabs and Israelis, etc., etc. all of which stimulate both research and book-writing and this has been of benefit to the document section of the Research Center.

Multan is known as the city of flies. When I was here before the Chief Engineer begged me to do something to help eradicate the fly-nuisance here. I spent some time with DuPont people who told me they had agents in Pakistan. I asked them if we had to wait until the Russians had a fly-swatter or spray before we would rid this region of flies. In an earlier age we did wonderful work in Panama, the Philippines and Cuba in eradicating insect menaces. No politics were involved.

On shipboard a Pathan became particularly friendly with me. He learned that I shall have to come to Peshawar some time and we agreed. Then I asked him his profession. He is the manager of a D.D.T. factory! But I have learned that today some work is being done with spraying and the army engineers are also active in the region. In any event when I do get to Peshawar I expect to visit the place and send in a detailed report.

I also learned that there is a large fertilizer factory some eight or nine miles from Multan. I shall be interested in visiting the place. There are several severe problems here, chiefly of which is the high salinity cum the high water-table. There is not the rainfall even of the Alexandria region. The soil is either very, very friable or clay-eye. This city is noted for shrines and today I found that the hill-tops where these shrines are located have been landscaped. The hill-tops, of course, are above the water table and there is no saline problem then.

Dr. Farooq is the Assistant to the Agricultural Attaché at the U.S. Embassy in Karachi. The Attaché was in Washington at the moment of my visit. I laid out my plans there and they were well received. The next day Dr. Farooq took me to a Junior College which trains young men to become Agricultural Inspectors. To me this is a worthy step. We either have high-grade Point IV advisors or specialists—and peasants. Generals, colonels and privates, so to speak. Now we are training sergeants who will act as intermediaries. I gave a short talk there on my second day in Karachi.

M. A. Cheema was my contact on the former visit to Pakistan. He is now Secretary-General of the Ministry of Food and Agriculture. He is also a close friend and associate of Dr. Farooq, aforementioned.

My visit with Mr. Cheema was short and to the point. I gave him the packet of Tomato seeds with the exception of a few to Farooq. He told me that my best work would be at Lahore—where I have been, and Lyallpur, where I have not. The chief instructor in Horticulture for all Pakistan, who was formerly stationed at Karachi and whom I know slightly, is going to Lyallpur. His name is Dr. Siddiqui but the country is full of men with that name. Lahore is my next stop, and then I wish to go to Abbottabad to get rid of my clothing, etc. to travel light.

I have still my suit-case with so many bulletins.

Lyallpur is being thoroughly re-organized. There the Salt-soil problem will be faced. I have not yet heard about the visit of Dr. Fireman of Riverside. I have six or more important contacts at Lahore without mentioning others not so important. After Abbottabad I am supposed to go to Mardan where the largest successful farmer using modern means has been expecting me. But I have learned that Judge Rabbani is also awaiting me. He has the largest successful farm using traditional methods—old hand labor of peasants rather than modern equipment.

Judge Rabbani is also one of the leaders in re-forestation. And there is now a project going on at Quetta in Baluchistan The soil here is friable and dusty so it can take seeds. So the desert problems will be quite different from those of UAR, but offhand I should say the salt problem will be worse.

There is no knowledge here of American accomplishments in UAR but I may equally say that there is no knowledge of American accomplishments here. The really great things are never advertised ands go on as if almost secret.

West Pakistan is largely the Indus Valley. The Punjab—literally “Five Rivers” means mostly branches of the Indus. The Kabul River is on the other side and I hope to visit that valley, going up the Khyber Pass to Kabul itself on this journey. I am told that that region resembles California in many of its aspects. This includes Abbottabad where I shall “live” and have been before.

The garden flowers in general that I have seen are those of California but in Karachi I saw the largest Petunias yet and also the largest Lantana grown as a big shrub. But this is a country where Buxis is a tree, not a shrub. I have not the secret of that—yet.

So far I have just touched the soil and crop problem and wish to unload my literature on these things first. Then I shall go into pests, etc. Outside of flies this immediate region is rather free at the moment but I think this is due in part to the regular DDT spraying. “American” grasses are used on the lawns, and not the ubiquitous C. dactylon.

This is sheep and goat country. Milk, etc. come from both the buffalo and cow but in this household they get their dairy products which are air-borne from the States.

Food processing is even more important here and no doubt I shall be collecting notes which may interest your colleagues in Columbus.

I do not know when I shall be writing again. The possibilities of extending horticultural exchange whether of persons or knowledge are endless. I met a group of farm boys in Karachi en route back to the U.S. It seems that the Kansan Universities made the exchanges here. Of course I may meet some of your own students on the Indian side, but that is far off, in time.


Samuel L. Lewis


March 16, 1961

My dear Harry:

I cannot escape it. It is inevitable. I follow the old E. Phillips Oppenheim dictum “Fools for Luck.” The difference is that there were two of them in the stories, who stumbled into adventure and intrigue and often as not in Asia, and there is only one of me. I could not get accommodations when I arrived at Lahore and I was shunted to the Imperial Hotel, which is an old group of buildings made into a new hotel. They may be charging me a lot or a little but for the moment it does not matter. For I wander around alleys—they are not dark in this section of the city—and the first thing I see is a building: “Agricultural Department” so I nosey in and send my card and in about two minutes I meet Mohammed Ali Bokhary.

I tell him about my missions and that is what he is interested in. I tell him about deserts and desert reclamation and that is what he is interested in. I tell him about salt-water from the ocean and that is what he is interested in. I tell him about reclamation of saline soils and that is what he is interested in. I even tell him my private ventures and that is what he is interested in. Why go on? The net result is that I may plan to come to this hotel again and show him my “etchings” or rather all the bulletins I have which you so kindly help me collect, and for which everybody gives me the benefit (scrounge), and also others which I had from the University of California, etc.

I have not heard about Dr. Fireman being here nor have I run into Mr. Sparhr, the forester, who was my host in East Pakistan and who is supposed to be ranging around this neck of the woods (synthetic).

At the moment Lahore is very beautiful and I am not far from the Zoological Gardens where I met or rather was contacted by A. A. Shah on my previous visit. The whole city is in flower. But what do you get? Daffodils? Pansies? Violets? Jonquils? Well you find Dahlias in full bloom and Hollyhocks seeking salvation in Heaven and Cosmos all over the place. This is Springtime, n’est-ce pas? You also do see Pansies but no lilaceous or orchidaceous plants. The Roses are here but not in profusion. There are Gaillardias and Marguerites and Coreopsis and Sweet William. The most profuse flower is of the same order in structure, but looks like a Bougainvillea in color; I don’t know its name. There are several flowers which I cannot name.

The most abundant trees are Ficus sp. but I have reported on them before. I did visit the Botany Department at the Punjabi University. The junior classes take Botany as part of general science but the upper division and graduates are engaged in research and to prepare to be teachers. The research is not divided into subjects like Plant Physiology, Plant Nutrition, Cytology, etc., but the students are given projects which cut across the more or less artificial lines of the sub-sciences and do their work accordingly. Evidently the higher degrees depend upon specialized research which may be elected or assigned but which should have practical value. There is still much to be done both on the actual plants of Pakistan and the plants that may be grown here.

The conversations here show much ignorance as to “tolerance” and the tendency has been to wish to change the soil rather than to seek plants which will grow.

Multan is dusty. The desert which is beyond is totally different from that of UAR but which resembles in many respects some in Baja California. The tombs which I re-visited have all been landscaped and are in pretty fair condition considering that this is one of the “dry” seasons.

Lahore is very different, certainly just now.

Generally speaking, my welcome to Lahore has been astonishing. It was before; it is even more so now. I had arranged to take out a Habib Bank Account. What did I find in returning to California? That this bank is the correspondent for the Bank of America and this has facilitated my operations and made it possible to get Rupees easily.

The Punjabi University gave me a wonderful welcome in all departments. Then I found the original “villain,” one Marghab Siddiqui whom I had met in San Francisco was here. We always avoided each other after swearing eternal felicity and friendship. But we met again at last though he has been jumping back and forth in the opposite direction. He had introduced me to the Civil & Military Gazette which was Kipling’s old paper and which gave me a multitude of welcome before. Now they are sending in the bill—please write articles. The opposition paper heard that and asked me to write my biography, autobiography, and everything else but I had pledged my scientific articles to the Civil & Military Gazette because I believe that East and West can meet. This is possible in our football games, of course. In Multan American aid is very active until 4 P.M., building, feeding, instructing, helping—and after 4 P.M. all the Americans go down and teach the Pakistanis a game called baseball. In Lahore they must be different Americans for I have seen many a baseball field and hardly a cricket field, but baskets all over the place. Only it is Ramadan and as you are not supposed to drink during the day time at the moment they are not in use. But I never have seen so many basket-ball courts.

Tomorrow and the next day are the biggest feast days of the year. Trust me to get in on them. I used to know a song with a refrain: “If our legs will hold out we’ll stay” but with me it is mostly, “If my stomach will hold out I’ll stay.” Anyhow I have arranged sundry lectures on everything from Islamic Philosophy to research in Genetics and how to get around in modern Cairo and I have so many people in the American Consulate wishing to hear me that I have arranged for private talks.

So far I have met only one lady. I hope she is still married. She is head of the Fine Arts Department, wealthy and mature in age, of Jewish birth and now a Muslim. I don’t know if this means anything but I am a confirmed bachelor to which applies the saying: “A woman is as old as she looks, a man is old when he stops looking” and I have not stopped. Besides my friend the fortune teller was here, waiting for me and he told me I was going to live a long, long time yet, so might as well be resigned to it. Which I am. For if for me life began at 40 it got bigger at 60 and is still growing.

I am waiting for a phone call from the American Friends of the Middle East, and after two attempts on the phone gave it up—everybody wants to see me, so I am afraid to try any more. Every day and in every way I have bigger and better interviews. And I have so many assigned articles and had to fill out forms because I became modest and did not enter as a VIP as I did in UAR so had to make my forms all over again both for the police and Americans. It does not pay to be modest. I guess that is enough bragging for now.



March 16, 1961

Pakistan House

San Francisco, Calif.

My dear Friends:

In writing my diary at this time I have concluded that you are the most appropriate people to send it to. This communiqué does not require any reply so it does not matter when Consul General Sattar is in or not. It is certain, to me, that so many things have happened of personal interest, if not of importance, that I wish to record them.

One does not have to accept the statements of clairvoyant Munshi Bashir Ahmed. He was waiting at Faletti’s? and said he knew I was coming. He certainly had nothing to do and called my name out from a distance. Later he told my future, using two or three of his several methods. He is positive that I shall live long, gain fame or influence or both and in general succeed in life. He bade me take things very serious and I am doing just that whether his predictions turn out correct or not.

I remained at Multan longer than expected and before that my Karachi finale was very concentrated, so I have had to write to both Minto and Abdul Rahman being very unsure of my arrival in their respective cities. I entered UAR as a VIP and that necessitated certain forms to fill out. I did not enter Pakistan as such as this required my making secondary applications, etc. I think I told you that Secretary-General Cheema of the Food and Agricultural Ministry has outlined my trip. I did not see Ibrahim the missionary again, but the Siddiqui family, to whom Abdul Rahman introduced me, is interested in Sufism. I also learned from our political attaché in Karachi that there is one research scholar in Washington with the same interest.

My hosts in Multan are an American Engineer with a British wife. Although she was raised in India, living mostly in Kashmir and Bangalore, she retains a non-Oriental psychology, but Bill Bailey served on the Burma Road, lived long in India and now in Pakistan and is a “believer.” Mrs. Bailey accompanied me in my revisit to the tombs and she listened while I gave a lecture on Sufism to a Wali and his students. “Coals to Newcastle” sometimes has astonishing results. I also had my picture taken with him at the Shams-i-Tabriz shrine and when I receive it at Abbottabad will probably send you copies.

The Americans are doing a grand work with their drainage and housing constructions. This is not being advertised. But it is most surprising to find a changed Multan. Besides, with my companion on shipboard being the manager of a DDT factory, the fly problem is being brought under control. And the dust had not yet risen. I am anxious to bring in one or more vacuum cleaners either on my next visit or beforehand. These will go only to missionary hospitals and mosques.

My former visit to Lahore was like a compilation from the works of Marion Crawford, Rudyard Kipling and Talbot Mundy. Many of their characters are real and events were fictionalized into stories. I had the happiest hours of my whole life here before and the same is happening all over again, but this time it is somewhat objective.

American Officials. There has been little difference between the reactions of the Americans and Pakistanis working at the Consulate and Informative Services. They all listened to my general program and took my reports most seriously. One of the outcomes is that I shall be giving talks on Islamic philosophy and Sufism to members of the staff when I return next to Lahore, inshallah. They accepted the gist of my reports from UAR on all subjects.

Punjabi University. Islamic Philosophy. I first went to this department and Prof. A. A. Siddiqui was delighted to see me. I had spoken twice with him before. He gave me a tremendous build-up and has made arrangements so I meet his colleagues and other worthies tomorrow when the fast ends. This delays my trip to Rawalpindi and I only hope Minto will be around. But this build-up is very important. Dr. Siddiqui is very much against the phony experts who lecture in California about something they call “Islam” and who are believed and followed. He speaks excellent English and is the sort of man who should be sent for when the Federal Government finances studies in Asiatics.

Department of Fine Arts. I have been writing to them as I purchased some wares in UAR to illustrate more or less recent creations. I have also ordered colored slides. When these arrive I shall be lecturing in this region. The wares go to the Museum across the street. The slides become the property of this department when I leave North Pakistan.

They showed me a little of their present policies. The head of this department is a Mrs. Ahmed who was born a British Jewess. Her “conversions” in both religion and art parallel my own very closely and I think we formed a binding friendship. They have given me a number of books which I may keep or send to the Rudolph Schaeffer School.

Mr. Schaeffer is a life-long friend of mine but has been influenced to receive very warped impressions of the art of the India-Pakistan sub-continent. His so-called informants have skipped the whole Moghul influences and much of the other Islamic influences also. Someday, no doubt, they will let me speak on what preceded Taj and how it came to be built. But one cannot spend one’s time lecturing on art and clearing rubbish and that is what so often has to be done now.

The class work and the exhibitions show a remarkable freedom of spirit. There are traditions but they are not necessary from one direction, being Islamic, Indian, British or French—not much Persian here; or else a growing acceptance of many more or less contemporary schools and methods. Few of the artists went through periods of “civilization” but seem to have passed quickly from childish art to the newer methods.

I gave the class a short talk on my views of spirituality in art and found they had all come to the same conclusion.

This morning I gave my reprints, one picture each of Mecca and Medina, to the Art Museum across the street.

Botany Department. This visit was technical and scientific. I left a few books and we agreed that I should hold the major portion of my materials for Lyallpur. However it is probable that I shall give at least one talk there after I have gone to Peshawar. There are “revolutions” in teaching, research and reorganization at both Peshawar and Lyallpur so my visit is well timed.

Department of Journalism. Mr. Marghrab Siddiqui was originally responsible for my coming to Lahore, and he was not here when I arrived before. He has also made another visit to the States so I am sure you have met him. Anyhow he was in the office today and we had a very serious conversation. The follow-up is questionable owing to the reports which immediately follow:

Tourist Bureau, Public Relations Section. This is a new organization. I was given a very warm welcome by Mr. Mohammed Idrees. He asked me to write a paper on Tourism. Alas, it impressed him so that he wants me to write at least one autobiographical sketch. They also took my picture and want to use the materials submitted for articles in the Pakistan Times. You may be seeing my picture or articles before you receive this letter.

Civil & Military Gazette. I was the last person to be given a tea of honor in Kipling’s old work shop. Not only has the office been renovated and modernized but the whole publication has come out of the “red.” It is probably that Ayub’s elevation was at least indirectly responsible. The Pakistan Times had fallen under anti-American influences or worse and in any event was perpetually anti-government with no constructive program. This has been changed now, but the need for readjustment of policies stimulated the Gazette and elevated its prestige to the plane which it deserves.

They have asked me to write to them about my scientific mission here and on other points. Regarding my studies and knowledge of Sufism and Islamic philosophy. I am at the moment in a quandary because both papers have asked me for articles. So I shall be keeping busy when I reach Abbottabad.

This accounts for my not going further with Marghrab Siddiqui.

Agricultural Department. I could not get rooms at Faletti’s and they sent me to the Imperial Hotel, a new establishment on Jail Road near Cusons. While out walking this morning I came upon the offices of the Punjab Section of the Agricultural Department and met Mahmood Ali Bokhary. It seems that the missions I have gone on at Mr. Cheema’s suggestion are all well within his scope and interest. I agreed to show him everything before I go to Lyallpur.

The Lyallpur University, I understand, will not open its session until April 3rd, which will give me ample time, if necessary, to come to Lahore from ‘pindi before proceeding to that city and thus show everything I have to Mr. Bokhary.

Tourism. I have written a long article on tourism and have had interviews with both Mr. Idrees and the Globe Travel Agency with whom I have had dealings before. I understand that the network of bus lines has been increased. These lines as well as rail and air have both been quite efficient. My main proposal has been to have an international airport either at Lahore or Islamabad; and, if the one at Karachi is retained, to arrange tours to Thatta and Mahenjo Daro for Karachi has little to offer. Its hotels are fine but the best amusement are the movies.

On the other hand this city has so much—not only Shalimar and Badakshi Mosque but modern gardens of all kinds and bazaars. I had long talks on bazaar and shoe trade and perhaps may take this up with the Department of Small Industries when I return to Karachi. Or with the counterparts in the Central Government should I remain any length of time with Minto at ‘pindi.

I did visit the Mian Mir tomb last evening, but have had no time to go to the old city, etc. Tomorrow morning I had planned to visit either Mosques or Anjumans or Jamias, but expect a telephone call from the American Friends of the Middle East. Surprisingly while in Cairo they keep much longer hours than the Central Government, here they keep many less.

I am at the moment a little disturbed over possible duplication between them and Asia Foundation who, for the most part, have been working in quite different areas.

Lahore at the moment is most beautiful. What is surprising is to find many of our autumn flowers—Hollyhocks, Dahlias, Cosmos in bloom and not the spring varieties. The parks and grounds and even waste places are aglow at the moment. I am fortunately following spring into the various areas I shall be visiting.

Prospectus. Abdul Rahman has gone ahead with part of my luggage, including gift perfume oils I am bringing to his nephew. One adds alcohol or something else to create marketable perfumes.

I have received invitations to visit the farms of both Judge Rabbani and Jamshyd Khan. I have some information for the former whose farm I have already visited. Jamshyd Khan says he is going to visit the States so you may see him at any time. But I am going to remain in West Pakistan for several months at least, inshallah. I have been told that his brother will welcome me and Abdul Rahman at any time.

I am also scheduled to go to Swat and this intrigues me on account of the Buddhist art remains in that section.

Whenever I do go to Mardan I shall follow this with a visit to Peshawar, perhaps arranged for lectures and then go through the pass to Kabul. I do not wish to remain in Afghanistan but I do wish to see the American Agricultural Attaché there. I also wish to relocate Mr. Spahr, our forestry expert, who may be roaming in either the Peshawar or Quetta areas. There are now large reforestation projects going on in those regions.

The sea voyage from UAR was very healthful and I have remained quite well since. I am delightfully amazed at the number of friends I have here and the bright hopes for several of my many missions. As Abdul Rahman gets airsick I may not fly to East Pak. but wait until my work is pretty well accomplished here. I have not yet been able to meet the missionaries of various sorts—Sunni, Ahmadiyya and Christian whom I have already met. I also have various pen-pals in this region but will write to them from Abbottabad.

I cannot promise detailed or even short reports later on but, of course, I do keep my diaries and hope to arranged lectures for the American Friends of the Middle East. And as soon as I get to Abbottabad will report to the South Asian Studies Dept. at the University of California and perhaps to the World Affairs Council.

As-salaam aleikhum,

Samuel L. Lewis

Ahmed Murad Chisti

March 23, 1961

American Friends of the Middle East,

San Francisco, Calif.

Dear Admiral Evenson and Friends,

This is really my diary entry for the period and I am sending a copy to your colleagues in Lahore. I missed them. In UAR where the government offices are open only till one or two, your offices are opened in the afternoon; and here, where governmental offices are open in the afternoon, the AFME offices closed at two. I telephoned the director but he was away and did not call back.
In order to connect all points together I shall begin with Cairo. I had warned again and again that one could expect the USIA library to be attacked, that we did not have two-way cultural exchange. We try to impress others with our knowledge and achievements and we do not equally grant these others to impress us. I became tired running back and forth between Egyptian and American society with stories which simply did not fit. The political attachés have been most helpful and perceptive, but the cultural attaché not so. They are either self-satisfied, or in Karachi, pre-Christian and any attitude other than strictly pro-American is dangerous.

I pointed out that the American position was untenable because we down-graded American graduates in Oriental subjects. We did not in mathematics, science, literature, but in Oriental subjects “we” honored degrees from brand name European universities, not one of which is accepted in continental Asia. It is utterly ridiculous and we not only do not give “Mahmud Effendi” a job teaching Near East culture, we don’t give John James, Colorado or Minnesota either. The Arabs can’t get jobs, the Americans cannot get jobs, the Europeans get jobs without even submitting to tests and even “phony” credentials are accepted without examination “for fear of offending the Asians.”

I won my point but too late to prevent the mob-action.

I relate this because when I visited your library, or any library in Karachi I almost fell over. Here was a library full of authentic books, with every American authority on Asia listed. These things don’t exist elsewhere. They don’t exist in many of our schools or departments for Near East studies in the U.S. (some very important notable exceptions) and they certainly didn’t exist in the otherwise fine library in Cairo. The library had an excellent selection and assortment of books but the Near East section was not only small, it contained some very questionable books. The AFME library in Karachi, ought, in my judgment, become the model for all libraries on the near East and Islamics.

Even you, if you have not already, should have Dr. Kingsley Davis come from Berkeley and give a talk. He is one of many, many Americans actually admired in actual Asia. Now we are going to have a real American honored by Orientals as Ambassador to Japan instead of a “brand-name.” It is time to get rid of brand-names and ask the Asian-Asians what Americans they admire and why. Dr. Kingsley Davis is just one and I found books of all the others on the shelves, too. And what is called “Islamic Philosophy” there is Islamic Philosophy. And what is called Asian culture or Islamic Religion or Pakistani culture, etc. etc., is just that. The library avoids the two evils of not having enough books, or of having the shelves filled with over-advertised works by Europeans which do not explain the Near East at all. Alhamdu Lillah, I am very satisfied, perhaps in some sense, for the first time in my life.

I had a very cordial visit there but they urged me to see the staff at Lahore.

I stopped at Multan as guest of the American Army Engineers and saw what they were doing. I also visited the Mission Hospital and will try to get money to purchase a vacuum cleaner for them, but this has to be done in a certain way. I also “carried souls to Newcastle.”

I gave a deep talk on Sufism to a Wali and his associates at the Dirgah Shams-i-Tabriz. They were amazed and a few days later I had my picture taken with the Wali. This would never have been permitted in the S.F. Bay region where all talks on Sufism are bottled by European professors who know nothing about it even when they are engaged in translating books.

For within 24 hours I was a guest of Dr. A. A. Siddiqui at Punjabi University, before whose groups I spoke before and he has not only invited me to a big celebration but wants me to talk on the relation between Islamic Philosophy and Modern Science (Physics, Botany, Psychology). He incidentally has no use for any of these European Professors in the S.F. Bay Area. Another man who has no use either because he has clashed with then is Abdurrahman Barker, Urdu teacher and graduate from the University of California.

I also met the heads of the Botany, Fine Arts and Journalism Department. You may know the latter, Marghrab Siddiqui, who has been in California on several occasions and first invited me to visit Lahore when he was away.

I have sent for slides from UAR on Islamic Art and Modern Cairo and as soon as they arrive had intended to speak at Lahore, but they were sent to Abbottabad. This means I may be taking them around with me.

I am also writing for the Tourist Bureau, Pakistan Times and Civil & Military Gazettes; and today received a request for both for two New York Publishers. Only the San Rafael Journal Independent has taken me seriously before. I else gave the Fine Arts Department two books on Islamic Art in UAR and the Museum two pictures, one of Mecca and Medina respectively.

I could not see all my friends and having completed my financial arrangements (Habib Bank) and signing papers at the American consulate went on. But there they also want me to speak on Sufism which will do.

I stayed a few days in Rawalpindi with one Ahmad Bashir Minto who used to be in S.F. and gave a talk “Islam in the U.S. and UAR” But since reaching Abbottabad I have been told that my friend, Nasar Ansari is now Regional Director of radio Pakistan at “pindi.” This means I shall have every chance at introductions and speaking.

As Karachi I saw Mr. A.M. Cheema again. I have been working for years on what he wanted and he directed my footsteps north. I saw the Deputy of Agriculture at Lahore and when he found I have materials on saline and desert soils he asked to see them before I go to Lyallpur. I also have some papers from the UAR on scientific research but the others I have given to Mr. Cheema when he wanted then. Dr. Farooq of the American Embassy in Karachi has been most helpful.

I expect to stay in this region for a while writing and arranging programs and itineraries. I must visit Monserah which is north if here to see Rabbani Khan again. He is the most successful landowner in this region using traditional methods. But he has already been in the board of Directors of the World Congress of Faiths. I hope to introduce this into San Francisco so that real explanations can be given of living of religions by people who know them, and not imaginary descriptions, defenses or criticisms of beliefs of centuries back which having nothing to do with the world of today.

After that I must contact other landowners for appointments and then make my visit to Lyallpur. This would necessitate going to “pindi” and Lahore. I am learning a good deal about local travel and the Tourist Bureau has already accepted my first paper on tourism. But I must write again because there is a movement to make concessions to tourists and I can assure you that the hotel charges are much higher than what is written in the folios.

I have one slight fear which may be imaginary. When I visited Asia before the work of Asia Foundation and the AFME did not overlap. Now they are both in Lahore. Perhaps their fields of endeavor are separate. I can report with excellent authority that in S.E. Asia there is competition between American societies organized to promote between relations with the Orient and the upshot is that people react just as they did to rival Christian missions. And in Lahore there is a strong reaction to rival Christian missions which seem more keen on rivalry than on Christianity.

Recently Indonesia has expelled a number of American organizations on the ground that they were a not operating in good faith. I do not agree in certain instances for I feel that certain ones were operating in good faith but I am just as certain that others were not working in good faith. But the reaction was against many or all American groups. I don’t think this included the YMCA, and although not a Christian, I have seen these people do a very fine job everywhere, very sincere, educated, of high moral character.

There are now a number of campaigns going on for scientific research and Islamic culture. I am not so far in scientific research as in the literature thereof. And here as in UAR they do not seem to know how to avail themselves of the literature. But a least I have done enough research and have backgrounds in logics and logistics so I hold my own.

Besides the Punjab I shall have to go into the Northwest Territory, to Peshawar, Mardan and other places and inshallah, into Afghanistan. I have contacts at Kabul but that may wait. I have also been invited to Swat and being interested in Buddhist Art am rather keen about that too.

My immediate host is Abdul Rahman who has long been an American citizen and lived in S.F. He speaks Urdu, Punjabi and Pashto.

Tomorrow is Pakistani Day and I am on the Program. The morning and afternoon will be devoted to parades and sports; the evening to intellectual matters. I have spoken in Abbottabad before and many remember me. This time I shall read from “Saladin” and also perhaps one short Islamic poem. Some of “Saladin” may be translated into Urdu and it is possible that all of it will before I leave the country, Inshallah.

As an ambassador of good-will I am hoping now to get some recognition for I cannot carry on all that is before me. I rushed into a vacuum in the UAR, and here I rushed into opportune times. Mr. Harriman agrees times are right, but I have anticipated him in re: salt-water conversion, saline soils and desert agriculture. I understand Dr. Fireman from Riverside may be coming here but I have not heard anything definite yet.

I have signed many papers which grant me the right of residence for one year but I expect to leave this region in September, Inshallah.


Samuel L. Lewis

March 27

The other day a Mr. Qureshi came to my rooms. He is descended from an Arab Family which became custodian of the Moghul Court Jewels. They are supposed to have disappeared. I have seen them. He has been negotiating with a Los Angeles firm and it was agreed that transactions could be handled through the Habib-Bank of America hook up. I have written to Conlon Associates on Clay St, about them. I saw by far the largest and purest Rubies in my life and some very ancient specimens too from this region. It is possible that some business will result though it may take time. The immediate transactions will run up to six figures and he calculates his heirlooms easily run into seven figures. If God wills and I get even a small commission here it may change my financial status. This may be slow but my former trip was helped by a similar deal through the sale of Thai Zircons.

Uncut Stones. Qureshi Sahib also has a lot of uncut stones. This is his own possession, as against the heirlooms. He has told me there are many gems in this region and I hope to see some of the mines. But I have been tipped off too to other possibilities. While this would involve far less money, to me it is much more exciting and interesting.

History. Qureshi has also kept his genealogy and historical records. This involves both his Arabic background and some Moghul history. I have sent a carbon to Prof. Park at Ann Arbor and may shortly be writing to the South Asian studies at Berkeley.

Chisti Sahib. This is the most interesting. This man is a real Sufi. He was being mobbed recently because he denied the efficacy of political payers. I was told he was very poor. I called on him and took one look at his eyes—full of love. He speaks only Urdu and Persian but Qureshi knows both and English so we had a very fine session.

Most of the time he explained Moin-ed-din Chisti and Jelal-ud-din Rumi, both of whom used music in their spiritual training. He went on at some length and I gave the flute chant to show him I understood Rumi. For he said afterward, “Yes, the real flute is in ourselves.”

From the occult point of view the Chisti stories were the most interesting. Khwaja Sahib had many powers and he was able to control the water supply at Ajmir. I told him I had been at the very place and it is mysterious to find a lake high up in the mountains above a desert. I often wondered about it and have talked about it many times.

The essence of Sufism comes in the Auliya, saint or hierarchal development and a master learns to have control ever the elements. This is not nonsense. I am pretty sure that Chisti Sahib has both power and wisdom. He also told part of my future which corroborated in every detail what the Munshi said but added more. Most important is that he feels I should establish myself … still more marvelous is that he came into the room at this point and gave me his blessing! I hope to see him soon and often.

We did a little talking through an interpreter.

Both he and another man here are really “disguised saints” operating as very poor men.

Now I have another visitor and stop and may or may not add more to this letter.

March 24, 1961

My dear Gavin:

I wrote you the enclosed while on shipboard but from the moment of landing, I hardly had any time for myself and then could not always locate a post office. Every town I have been in has a different system.

My welcome in this country is gradually being publicized. I have no concern with persons who are personal and non-objective and snub and refuse interviews. Most of the Laotian complex is the result of the snubbing of my friend Robert Clifton who worked for the King of Laos, came to the U.S. and got nowhere or even less with Dulles. But the newspapers were no better. Pearl Harbor or no Pearl Harbor it is very difficult to get warnings accepted. Fakes yes, particularly by newspaper men but that day is over. The new administration has become human and humane.

Or maybe I am saying this because early little detail of my experiences is now being recorded and cordiality is increasing. The European professors may take a dim view of my knowledge of Asiatics but the Asian professors take even a dimmer view of the Europeans. And I met a professor, a graduate from the University of California, who has had runs-in with the Europeans and Zionists who control the Near East Department of U. C., with Rom Landau and Alan Watts. Well these men have to face it and I am beginning to take this matter up in earnest and I am not kidding.

A number of members of the U.S. Foreign Service want me to teach them Sufism. I gave a lecture on it to a wali in Multan to the dismay and delight of all present. Later I had my picture taken. I have a whole bunch of lectures lined up in Lahore. All my scientific reports have been accepted by all Americans and Pakistanis encountered so far.

I have also entered into complex arrangements with the Department of Fine Arts, Punjabi University. The head of that department, strangely enough, is a Jewess, converted to Islam. Needless to say we understood each other thoroughly. Her esthetical views and mine are also in complete harmony.

I once wrote a letter to you about Munshi Bashir Ahmed. As I entered the Faletti compound he called out at a distance: “Hello Samuel L. Lewis—Ahmed Murad Christi. Welcome, I have been waiting for you.” You had better page some psychologists and humanists to explain that. He read my horoscope, Indian fashion. No great change until next birthday and then … we shall see.

Both the major newspapers want articles and so do some others. Then I got a letter from Bob Stice who has gotten a fine job in N.Y. and wants articles from me to be marketed. Dorothy is working hard but Rick is still not too well. I have written both of them and have the stuff Bob wants—from my experiences. I am informing the American Friends of the Middle East in S.F. I feel just like Alice at the end of the two stories, shaking the chessmen and knocking the cards down. It is raining here and the country looks and feels like Marin. I have not yet met Americans in Abbottabad though there are several here.

I don’t know when I can write you again. I now have friends and contacts all over and my relations are improving in many directions. I am going more and more into a new life.

You may be interested in a lawsuit here. A girl wished to marry a married man. He accepted. Her parents did not. They tried to get her a husband and she refused. The case was brought into court and nulle prosse, or whatever you call it. It is regarded as a private matter. This could not happen in some countries.

March, 28, 1961

How dare you! There is only one side to our questions.

Hallo Leonora:

I am clearing up things. The show goes on tonight, inshallah. I modestly presented myself at the college here and they modestly accepted my request for lectures on all sorts of subjects. I may be gain with the slides I have on Cairo.

I told Evelyn I would write from the Hindu Kush Mountains, only to learn that the background here consists of Western spurs of the Himalayas. What am I to do? I am planning to climb some of the foothills around here which must be some 2,000 feet up. Soon I shall be taken to Mansehra, the next town north. Later I may roam about the hills.

But my friend Ansar Nasri is Director Radio Pakistan at Rawalpindi and I shall visit him as soon as the Mansehra trip is over. I have written John Felicic (even this typewriter respects him) about dancing and music here. I may look into folk records. But I left my stuff home—what with nine pieces of luggage as it is. However after going to Peshawar I may send one piece back with surplus clothing, and purchases. I don’t think I’ll need my heavies any more unless we go north of Swat, but even that will be done before my Peshawar ventures are finished.

What one needs here is a map. You study Urdu and find you are in Pathan country, and study Pashto and find you are in Baluch country and you study that and come back and find the people are speaking Punjabi. No I’ll stick to English, or American as it is called here. English is used on the cricket field and school classes. American is used in man-to-man (or woman) conversation. Understand?

I have also written to the Agricultural College which is at Lyallpur. Everybody says go quick before it is too hot. What am I supposed to do “all summer?" I want to go to Lyallpur and Lahore in April and to Peshawar in May and then here or North during the hot season unless we go to Afghanistan.

I am going to have a complicated time with my money as there has been no mail from “home”—what a liar! At this moment your letter arrived. I am going to write you air-mail and then send these things on.

March 29. I just wrote some new poetry inspired by Abbottabad and with this place at its theme. I hope to see the Stanford professor about it this p.m. I have been pounding this typewriter incessantly.

See other side

The Pukhtunistan News

All the News that gives Fits to the Printer.

On shipboard. Sno use, can’t be incognito. Puck wanted fame, he got it.

He stuck in his thumb and gulled out tons of plums and now he is paying the price. He does not mind paying the price if he does not have to pay the piper. There are no pipers here. Only in anti-Imperialist Egypt they do everything to Scottish music, excepting when they announce the news it is in British music. Nobody follows the tried and true way which has long been discarded excepting the anti-imperialists. They are vigorously attending the G.B. of 1890 and seem to enjoy doing it, but they have no idea of the G.B. of 1961.

Puck was interrupted by Hindus. If anybody loves to interrupt it is Hindu, and if anybody loves to be interrupted it is Puck. Every time Puck tries anything the Hindus interfere. This keeps Puck from being lonely. He had a long argument with a Hindu and finally convinced the Hindu that he was right. He had another argument with another Hindu and convinced him also that he was right. He was arguing with another Hindu and was interrupted but that time he also proved to the Hindus that he was right. “He was right” mans that the Hindu was right. Puck was approved; the Hindus and the Hindus were approving Puck, but was longing for a good Muslim.

Pardon me. Peck was uncovered, discovered and revealed with all his inglorious and glorious panorama. “My name is Shah, from Pukhtunistan,” “Excuse me gentlemen, God rest you Marry Gentleman; may nothing you dismay, but I have just been informed my mother-in-law is ill today; I have plenty of bills to pay, and that is all I’ll say. Good-day.” So Puck deserted the Hindus and their vanity and their courage and their hospitality and their interferences and went off with Shah of Pukhtunistan.

This is all very fine but after having met so many non-existence (a la Von Plotz) dervishes and Sufis, it is also glorious to meet a non-existent Pathan, and to have had a whole hour discussing Pukhtunistan and agreeing with each other like Alphonse and Gaston only more so. Every time Puck talked Shah saw divine wisdom and every time Shah talked Puck found human wisdom so Puck will never have another hour of peace on shipboard, Praise be to Allah.

We discussed the subject of freedom in Pukhtunistan and agreed that it means the same thing. The Pushtuns wish to be free and free to be free and don’t want any national boundaries, income taxes and policemen, that is all. Pukhtunistan Zindabad. And more later.

The Pukhtunistan Times

Abbottabad. Puck is home. This city is called “Up to Bad” which is a fit pronunciation. It looks just links Fairfax near White’s Hill in Marin County. When Puck arrived every store had a sign INN or IN, The INNS furnish food and sometimes lodgings. The INs remind one of UAR. There they say; “Fattah” which means literally “Enter.” Actually it means. “Come on sucker. Spiders have to eat flies. A fool and his money are soon parted but we take you both in. We take you in and we take your money too.”

Even the shop downstairs has its sign wINe.

This is being written before 9 o’clock. After that the local invasion starts. Puck likes those invasions. Mr. Qureshi called the other day. Mr. Qureshi is descended from the man who was Court Jeweler for Aurangzeb, the last very great Moghul. The Moghuls are gone, the Empire is gone, but jewels!

Now anybody that has gone to Von Plotz’ lectures knows that the jewels have disappeared or been swallowed like pearls in vinegar and all that. Far be it from Puck to dispute Von Plotz but after meeting Qureshi and having food with him he nearly had hand-burn—100,000 plunks of precious precious in stone minutes. Qureshi Sahib wants to market the jewels in California. He has already started.

Puck is all for helping his fellow-man and himself both. This time Puck was convinced he should help his fellow-man so he began writing letters to Conlon and Associates on Clay St. and to the S.F. Chamber of Commerce and to Prof. Park who is now in Ann Arber and who does not like Von Plotz either. Park came from Harvard where they never heard of “Oriental Philosophy” but teach what is going on.

Qureshi, not Puck, is dissatisfied. He wants more and more cooperation. And Puck out of love for his fellows is doing just that.

Of course the Moghul Jewels are not the only thing. Qureshi Sahib has lots of uncut stones and knows where there are all kinds of mines and even Uranium deposits in them ther’ hills and is going to show them to Puck. Puck has grudgingly added these assignments to his portfolio and admits he might as well try to help his fellow man all he can.

For desert Qureshi took Puck to Chisti Sahib. Puck is also Chisti Sahib. Chisti Sahib here is very unpopular. He denounced the Mullahs and the Mullahs denounced him and tried to mob him. There were only a hundred people in the mob and Chisti Sahib said the odds were too great—on his side. Unless they got a thousand people to mob him he refused to be mobbed. It was admitted they would not get a thousand people for all Muslims being brothers absolutely, there are so many sects here of people who don’t pray together that you can’t get a thousand people on any side. The mob got so angry at this they refused to martyr Chisti Sahib.

Chisti Sahib is now very happy and very uncomfortable. He is happy to have met a Chisti Sahib from America and he is uncomfortable because he did not ask for reinforcements and he is afraid that the mob will be dissolved before it gets another chance. Anyhow Chisti Sahib told Puck his future which looks very much like a fortune.

Lahore: When Puck was in Lahore he went out to see some old friends. He did not get far when he heard. “Puddinhead Puck-Samuel-Lewis-Ahmed Murad Chisti. Welcome. I have been waiting for you.” Thus Munshi Ahmed Bashir, and he told Puck his fortune which was the same thing. Now this will disconcert the inhumanists no end because they don’t believe such things possible. And maybe it is a conspiracy for Puck. But Puck is home and conspiracies must be for him here.

Politics. When Puck left the campaign was on: “We want no more elections. We demand plebiscites.” Now the campaign is on: “We want no more plebiscites, we demand elections and dictators.” Now all through Pukhtunistan they are having elections. Nobody knows exactly what an election is. But why not have dog-catchers where there are no dogs; traffic cops where there are no motor cars excepting an occasional jeep; tax collectors where nobody will pay. Every week there is a new election and people are running into booths.

Indian reaction. Nehru is disconcerted. He favors elections for people that cannot read and write. Thus the Congo, Andaman Islands, “Irian” (not a toothpaste), Terra del Fuego. There he is demanding elections. But Kashmir!! Are you trying to start another world war? That is an internal matter. Nehru never interferes in the internal affairs of any country excepting South Africa, Spain Viet Minh, Vietnam, So. Viet Minh, So. Vietnam and Taiwan. Otherwise he is for self-determination. The Latts, Lithuanians and Ukrainians being educated don’t need to vote. But this terrible exploitation of South Georgia has to stop.

Afghan reaction. In the hills.

The Afghans have come to free the Pushtuns from imperialistic domination and elections. They enter villages and grab everything and when there is objection say: “Have you forgotten your national morals? The Potlatch dinner and kindest to strangers.” They grab everything and head for the nearest mountain. That is as far as they can get.

The Pushtuns do not say a word. But go on with their quiet campaign of: “Let’s Get Rid of the Yetis, the abominable Snow Man.” So they wait in the passes for the Afghans returning toward home and just have open season for Yetis. It is great sport.

The Afghans have protested: We are not abominable Snow Men. The Pathans have answered: “We apologize. You are not Snow Men.”

In the valleys. The Afghans have invaded Mardan. Peshawar, Nowshera. This is called Tourism. La même chose, or something. But this is called Tourism.

Ayub Khan. There is another campaign: Death to dictators and Zindabad Ayub. They used to have elections here and everybody stayed home in protest; now they are campaigning for elections in Abbottabad. There have been no surveyors here and nobody knows (or cares) where Abbottabad belongs to Pukhtunistan, Pakistan, Moghulistan or India. The educated would like to return it to the British. Why not? Besides Ayub makes everybody sweep the streets.

Public Lectures. Puck is in for it. He has read his poetry. His pictures which were to go to Lahore were sent here. He will have to show them (slides). He is contacting Radio Pakistan. Everybody else is contacting him. Even Abdul Sattar is coming all the way from San Francisco to negotiate. Last night Puck was interrupted (Snafu): We are the family of Abdul Sattar. Come to dinner. (You get dinner at an INN. Or is it dINNer.) One thing you can be sure: Inn, inner, innermost, din, dinner, dinnermost. Or no dinner without din. Not Gunga Din. Just plan din. Always turn the radio on to drown out all other radios, protocol.

The Pukhtunistan Times

Ova Polis

Notice: Pat Han is standing in for Puck in America and sends in occasional reports.

Pat Han: Why are you so downcast your Eminence?

Cardinal Cushing: The Pope has sent me a sad letter. American tourists are not going to Rome.

Pat Han: Why not?

C.C. He says that they feel if they go that His Holiness is controlling the American government.

P.H. What has that to do with it?

C.C. It hasn’t but people believe it. So they stay at home or go elsewhere.

P.H. Have you discussed this with Cardinal Spellman?

C.C. Francis never thinks.

P.H. Don’t let that worry you. I have settled the case.

C.C. How?

P.H. I have written Congressmen Cohen and Goldstein to introduce a joint measure offering foreign aid to the Pope. If it were introduced by a Catholic it would be voted down. Now nobody dares oppose it on the grounds of prejudice and intolerance. Your days of worrying are over.

C.C. Foreign aid for His Holiness; why didn’t I think of it first.

- - - - - - - -

Azad Kashmir

Puck, addressing the crowd. “You have been advocating Azar Kashmir for 14 years and where and what has it gotten you. You are not permitted in India or in occupied Kashmir and you won’t let yourselves be 100% Moghuls until Kashmir is freed. You have been fourteen years at it and all you have is poverty and propaganda. Now listen to me:

“Azad Kashmir is no more. You have new Tourististan. Put up signs of welcome all over. Establish inns, dak bungalows, swimming holes, skiing courses in winter, mountain climbing in summer, shish kabob feasts, one luxury hotel—only one, private cabins and don’t ask questions about the occupants. Put in a few tennis courts. Have horseback riding and very special, nowhere else in the world yak riding. The people will come. Tourististan Zindabad. Your worries are over.”

Puck thinks he has lost the issue over the great sale of the repressed novel: “Lady Chatterji’s Lover.” It is going like wild fire all over India and Pakistan but Puck gets nothing out of it but glory, and hallelujah.

Pig sticking. The wild board is raiding farms and the people won’t eat it. So they are organizing witch hunts. They apply these to any minority group. Puck has written the Moghulistan government: “Why don’t you permit mobs to kill the boars. No one permitted to kill a bore until he has killed a boar. That will do it.

Smuggling is the chief industry in this part of the world. Profit is of no motive. It must be contraband. For ages this was done. Now there is a question of the division of the Pukhtunistan between Russia, China, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India. The more they meet to decide this the freer we are. But we allow smuggling in, not out and we have plenty of black markets. The question is not about smuggling but “how much can you get.” We refuse to buy and we are coy about selling. As written previously, we balance the budget by disposing of Gandhara art, real antiques, ageless and synthetic, all guaranteed.

The Thirty Thousand Feet Limit Special.

Lichtenstein and San Marino have endorsed the Pukhtunistan proposal for a 30,000 feet up boundary limit. The representative of the Chinese Democratic Republican Socialist Communism People’s Freedom Society protested.

“Al right, we make it 31,000 feet.”

“But.” “Fine, 32,000 feet.”

“That is imperialism.” “No, it is impy realism.”

Impy Realism Zindabad.

Telegram, just in. Andorra has endorsed the proposal and Tibet would like to but nobody knows what does on the snows.

Nehru has come out for plebiscites in Congo, Irian, South Georgia, Andaman Islands and Mao-Mao land; but he is against it for Kashmir, Pukhtunistan, Latvia, and Ukraine. This proves his firm belief in democracy, literacy and “I am always right” particularly the latter.

Puck Trapped Again. When the Congo agitation was at its height Puck established a center with a sign “Congo line—please enter here” and attracted thousands. On his return to Pukhtunistan the printer made a mistake, maybe accidently on purpose. Instead of a Congo Line he found a Tonga Line—all the king’s horses and all the king’s men waiting For Him.

Agricultural Show, UAR: The Americans are showing how to grow more corn per acre. The Germans are showing how to grow more shredded wheat per acre. The Chinese are showing how to make more organizations per acre.

The Red Star Vation diet is not attracting many friends.

Afghan Refugees in Pukhtunistan. Hordes of people are pouring over the border. The king wants everybody to work. Rumors of revolution. Puck put up the sign “Workistan” and the Afghans rushed over Peshwana way. The inn-keepers raised their prices. The Afghans said this was intolerance. “Sure, haven’t you been intolerant for centuries. You showed us how.” No answer.

Ismailism. Puck with visions of surplus $$$ and £££ is thinking of being converted: “There is no God but Allah, Mohammed is His Messenger and Aga Khan is not Pope.” There is one great point here—the Pope must have infallibility; the Aga must have infant-ability. Everybody goes to the Pope and pays. The Aga Khan calls and collects.

God. All Muslims agree that all other Muslims are back-sliders. All Protestants unite in protesting against the Pope and each other. The Pope, Allah bless him, only knows what he reads in the newspapers—how fortunate.

Spring. We are having apples in blossoms, plant trees in blossoms, flowers blooming and the sale of Puck’s Egyptian perfume begins promptly. He brought only five kinds but his host is a master of adult-eration. Puck has a bad pun: there are many cents in many scents. The perfume is neither free not sense-less.

Karachi. Puck entered this country incognito and got into trouble. He has had to report since to five police stations and to many consulates and make out all kinds of forms. If he had come in VIP as UAR this would not have happened. It is going to make some European authorities on Asia feel very bad.

Barker Sahib came from the University of California. He graduated with honors. This made him unfit for a teaching job in Cal. None of the Universities would have him. He had no credentials from Leiden, Heidelberg or Moscow. The whole Von Plotz clan united against him: Cal., Sanford, Pacific, KFPK, KQED, even U. of S.F. and S.F. College—all, all banded together. The idea of a graduate from an American University teaching Oriental subjects. Do we want to offend the Asians?

So Barker Sahib is in Lahore teaching the Muslims English and the English and Americans Urdu and not being kicked off the air or removed from universities and collecting good bak$hi$h. Why if this thing continues they won’t be mobbing the USIA libraries and such. Why deprive the people of fun?

Multan: Puck was escorted by an American to the tomb of Shams-i-Tabriz. There he looked at the Wali (guardian saint) and said: “I am going to teach you Sufism.” He went ahead while everybody—the American included—was agape. Puck talked. Then they all rose and embraced him. (This could not have happened in U.S. and maybe it can now.)

Lahore: Puck went to the Consulate at Lahore and told this to the staff of the USIS. They all asked him to explain Sufism to them. They ought to be fired. Imagining good American $$$ going to employees who are willing to learn about Asia from an American! Sic simper protocolis!

Punjabi University. It should not happen to a dog and didn’t. As soon as Puck invaded the Campus the whole Department of Islamics came out and embraced him. This is not news. Maybe what happens will become news and then the Laotian complex will be finished.

Insidious Propaganda. Puck visits the Ismailias in Karachi. He did not know much about the Ismailias:

There is no God but Allah, Mohammed is his messenger and Aga Khan is not a pope. Women are equal to men.

This is all but. He was given to understand that Aga Khan is not a Pope and he should keep on repeating this, all good Ismailias do.

Puck soliloquized out loud: The Americans may not accept Allah, but they might under duress accept Mohammad. As for Aga Khan, they already have accepted him. There is no question about that. Why don’t you start a Mosque in Hollywood? Dim visions of a grand conversion of movie actors to Islam and dim vision of a grant conversion of $$$ to Puck, and this matter will be taken up later. It was accepted at once. Besides in Ismailia Mosques women pray and they are regarded as equals to men. In Al Ashar they are not regarded at all. The Azharities believe in the equality of all men, all races, all colors and all money. Period. Finish. Women, dogs, donkeys and camels don’t count. Why Allah created them is a mystery. But the Ismailias don’t accept such mysteries, they just accept. And Puck is thinking of accepting. Sheikh Puck, Iman for Aga Khan, Men, Women and Horses!

Abbottabad. Puck is disconcerted. He was greeted by a Church father who is a Hollander. This is contrary to Protocol and Puck has written about it elsewhere. Besides all saints should be Italians or Spanish. Puck took this up with Qureshi. It was agreed:

All the Greatest Christian Saints were Spanish

All the Greatest Islamic Saints were Spanish

Why should anybody interfere? But if you repeat this you must be a Fascist. History has nothing to do with it. The trouble today is that everybody speaks English and so the Church Fathers are usually not Spanish or Italians here.

Map. Puck had a hard time locating a map. Each province had its own map and Pukhtunistan has no map. He got one at last. He insisted upon Pukhtunistan’s rights to the 30,000 feet limit. All planes and Afghans flying below that will be shot without notice.

Music. There is a grand change going on and especially in the INs, DINs and INNs. The radio and records show a transition music, missing up Indian, European, Cha-Cha, and Caucasus themes in a hodge podge. You can’t make head or tail of it and ‘swonderful.

Puck’s title may be changed from Ambassador Plenipotentiary to Ambassador Plentipotentiary. Puck will accept the change. He is a peaceful, or is it pieceful (?) man.

Writing: Puck is now under assignments from the newspapers here, Tourist bureau. Greenwich Village and San Rafael Journal Independent. The people here are learning about Greenwich Village and are shaving their beards. This gets the Mullahs angry and makes the barbers happy. But Puck has to arrange for lectures, tours and writing. He hopes more of it gets to Von Plotz & Co.

Diplomatic Complications. Consul General Satter is coming all the way from S.F. to meet Puck to negotiate. And Begum Selim Khan who used to be in S.F. has sent for Puck, diplomatic protocol and tea. So Puck will not be able to complete this issue.

Remember: It should not happen to a dog, and doesn’t.

P. Puck

March 29

My dear Jack:

I have much to report. This is also my diary entry because in the pressure of events I have kept up correspondence but not recorded my own affairs. I shall be typing on both sides of the paper unless otherwise noted.

Bank Reports. I did not get the reports. I must ask you to send the bank clearings by Air and I shall compensate you either with a check by return mail or otherwise as agreed. I have had two air-mail letters from the S.F. Bay region indicating that they took only six days in transit. This is marvelous considering that I am far off the beaten track and that there is no international airport near here. I have to make out some kind of Income Tax return and although I have until June 15, I may send a letter air-mail registered before that time to get on the right side. I borrowed money from the Bank so I could be using it and I have a fair surplus as of February 20 which is some time back. If you just send the one report from the Wells Fargo air-mail that would be a sufficient because I could then determine the deposit amount. Besides I must need that back signed. I intended and occasionally I may air-mail it to you because you would drop it in the box (no local postage required) and I could be sending you news at the same time.

Coins. I never asked you if you were interested in coins. I have been sending a few to friends and stamps to the other persons. Somewhere along the line I was given an old Roman coin. I have been saving it as a present to you. It is possible that before many months are over I may send a suitcase bag with some art things. I would declare the coin if I sent it. There is also the matter of uncut stones about which more below. I am going to Lahore the middle of next month and I shall take this manner of shipment up with the consulate. For if the coin entered without being declared and we took it to a numismatist there might be trouble.

I am not sending the coin along now for not only would there be registry but the following two events are in tow.

1. Pakistan is changing its monetary system. A lot of very cheap old coins are going out of existence. If you sent a dollar I could get so many of these that it would cost $$$ to send them so I have asked my friends not to send me money for this purpose. I might be getting a whole pile of these cheap coins. But if declared or otherwise they could later enter the U.S.

2. When I was in Taxila before I got a rare coin which I shipped to a friend. He never acknowledged it so I don’t know if he got it. This time I want to register any such coin and there is a 50-50 chance of getting more old coins. So I would keep these, the Roman coin, and the Pakistani tokens for a single shipment on some basis. If they are all kept for a suitcase shipment I could include in the suitcase a blank check either through you or direct to the Collector of Customs, S.F. to protect you and incidentally myself.

If this is not clear please let me know.

Mr. Qureshi, Uncut Stones. This is his profession. He has been collecting them and has told me there are mines in the hills here and I have heard other stories. I am going to try to collect some and others I may bring in my cases. These might not collect much money though same will go to jewelers and lapidaries. Let me know how much you are interested.

Mr. Qureshi, Cut Stones. He is descended from the Court Jeweler of the great Moghul Empire. It is said that the wealth of the Moghuls has disappeared and there are a lot of stories and legends. But it is no legend that I have seen scads of them with my own eyes. Every stone has been weighed, tested for “water”—that is light behavior, chemical formula and age. Not only that these tests have been recorded and notarized.

Qureshi Sahib has some negotiations on with a jeweler in L.A. whose location I know and whose shop I have seen. But I also had about $100,000 of stuff in my hands in a few moments. He has the largest and brightest Rubies I have ever seen and he said their value was $16,000 each. At his request I have written to Conlon and Associates. I did not overlook any bets (no pun) before leaving so when I come into any district there is no opportunity that I let slip by. Conlon & Associates are readying to invest in the development of Asian countries or in the promotion of international trade, both ways. I hope to see him again because.

Qureshi. Occultism. This must be divided into two parts. Through him I met a Chisti and there was mutual recognition. I am going to speak a good deal on Sufism here where there are no European professors to interfere; only people interested in Sufism and this includes a large segment of the American foreign office in Lahore. Chisti Sahib is a man of heart and he also went a little into my future although our meeting was short. He told me the same as did Munshi Ahmed Bashir at Lahore. I think I gave you that report but if I did not please let me know.

Qureshi has a friend, who is a medium who seems to be able to trace patterns of former incarnations in people. He wants me to meet this man and I hope to and will let you know more later.

Occultism Otherwise. I received a letter from the Assn. for Research & Enlightenment of Virginia Beach acknowledging my report but advising that Hugh Lynn Cayce was away. I then sent the report to Marjorie Hansen who had been in Egypt checking the Cayce records. So far as I could ascertain not only was Cayce correct but in the morning paper they found evidences of very, very ancient civilization in Libya. It is going to support the views I hold and perhaps also those who accept the Atlantean tradition. We won’t discuss that in letters, too much else.

But I told Marjorie I am against the Cayce Foundation and all others who restrict their researches. I get a flat refusal from some organizations that collect funds to promote occult research and many are so exclusive it is no wonder that they are rejected. In science you must be university or else.

Art Lectures. I ordered slides of UAR to be sent to the Department of Fine Arts, Lahore. By “mistake” they were sent here and I expect to be showing them in Abbottabad. I now have a letter from Lahore scheduling me about April 15. I shall try to arrange accordingly.

Rabbani Khan is an old friend of mine. He may be picking me up soon to go to Mansehra, the next town north. We have to discuss agriculture, Islamic philosophy and my cooperation in the establishment of a branch of the World Congress of Faiths in S.F. It will be the real thing and no phonies or Europeans without credentials.

Ansar Nasri is another old friend and a fellow Sufi. He is now director of Radio Pakistan at Rawalpindi. After my visit with Rabbani I shall go to Rawalpindi though this means a doubling and redoubling. I may be on the air and also through him may meet big shots.

Newspaper Writing. I am busy almost every day with contributions to the Civil & Military Gazette and the Pakistan Times, the English papers at Lahore. The former is world famous as being Kipling’s paper. I am also trying to send things to Bob Stice in New York.

Poetry. I read part of my “Saladin” at a public meeting for poets last week. Poetry is the most popular art and diversion in this part of the world and it has been so for a thousand years without a break.

Today I began another and different style—short versus, which I sent to my friend Margaret Albanese in San Rafael. These may go to New York for publication (requested of, not by me). I met another Californian, a Stanfordite here who teaches English and I shall probably bring him my verse this p.m.

Agriculture. I have written to the agricultural experimental station at Lyallpur for a meeting after April 3rd. I have to go through Lahore to reach there. I keep a map of Pakistan handy at all times.

Tourism. I have already submitted one paper on how to improve tourism and am ready for another. The airports are in the wrong places and I am urging their change because the capitol is being moved from Karachi (thank God) to nearer this region which has so many more attractions.

Bus travel is very cheap and is almost like Greyhound in its complications, many lines, etc. In out of the way places the bus stops for anybody anywhere. I expect to use bus lines to go to many parts in the next few months.

Science. I am writing first to the papers and next when I go to Rawalpindi so I can turn over my materials from UAR and also give them some of my experiences. Please note I am not the person who left S.F., nobody stands in my way though I can and do make mistakes. It is a great deal of difference from being found wrong and not being allowed to express oneself at all. The whole bunch of road blocks around S.F. on me is turning out to be a series of huge jokes and the persons involved will pay the piper sooner or later.

Prof. Barker is a Cal. graduate at Lahore teaching English to Urdu speaking people and Urdu to Americans. He had trouble with exactly the same people I did and has the same friends. I am taking his case to Congress and to my associates. It is about time we put the phonies in their places.

The Burmese mobbed the USIA library. Where in the U.S. have we asked a Burmese to explain about his country? We accept all kinds of traditions about them from others and then want to explain what wonderful people we are to them. But we don’t let them tell us how wonderful they are. What kind of psychology is this? I am quite willing to have people tell me how wonderful they are, and then get dinner and lecture invitations.

Lectures. The local college has invited me to speak on the relation of Islamic Philosophy to Contemporary Science. I have in mind the four subjects of Logic, Psychology, Physics and Botany. I have been able to discuss fragments of these with actual scientists I meet here. In these lectures I shall introduce some elements of American culture nobody else has brought here. I am sorry for Lloyd Morain and Don Hayakawa who live in private worlds. I offered to introduce their work here; I am too unimportant—sez you. So nothing has happened but with me either things happen or I seem to make them happen.

Begum Selim Khan is the widow of the first Consul-General from Pakistan to S.F. She has a lovely California style garden where she spends much of her time. The rest is devoted to teaching women about “guided democracy.” They had been kept down so much. Islam is the religion of the brotherhood of men—leaving women out.

Ismailism is a form of Islamic Religion not leaving women out. It is the sect headed by Aga Khan. As Puck I am telling the world I am a hypocrite and am going on Aga Khan’s payroll. I told the heads that if this form of Islam were introduced in Hollywood with the leadership of Aga Khan and equal rights for women it would sweep the movie colony. Hypocrites, but there’s $$$ in them thar Beverly Hills.

Money Résumé. At the moment you see this opportunity plus the precious stones above just might. Say, Jack, if the coins come in I had better hire you. You carry the luggage, cameras and purses and leave the rest to me!

Serious Writing. I learned that my god-daughter Dorothy is still pushing my stuff. But I am making so many contacts now and doors are opening so fast that I think sooner or later I shall be accepted seriously in the U.S.

Food. Mostly rice and curries here and I like them. There are two meatless days, and I eat fish and take curds, the latter every day anyhow. The meat is mostly chicken and mutton.

Cost of Living is impossible to estimate. Slightly over my head in Karachi, way over in Lahore, nothing in Multan and Rawalpindi and easy here. I am seeking a rebate under a new ruling especially as I have so far just offered my services. But after my free lecture at the Fine Arts Department it is possible that paid lecture will be coming up.

Abdul Sattar, the Consul-General of Pakistan, is coming here. This is one of my biggest breaks. We have been very close friends for a long, long time and he is becoming so important that Pres. Kennedy offered him an interview. I have been sending some stuff to Pakistani House on Pacific Ave.

American Friends of the Middle East have also been getting my reports. Their headquarters in Pakistan are in Lahore and I have written asking for an appointment.

General Evaluation. I seem to have anticipated everybody in what to offer this country and moreover have literature with me. I am next writing to Senator Engle in regard to getting on the Peace Commission that the President is advocating. I am doing, have already done and no doubt will do, not just say.

I have written to the City Hall and am now arousing friends against the European and other phonies. I don’t care if this lands in the law-courts. We have to know the truth about Asia as well as tell them the truth about ourselves. I have sent Gavin my last letter unless he begins to realize that I am both anxious and informed. I give informal talks here on Islamic Philosophy and the conclusion is that I know more about their religion than their preachers—which might be true without saying much.

Health has been generally good. Resuming playing ping-pong and hiking. Boys here play cricket which is more fun to watch than play. There are plenty of fields for hockey, football and basketball but so far empty when I visited them.

I may not write more now. I hope I have not made any error about the money, and will put in a tracer. As you can see everything seems to be going fine and there is a full program ahead, even taking me into little visited areas.


P.S. I am reading every Perry Mason book I can get hold of and there are lots of them here. Also some Peter Cheney.


March 30

Dear Joan and Harold:

With the failure to get replies from some people and with the accumulation of a few stamps I decided to write my diary entry to you. One cannot make enclosures in aerograms at least one of which will reach San Rafael before this for now the rehearsal is over and the show is about to begin. I may enclose some uncancelled stamps not purchased at the moment.

Coins. The country is passing through a change over to a duodecimal system and I am sending a few coins to two friends. In the collection thereof I have been given an old Roman coin which may be worth something and which will go to my former room-mater, John Betts, 772 Clementine St., S.F. I may run upon other old coins in the course of affairs.

I had my first conference today with Rabbani Khan, covering:

1. Agriculture and reforestation in this region.

2. Establishment of the World Congress of Faiths in California. He was long on the Board of Directors. Bishop Pike may become the leader there. The idea is to present the actual living religions as they are, by their own followers and not by carefully selected Europeans or others who have become the “authorities” and simply gotten by—while our USIA libraries are mobbed by people who are not permitted to present their living culture to us.

3. Semitic Archaeology. There is evidence that the Lost Tribes of Israel came to this region. I have the green light from Harvard (Prof. Cross of the “Dead Sea Scrolls”) to ask for a permit for the Dept. of Semitic Archaeology to work here. I am going further into this tomorrow.

4. A serious program of actual cultural exchange between this region and the U.S. without any more intervention of European and sometimes Hindu obscurantists.

Before seeing Rabbani I was closeted with the Principal of the local college. There I am now scheduled to give a series of talks on the religion of Islamic philosophy to modern science. Ultimately there were to be given at Aligarh U. in India but now first to the most important Punjabi U. In Lahore. They may also be given to the Islamia U. in Lahore for I recently met a U. C. grad, Dr. Barker. I know very well that some of my past seems very paranoic, but the fact is the Dr. Barker had the same difficulties with the same foreigners to whom we have given over the instruction on Near East Culture in the S.F. Bay region—Cal., Stanford, Pacific, and the radio and TV networks, to say the least. The only thing we have gained from this is the mobbing of our cultural missions abroad.

My next mission after seeing Rabbani Khan will be to go the Rawalpindi to meet a friend, Ansar Nasri, Radio Pakistan. This may become most important for he is just the person who can introduce me to the top level people. It is not the introductions which are difficult but the temporary capital is Rawalpindi and most of the offices are not listed and the officials are roving about.

I am at the moment writing to both the Pakistan Times and Civil Milatary Gazette of Lahore. I am now ready to disgorge my scientific and horticultural notes and papers which will lighten my burdens. I shall just keep the bibliography which Harry Nelson of S.F. got for me and will work on that further later on.

Part of my burdens are over. This city used to have its book-stalls owned by commies who earned their fare by selling American lurid literature and thus roused anti-American feelings at our expense. One does not see this awful stuff now. Indeed there are few American magazines outside of Dell publication—just Time, Life, and couple of movie magazines. On the contrary there is a multitude of paper backs from our country. The whole atmosphere is different with now an increased number of people using English—compulsory in all higher education.


April 1, 1961

My dear Horace:

I am going to reverse a habit and send my diary note to you and the copy to Harry for reasons contained in the subject matter of this letter.

The flowers are in bloom and they are the same as you have—pansies, daffodils, gaillardias, etc., etc. I have seen just two kinds of Irish here, one has a huge flower, brownish running into several pastel shades in the same bloom; and the deepest blue I have ever seen.

The trees are all at the Spring best. One sees various Prunus and Apples in blossom now. I am told that the Apples do not all set. There is very little pruning done and also the general soil looks acidic. There is a small Pome here which in size is like a very large olive. It is lacking in pectin and esters so though small is very, very far from a Crab.

I have been the guest of Judge Mohammad Rabbani Khan whom I visited before and who has been in San Francisco. At that time he was operating the largest successful farm in this area. But at the moment there is a movement called “guided democracy” and I went to meetings. I also saw him collect rents—he has one group of 50 stores which all pay him. He is very famous in Great Britain and around Boston but in this case he is also well known in his home.

The great tree here is the Chenar; I think that is the word, famous in Persian poetry and perhaps introduced here also with the Poplar. It functions more like a Maple having glorious colored leaves at this time. It makes one feel poetry. The Poplar is slow. There is a Cypress which looks more like a big Yew, columnar. It is planted all over.

In my former visit I found that Boxwood is a tree here and I notice that the Eucs, Platanus and all non-columnar trees seem to have huge trunks. I do not know what causes that. The local Pine which is the main natural tree, in its adult stage looks like P. longifolia of the Southwest. In its juvenile stage it is pyramidal like a “Christmas Tree.” As it grows it either fails to develop more branches or is self-pruning. When it becomes very tall it “umbrellas.” The Eucs. also “umbrella.” It is only in its “youth” that the pine looks “gawky.”

I have met a young Botanist who has offered to be my guide and identify more native plants.

The other night I was a guest of a doctor. I once wrote a poem that someday Poison Oak would be discovered to have medicinal properties. Well while waiting at the doctor’s house I noticed Rhus. Tox. and later was informed it is a specific for Angina Pectoris. I did have a book Medicinal Plants of India and Pakistan which I gave to the New York Horticultural Society. Now I am anxious to have more copies. Rhus. Tox indeed!

The chief crops are the grains. One sees Wheat, Rice and Oats. At the doctor’s I was told that most of his patients suffer from malnutrition. They don’t get enough vitamins. Well the “lawns” are filled with dandelions and I have seen only one or two old women go out and collect them. And the fields are filled with wild mustards—and the people suffer from lack of vitamins. I think I’ll tell them how to use the outside cabbage leaves, if they can’t afford more. There are “oodles” of cabbages on the market. Also turnips, spinach, oranges, carrots and things that look like cresses. They are here and not too popular. And they have no idea, as the people of Indonesia do, how to [?]. [?] College at Lyallpur for an appointment. I stay here for one week then go to ‘pindi, the temporary capital, for a conference and perhaps also to speak on the air and meet high officials.

At the meeting of a “guided democracy” village I told them that if I lived here I would suggest first a program of reforestation. And that’s just what they did. In Cairo Nasser put all the beggars out sweeping streets; here I would have them plant both fruit and timber trees on these hills which were once well forested. This idea is going out by grape-vine.

In this district erosion is the problem. The government has now ordered that goats be slaughtered instead of sheep. The goat has done considerable harm all over but the other animals have been “the goats.”

The reason I am writing for you is that there are all kinds of wealth in these hills. On coming this way I not only saw very red rocks, but reddish powdered grounds—and nobody touching them. I feel there are high iron ores below and perhaps manganese coming this way. I have since met two different men interested in collecting stones and ores and I understand there are both qualities of gems and uncut stones but many valuable minerals in this vicinity. I am going to find everything I can about them. Tomorrow I have a “hiking” engagement with one rock hound and he tells me he knows a lot.

My other informant has already gotten me on the job. His name is Qureshi and he says he is descended from the Jeweler of the rich Moghul Emperors. Well he showed me stones the value of which run into six figures and he has other treasures. The stones have already been tested for weight, “water,” purity and composition in a modern laboratory. He has been negotiating to sell them in L.A. but I have written my contacts in S.F. (Conlon & Associates) about the possibilities of a larger market and also for the mineral development of this region.

I have been told (unconfirmed) that both lead and uranium are present. I want to see these places, but other than Talc I have not yet handled specimens. Years ago I used to love to look at and feel rocks (then women, now flowers!! ?) I believe there is untold wealth here but the people have no enterprise. If half a dozen Americans came here they would be roaming the hills. Here you just find Missionaries (God help them) and teachers. Both here and at Lahore I met teachers from California, the ones here being San Franciscans! It was a surprise on both sides. They are “my kind” of people. The one at Lahore has identically the same friends and enemies (European “Orientalists” not recognized in Asia)…. I am going to stop here and add if I learn anything on the field trip for tomorrow.)

April 4, 1961

Dear Bill:

Despite the whimsy here this may be one of the most serious letters I have ever written you. It will compel me to review the booklet on how to study a language and at the moment is a pressure force for me to return to university and study some languages and economic botany. There are still two other possibilities—that of lecturing and writing and that of returning to the soil. The later depends upon a law-suit. I did not intend writing you but under pressure this came to me which I felt must be dedicated to you:

There are no industries in Indus,

There are no taxis in Taxila,

But it would be an awful thing indeed,

If you couldn’t find a man in Manila.

I have just sent Anca (or is it Anca) some serious verse. You may, of course, show her the above, but it is dedicated to you.

The next thing is a Puck experience. Instead of finding myself with two men, one trying to teach me Pashto and the other Urdu at the same time, I found myself with three, a third trying to teach me Punjabi. So I am wondering indeed if there were not divine wisdom in it.

You know darn well that I have had a whole series of battles. In these battles I have found a number of allies all sort of mixed up in this grand linguistic squabble. I was nearly thrown out of a meeting when I called out “I was there” before a huge audience addressed by Prof. Burdick of the “Ugly American” infamy. I now have the dope, I think, which is the coffin nail.

I objected to Burdick strongly because if what he said was right, “Asian Foundation” was a fraud. Maybe they are, but it is a dangerous confusion. A short time later my friend Prof. Park returned from India and said it was of no value to study Hindi if you went as a technical expert because the language changed every 50 miles. It was fine if you were a military man but you could never deal with the peasants thereby. And Park, unlike Burdick and Lederer, visited villages.

I was with my friend Rabbani Khan, the Pooh-Bah of the district to the north. I had already written: “Anybody that finishes a sentence in the same language that he began it will finish a sentence in jail.” Actually he took me to the law-court. An attorney here has to be acquainted with Islamic, Indian, British and Pakistani law; the end result is that each case is tried on its own merits. But the conversations they would have made, and—no, I’ll give it a name: Desperanto. You would despair if you had to translate conversations into any one tongue.

Abdul Sattar has been for a long time Consul-General of Pakistan in S.F. He is one of my best friends and is coming to Abbottabad which will be of greatest assistance to me. I am constantly approached by his brother-in-law, Khalid. Khalid told me after the “triplicate” situation above that every 10 miles here, even there is an idiomatic change. Now we run into complexities. I want to put all the cards on the table and perhaps I am asking for advice, perhaps making a suggestion.

The most complete book on Sufism that I had read years ago was A glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and North -West provinces by H.A. Rose. I shall take up the linguistics first and then the Sufism.

In going go Mansehra I was struck by the number of caps and turbans and my temporary conclusion is that these are tribal heritages. This has been a land of ceaseless invasions. As Puck, I am interested in getting one or two costumes, turbans in particular. But after the triplicate event I began to think and am thinking seriously of the work of Norman Browne at Pennsylvania and, of course, Rose. The Pathan words thrown at me seemed to be nearer the “original” Indo-Germanic. I think in previous years I sent you notes about Albanian. Sometimes the Pathan words were astonishingly like English; occasionally this was true of Punjabi. Thus three is tré in Punjabi, but tin in Urdu. Quantitatively I am unable to make a lot of notes now, being overwhelmed. At the same time, as I expect to be here for some months, it may be advisable to do so.

I am sending this by sea-mail. Your answer does not matter because in April I may be moving about. In May I have accepted tentatively invitations to other places.

Prof. Barker. I may have mentioned him before, grad. of U. C. who had the same troubles with the same people I did. He speaks Urdu with an obvious American accent. But Urdu is a “Yiddish’ or even “Latin” so everybody has an accent. It is a literary language fostered largely by Sufi poets, an excellent poetic language being forced on the multitude, though perhaps with their consent.

Prof. Connaught is from S.F. and Stanford. He also has the same views of my bêtes noires. He says that the best way to learn Urdu is in situ. He says that Pres. Kennedy’s peace plan will not work because training young people to learn a language as a means of communication and expecting them also to be experts in some field is impossible. It takes time to become an expert. On the other hand both of these men say it does not take more than two months to get a speaking acquaintance with Urdu.

But I personally am not interested in learning Urdu for this reason. As a Sufi yes, that is most important. But as a scientist I am becoming more and more curious about the Indo-Germanic heritage, and more excited and more interested. I came upon Max Fuller early in life and wanted to follow him and was initiated. On the other hand I have had my fortune told twice recently—by a clairvoyant and by a Sufi and they both insisted I was going to live a long time and re-visit this country, which I feel is true.

The immediate scientific and social successes all but throw me off balance. I do not run into inhabitations and frustrations. But success does not bring one any more wisdom than failure.

The removal of Prof. Bingham at Cal. has resulted in a most cordial contact with the whole South Asian Dept. I sent them reports. I was both told I spread myself out too much. But when you are in a village and there are few divisions. You “case” the village and you enjoy the village in accord with your willingness to be interested in everything. This has compelled me into two subjects”

Mineral resources. I think I wrote about Mr. Qureshi who has a large portion of the “lost” Moghul resources. He introduced me into native (in the geological sense) ores and gems here and this has been followed by a series of most cordial contacts with young men. It is a long subject and I won’t go into it.

Sufism. I’m constantly running into Chistis (a spiritual name) and Kadiris, i.e. Jilanis (a family name) and this despite all that the “authorities” in California teach; the opposite being true. It could, however, be a natural concomitant of Rose above mentioned, confirming him and having strong objective material for my views, again confirmed in situ. This is a very long, though delightful subject.

I have omitted my visit to the Ismailia Sect in Karachi. I went there because I dared not be intolerant, and my personal rejection of Aga Khanism is contrary to my general outlook. I found the staff all highly educated and they are giving an examination to missionaries. These missionaries must be equipped to explain religion in at least two languages one of which must be Arabic or Urdu. College graduates are preferred. They are also keen on the moral outlook.

I cannot tell you too much of the details of this Shia Sect. It is based on a genealogical Imamate. They rely much on philosophy also and of rather a high grade though one might never notice this in the behavior of some Agas. I think they feel very relieved by the present new youthful head.

The biggest thing about this sect, and the most important to me, is their recognition of women. Women are supposed to pray and study religion and are encouraged in it. I told them that this aspect of their faith plus the publicity given to the Agas Khan would easily result in a successful mission in the Hollywood area. No doubt this is not too serious a statement but knowing Hollywood as I do, I am pretty sure a lot of Americans would pour into any center they would establish. And they can get the money, only they use it cautiously.

Before I left Lahore I had found I had embarked on a wise adventure.

After I had filled out my forms for the American Consulate I refused a tonga looking for a short-cut. The tonga-wallahs try to take you by long routes and never know your destination. I had not gone far when I found myself before the building of the Department of Agriculture. There I met Mohammed Bakhari. It was another one of those wonderful meetings.

I went over the materials I have with me and agreed to see him before I go to Lyallpur. My visit to this region is well timed because there is a new Department of Agricultural Research at Lyallpur which I have never visited. According to Mr. Bakhari I had just those things which he is most interested in. I may go to the same hotel or have Mr. Idrees give me advice when I re-visit this section.

I stop at Rawalpindi to see Imam Minto who used to be in S.F. and talk over many things with him and then to Abbottabad. Thence I should visit the farm of Judge Rabbani, who is a big man in the world and another non enemy of the European “Orientalists.” Also to Jamshyd Khan whom I met at the Center in S.F. But Jamshyd Khan is going to America soon so I do not know whether I shall be seeing him. Abdul Rahman tells me his brother has invited us and there are now several serious things to discuss there as well as just paying a visit.

At the moment it is Spring. I never saw so many flowers blooming at once as at Lahore. It seems that about everything excepting Spring Bulbs were out, our own Spring, Summer and Fall flowers, all at once and others. I did not have time to call on Judge A.A. Shah, Supt. of Parks & Gardens, but that will no doubt come later, inshallah.

The biggest think that happened took place last night. I had agreed to stay over at the request of Prof. A. A. Siddiqui. He is not only one of the world authorities on Islamic Philosophy but is most proficient in English. Not only has he been by-passed but he vigorously dissents from all those people against whom I have been ‘belly-aching.”

April 4, 1961

My dear Jack:

This is my diary entry for day believe it or not. I have never thought of trying to convert you to Islam but if you are not a Muslim by the time you finish this report please tear up the check. I wish you would be sensible and remain a Muslim until you cash the check. Then you are free to revert or not.

I called on the Muslims today and we discussed religion. I said that the Muslim kids had little diversion. He felt that cricket was a great game for it gives every man an equal chance to bat, etc, I agreed. He said the Prophet was also a great one for sports. The clergy who say they are not clergy and are, are against any forms of freedom and they use the words “Qur’an” and “Hadith” without reading the books.

Well, the Prophet upon whom be peace and blessing, was a great sportsman and his favorite sport was that of kings and sultans and conquerors and wise men—to keep you in suspense, horse racing. Of course this is against “Islam”; everything is against “Islam” which puts the woman in prison and makes second class citizens of everybody excepting and so on. This was a new one on me that the Prophet liked horse racing. No one Aga Khan who is his chief descendant goes to the track and so on. He has the family records—even the genealogy of horses as well as of himself.

In fact I told his followers that they should build a Mosque in Hollywood with equal rights for woman and equal rites, too and Aga Khan and the whole movie colony and I guess the racing set too would be coming in.

Later in the day Chisti Sahib came in. He speaks no English but my friend Abdul Rahman walked in. I called on Chisti Sahib because I am also a Chisti. I may or may not be a saint but you will find my picture herein with a real saint, whatever a saint is. I gave him a lecture on his religion which he never thought a Kaffir unbelieving American dog-of-a-pig could possibly know. I could not give it in S.F., but I gave it at Multan and all these guys and others embraced me. I did not give it to the woman but the same thing might have happened.

Anyhow I now have a reputation of being a Chisti and consorting with saints. Chisti Sabib was not always a Chisti. He made his living by picking out winners on the track and it was a good living. Then he got converted to being a Chisti Sahib and the money came rolling in. It does not always happen that way. After he got religion he began buying and selling horses tee and running his own. Being a Sufi he had sort of prevision and, of course, was always in the chips.

You must understand in India it is legal for a Hindu to squeeze a Muslim Mleccha unbelieving pig-of-a-dog, but the other is forbidden in the land of justice, honesty, brotherhood and fudge. So when India got its “freedom” the majority of Hindus who got their livelihood by squeezing Muslims also lost it all at the track and Chisti Sabib was in the chips and how. So the honest, non-violent Hindus who never hurt cows, snakes, crows, flies, scorpions, cows, bulls, cows, water-buffalo and cows, said the rule did not apply to non-animals and said they were sorry for considering Chisti Sahib a pig-of-a-dog or dog-of-a-pig to whom they had to be kind, that he was a mere outcaste so they outcasted him and grabbed his home and money and everything but him and his family so he had to flee to Pakistan. How the Hindus can go back to their peaceful, non-violent life of squeezing Muslims without fear of losing it all at the races, so Chisti Sahib is here. But they do not have race-tracks here and the horses are used for pulling tongas.

This enlightening series of events made me humble indeed and I must, according to the dictates of real religion absolve you from having to beat on horses with Arab names, for God is no respecter of race and maybe even of sex. You are under no compulsion to lay it on the line for Nur-ed-din, Shah Jehan or Sonovabitch. (I think the last one is of Russian extraction anyhow.)

I have not yet cracked the code by which Chisti Sahib was successful but it I find more out will advice. I am now waiting for the family of Abdul Sattar. I was accused of giving bakshish to his brother-in-law. Maybe I did, maybe I didn’t but why should I give bakshish to a young man who insists his father is a millionaire as wants me to come and live with him sometime. When the family arrives I have to go the Rawalpindi where I shall be given the air on Radio Pakistan and visit the tomb of some more saints. I never thought before of asking the oracles who will win in the fifth of even in the first race, but it is an idea.

I am somewhat better now. Next I have to see Mr. Qureshi who has all those Moghul jewels I think I wrote you about and also the uncut stones and mineral deposits about which I wish to learn more. I am still under the Western delusion that “that’s gold in them thar’ hills” even though it may be minerals or gems or something that will help one garner rupees.

The idea that an American would take a pick and look is reprehensible. A Pakistani would take six outcastes or peasants and make them do that if they found anything it was his and if not, they get no wages. This is called “democracy.”

I will close now but if I think of anything or anything happens before posting (letters, not horses) will add.


Sheikh Ahmed Murad Chisti


Praise God from whom all blessings flow and you being the day

By drinking two or three good cups of wonderful Nescafe;

The hulls are green, the flowers out—geranium and viola.

A very wonderful place to be—you can’t get Coca-Cola.

Actually poetry-writing is a game here, rather complicated because words rhyme easily but there is a campaign on against delinquency. I wish they had more baseball here and other games than cricket, but season’s you know.

My expense account as gone way up. There is a bookstore here and it is stacked with Peter Cheney and Err-ul Stanley Gardner. I can keep away from horses and woman, but I have my weaknesses too. Anyhow I am using these as gifts—I find all the intelligentsia like them. Me too.

Abbottabad, Hazara, W. Pakistan

April 5, 1961

Dear Dan:

As I have not kept a continuous diary I send a group of notes from which you may select as you will:

Multan: The American Army Engineers were may hosts. They are doing an excellent job in sanitation, barracks and house building and pest-control. The fly—not starvation, not space-conquest, not communism—has been the bane of these people. My prediction, that as soon as the Russians come we would see to it that a program of pest-control was put into operation has proven correct. As soon as Russians appear we come down to earth and do these things for which we have capabilities.

Enclosed are two pictures of me with the Wali (guardian-saint) of the tomb of the strange mystic Shams-i-Tabriz. I was welcomed by these people and others and am the first foreigner to have given them a talk on their own philosophy and teachings. Penalty: they all embraced me.

Foreign Aid: Rumors go around that we compel people to take certain types of aid instead of asking them what they want, or need. To some extent this is true. On the other hand anti-American propaganda moves faster that gift-goods. The present one is that we send them inferior Wheat. This propaganda is passed by gossips and envious people who themselves need nothing and who have not always been instilled with the spirit of charity.

In the UAR nothing is said about “inferior wheat.” There the wheat’s most satisfactory, of course. As soon as it is landed the stevedores come and change the signs from “U.S.A.” to from “U.S.S.R” So that “wheat” is good!

Lahore is one of the most beautiful cities of the world. I have conferred with the Tourist Bureau on the matter of making Lahore rather than Karachi the site of the international airport. Fortunately some measures have already been started in that direction. It has the most beautiful buildings in Islam outside the Taj. It contains the most wonderful gardens and I have never seen more flowers in bloom at once. All our summer and autumn flowers already in bloom in March.

Abbottabad is like a misplaced Maria. I have visited Begum Selim Khan here, widow of the first consul-general from Pakistan to San Francisco. Her garden is so much like those around Ross, and she has made it deliberately so. She has a multitude of Iris and Daffodils. The Iris here are of two varieties, one a very deep blue, deeper than even our Wild Flags, and with longer stems. The other is the largest blossom of this species that I have ever seen, with petals of pastel browns.

The hills are a sort of cross between Marin and San Bernadino Counties with the western Himalayas in the background.

Basic Democracy. There is a movement toward a real Asian type of democracy. The village is being organized on the same basis as that of ancient Aryans, plus some features that look like New England town meetings. Begum Khan has taken the leadership with the women to instill a political consciousness on them.

I visited a place called Khwaja Gan as a guest to one of these meetings. It is also the junction of territories where Pathan is spoken in one direction, Swati in another, Punjabi in a third and Urdu in the fourth. They are learning a common national patriotism and they are delighted with it.

Pukhtunistan. There has been a great deal of propaganda on this subject and the Afghans and Indians have been accused of fomenting it. I have met many, many Pathans and they are all strong for Pakistan. The reforms of Ayub interest and excite them. Besides that there is a rush toward education that is tremendous. There are many, many Pathans in the college here; and of course, those at Peshawar are filled with them.

The general tendency is for Pathans to attend the colleges and universities here and for the Urdu-speaking elite to go Germany, England or America.

American Institutions are encouraging these movements. I have had only tentative talks with the representatives of Asian Foundation and the American Friends of the Middle East. But already a stream of young men have come to me.

American Professors Here. I have met two, both from the S.F. Bay area. They are very popular. Like myself, they have found their ways blocked by the European “experts” on the Orient which cluster especially in California. It is a totally false and untenable policy to employ Europeans for our so-called information about Asia. The Asians would like to speak for themselves; or else have Americans do this. We cannot and will not win the hearts of peoples with whom we do not deal directly.

Parker in Lahore and Connaught here are nobodies in the S.F. Bay region and are very popular in these parts. They mingle with the people. They learn from experience what Burdick (“The Ugly American”) could not know. For every district has its private dialect or series of dialects. We shall have to choose between actually going to villages and writing editorials on the subject.

Those Americans who have gone to villages have all been ambassadors of goodwill and those editors and commentators, some of whom we esteem greatly, fail because there is no wisdom without humility. By mingling with humanity and learning from them we support the best American propaganda.

Disappearance of Communism. General Ayub has cleaned up the country. Gone are the lurid magazines, gone are the whispering campaigns. The book-stalls do not have much American non-fiction but what is there is clean, like “Time.” They do have a considerable degree of American fiction and our favorite, Earl Stanley Gardener, is the favorite here.

Law Courts. This is a very complicated subjects because at the moment there is a cross-current of Hindu, Islamic, British and contemporary Pakistani law, complicated by the poly-lingual district. The tendency is to settle each case on its merits so far as possible and the unwritten law is very powerful at the moment.

The attorneys who are not busy are given a reading room and most of them are reading “Perry Mason.”

(Interruption at this point, resuming concerning topics of interviews.)

Pakistani Culture: It is a curious thing that we do not deal directly with this ally of ours. We either classify it as an “Islamic Country” and place Islamic culture under the tutelage of Europeans and Zionists, or we called it a “South Asian Country” and add to the Europeans Hindus, omitting the Zionists. What kind of logic, what kind of psychology this is I do not know but it is the almost.

universal policy with our press and universities. On top of that the American press and magazines have a most confusing hodge-podge of non-geography in regard to the recent visits of Queen Elizabeth.

Moghul Culture has been very wide-spread and is the dominant factor in most Indian arts, a subject that many Indians, whom we welcome in the U.S. by-pass, so we remain in ignorance thereof. Some of the greatest characters in history are totally ignored.

Moghul Wealth. The Moghul Emperors were once the richest rulers on earth. Many books teach that this wealth has disappeared. It has not disappeared. I have seen goodly portions of it and am getting very factual information as to the location of much more. I hope to inform the Department of South Asian Studies, University of California in Berkeley; and Conlon & Associates on Clay St. in San Francisco about such matters.

Natural Resources. In this very California-like country I am not only sure there is much mineral wealth here, but I am getting data on the subject and have been invited by several people to visit mines. In the country to the north which I have also visited, it is more Colorado-like in structure. I am going also to try to get as much objective information.

People. There is only one book, Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North West Frontier Province by H.A. Rose which made a detailed study of this country and its peoples. An American studying in American universities, under non-American, non-Asians, was turned down so many times in efforts to review this book for class work, that it was abandoned.

This country is full of dervishes. They are coming to my aid. They are leaders in politics, education and community development despite all the misinformation on the subjects we swallow from our non-Asian, non-American “experts.”

Pukhtunistan and Russia. There is always another Laos or Czecho-Slovakia or VietMinh in the making. American reports have been turned aside by the press who then criticize the State Department. My records have been accepted by the Foreign Service here. I have met many Pathans and everyone is from Pakistan. The universities are crowded with Pathan students; many of the Urdu-speaking youths go to Europe or Great Britain or the United States for instruction.

The Pushtun leaders have been subsidized by Afghanistan. They have not been very successful and one, the leader, has gone to Soviet Russia. The Russians are encouraging a very reactionary region in Afghanistan but you can be pretty sure when it is overthrown it will be by a “Castro-Junta” to our dismay. We have treaties with Pakistan in S.E. Asia and here. We have treaties. The people have in many instances asked me whether it would not be better to “trust” Russia whom they can honestly mistrust than the United States which never seems to be with them in crises. One can almost say that someday the corrupt government in Afghanistan will be overthrown and we shall have another Czech-Slovakia or Viet-Minh, etc. I hope you will take this seriously. I am tired of predicting the mobbing of USIA libraries only to find them happening or in the last instance to see them happening.


Samuel L. Lewis


April 6

My dear Horace:

I am reversing a procedure and sending you my diary notes with copy to Harry because there will be more concern with the Mineral than the Vegetable Kingdom. I have tried three times to write but like Emerson’s inventor of a mouse trap, the world is beating a path to my door and there are constant interruptions. My problem today is that while things are not going wrong, too many things are coming right.

When I first met you I had three groups of enemies, which can be called (a) Personal, (b) Yaleites, (c) European professors of Oriental Philosophy called EPOOP for short. The chief personal enemy was a woman who did everything possible to destroy me and in the past few years my affairs have compelled me to become friends of her husband’s associates. They lauded me several times in public and right in front of her and I met her husband in Cairo to his surprise and that is over.

The Yaleites gave me a bad time. When my father died he left a will saying that because neither my brother nor I had offspring the bulk of the estate was to go to one of four institutions – three hospitals and the fourth the University of California. I called there and had a most miserable time with a Yaleite who ended, “You are wasting your time and mine.” I thought afterwards that I was not wasting my time and look with negative satisfaction that U. C. was cut out of the will.

Prof. Wild of Harvard at an international gathering called down the Yaleites by name in their presence and made no bones about it. When I returned in 1957 I found that the Yaleites had been removed or demoted on the Berkeley campus and the whole of the South Asian field and others were in the hands of Harvard Professors. When I reached Cambridge I got the brief announcement: “We want to know everything that you know that we do not.” I left there with the right to ask for a permit from the Pakistani Govt. to do research on the Lost Tribes of Israel—this for Prof. Cross of “Dead Sea Scrolls” fame; this also from various departments connected with the Orient. I met in UAR several graduates from Harvard and there was complete understanding—objectivity in research.

When I reached Lahore I met Prof. Barker, a graduate student from Cal. He was an honor student until he began seeking a job and then the whole gang of EPOOPS from Cal, Stanford, Pacific and their radio stations ganged up on him. He and Prof. Connaught from San Francisco and Stanford who is here in Abbottabad, greatly praise the Fulbright Foundation which opens up jobs for Americans only in the Oriental field. Our colleges are filled with Europeans who misinform us about Asia and cause resentment. This is a long story. When we get to have Americans and Asians meeting face to face we shall win the international conflict. The selection of Harvard professors, admired in Asia, though not always in the press, is viewed with complete satisfaction and I feel at the moment that all my previous “grief” is gone and only encouragement ahead provided I can hold the pieces together.

A couple of weeks ago B.A. Qureshi sought me out. He had four interests: (a) Psychic Research which need not concern us, besides nothing has been done in my presence: (b) Sufism into which we need not go excepting to say this is of great help to me socially and now financially; (c) Minerals, ores, uncut stones, into which I shall go presently; (d) the Moghul treasures, perhaps the most exciting and E. Phillips Oppenheim episode in the midst of a lot of E. Phillips Oppenheim episodes.

Abbottabad is in a sort of saddle or more rightly a rift valley. The water drains in three directions. It looks like a piece of Marin with San Luis Obispo and San Bernardino elements added. The western end of the Himalayas is in the background with still some snow. The weather is quite Marinesque. The trees and flowers are quite similar. The Chenar is now in full foliage and one can understand why the Persians were so crazy about it. It is P. orientalis, but its russet color and palmate leaves make it look almost like a Maple. However it has a very strong trunk and not so strong branches. This tendency for strong trunks also appears in the Pine and Eucalyptus here, but the E. globulus, or variety has much larger bows and tends to “umbrella.” So does the Pine in its adult stage. In fact all conifers seem to have very distinct youthful and adult behaviors.

At breakfast I found Vinca, Freesias and Calendulas on the table. I wrote somewhere a poem about the presence of the flowers, these and the viola; the fact you can get good coffee, but not a sign of coca-cola. They give you the tin and a pint of hot water, for about ten cents. You would like that—but it is Nescafé. They can get Maxwell House from army stores.

Yesterday I went hill climbing and last night Arif Khan called on me. His Father is a professional mineralogist. Apparently he and Qureshi hardly know each other but I have been invited to go hill climbing and look at ores and late last night Khan senior asked for a meeting after I return from Rawalpindi.

My experiences in UAR plus the policy of the economic geologists there is that if land is not fit for agriculture, why not tackle it as a basis of minerals. I wrote at great length about sands, clays, refractory materials. As I have told people the great difference between U.S.A. and their countries was that our first president was a surveyor, and that we have been great on surveying and geology. So we know something about our country. The British made no geological surveys to any amount and they throw countries into freedom without any idea of their internal resources.

Coming up this way I saw huge deposits of red rocks and a few places reddish friable soil. I have never been to Minnesota but it looked similar to the pictures I have seen. Qureshi told me that there is another such deposit on the hills toward the northeast. I have not been able to go over the Khan material other than Talc which is here in profusion and they also have a marble quarrel. Qureshi has been more interested in cut stones. I am going to try to get a complete picture before long on this. I am always excited by stones. I have been told there are lead and uranium deposits too.

North of here are Himalayas and just beyond that the conflux of these and the Karakorum and Hindu Kursh mountains, very high, explored more for Ova Polis and mountain climbing and not for minerals. I may or may not add to this before conclusion.

Moghul Wealth. Introduction. One of my wars against the people has been the absolute conclusions they have offered us—and if you don’t except you get kicked out or flunked and I am not fooling.

When I reached Cairo the hero was Prof. Creswell who proved that all his predecessors were wrong concerning Islamic Architecture—and they were, too. The there are the pyramids. I tell you, Horace, most books are hokum. Every few years there is the absolute finality that the “last” has been discovered. Well they found more king’s tombs when I was there and every few weeks another pyramid. I told Prof. G. Hughes, head researcher for the American, thank God, Oriental Society, that I did not believe 10% of the ruins had been uncovered. He agreed—well, there have been revolutionary discoveries since then.

The tremendous rigor we use in petroleum analysis or in soil chemistry has not been applied in archeology, anthropology, etc., until very recently. And scientists do not lean on names, they lean on facts. But the EPOOPs are different. I got elected in the Royal Asiatic Society by pulling the rug from under their feet and it is going to be pulled more. The evidence of Jewish and Greek remains here is tremendous and little is done.

Qureshi is descended from the Court Jeweler of Emperor Aurangzeb who made the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Rockefellers small town…indeed whatever the Nizam inherited came in part from this source. The Qureshi family has kept a complete account of genealogy, history and gem
records. And despite the EPOOPs I have seen about a million dollars worth of stones, beginning with Rubies that knocked my eyes out.

Qureshi kept a record of all family stones—they have been weighed and tested by the most modern methods. He has to go to England soon where he has a consignment not sold. One Harry Winston of New York offered a huge price which the bank of England turned down and he is going to sell those stones or take them away. He has offered double the commission to his British agents but they want to keep them in England. Even the Queen is involved.

He has been making some inquiries with a Los Angeles firm and on top of that the deal would be handled by the Habib-Bank of America connections. It just happens that I have put unwittingly put my money in those banks without knowing that they were associated and once worked for Russell Smith who was the top man in this field and today is a very good friend.

I have written to Condon & Associates on Clay Street, carbon to James Wilson, Foreign Trade Section, C. of C. on this matter for Qureshi tells me has or has access to more wealth than the L.A. firm can handle. (I have long since been a Jew in religion but you can't stop the nose—I did not overlook anything before I left.) And I have not yet written to Gump's either and that may be coming.

Qureshi has also kept in touch with the families of all former nobles of the Moghul Empire. When that ended in 1857 the persons scattered but kept in touch with each other. He is willing and perhaps he is already acting as agent for them and so can release a horde of wealth which the
EPOOPs insist is no more.

On top to that, and I don’t know how, Qureshi has a lot of relics from the Gandhara and before that the actual Greek times—including a gold inlay of "Alec-the-Greek" which is by itself worth into six figures. I don’t know much about the Greek skills but my knowledge of Oriental art does not help much here, but I shall take this up with the Americans in Lahore when I get there.

The American foreign office service in Lahore previously and now, have been my best advisors. They are dead set against the EPOOPs and previously advised me even to go to court—which I may. For our strange blind acceptance of personalities, and these not graduates of American universities either, is the best ally of Russia in this field. It is incomprehensible why our newsmen and many of our universities simply do not trust Americans and do trust strangers—to the fury of Orientals in all parts.

Qureshi wants to see me and I him as often as possible before he leaves for England and I expect to stay here until he returns. he has arranged for a bungalow for me.

I have again been a guest of M. Rabbani who visited me in S.F. and which I visited in 1956. I had a strange encounter in London—which ended by my being embraced in public by Lady
Ravensdale who is now a member of the House of Lords in her own right. Well Rabbani and Lady R. are close friends and associates and he is taking me to Rawalpindi shortly for a conference.

Rabbani took me many miles north. We passed a village called "Khaki" and I was told that that is where we got the English word. We arrived at a village called Khwaja Can and I saw what they are doing in what they call B. D. or Basic Democracy. It is sort of cross between the ancient Indian Panchayat and the New England town meeting. It is self-determination with a vengeance. I told a few of them, that it was not my business to comment but that what I thought they needed was tree-planting. I got it right back. At their first meeting I was told that all the simple villagers who, strange to say, were allowed to talk, came out for tree-planting. It was carried with enthusiasm.

Now I am interested because I have been telling the folks here that with tree-planting and mining the whole district could be prosperous. In India and Japan they stick Apples in the ground wherever they can grow and Conifers where Apples cannot. They have a Pome here which is like a very large Olive but has little pectin and practically no esters so its taste is far, far away from the Crab. The Apples are in flower but I am told many do not fruit. There is no pruning done.

Mrs. Salim Khan, widow of the first Consul-General of Pakistan to S.F. is here and her place looks just like a Marin garden But she told me she is now going to introduce fruits. There are a few Prunus species here too. I have not re-visited Rabbani's place but will undoubtedly later.

There are no small fruits here but Strawberries are certainly indicated. The parks here resemble those of S.F. more than any I have seen. I reported this previously to Harry. There are now other San Franciscans here and I expect Andul Satter soon. He was for a long time Consul-General of Pakistan to S.F. and is one of the best friends I have in the world. It just seems that now life is so much for me as it used to be against me.

At Rawalpindi I shall meet another friend, Ansar Nasri, who is director of radio. This can lead to anything; I have to be prepared for all sorts of things. The government is crying about the saline and water-logged soil problems but the papers have not published my articles, or else I missed the editions. I have just the right literature in my portfolio but I shall make every effort to see top
officials. At the moment everything looks very good, but sometimes too much. I am also preparing to lecture at the college.

There is probably lots more, but I have run out of energy and soon will be going for a hike.




April 7

My dear Chingwah:

You may remember that we agreed that more spirituality might be transferred through commercialism than all the intellectual exhortations and metaphysics. The wheel of karma turns and it is one of the ironic patterns that lecture-wallahs are about the last persons to recognize it. Nicholas Roerich claimed to be a messiah and when tragedy struck he cried: “How could it happen to me!”

I am not here going to relate what is going on in the necessary rewriting of the history and more particularly the art-history and archaeology of all the countries I have been visiting because of the nonsense of what I am now calling the EPOOPS, European Professors of Oriental Philosophy. When next I go to Ellora and Arjanta I am going to write down a statistical report of the caves, nationality and data. I am telling people it is no wonder the Burmese attack our cultural centers—where in the U.S. have the Burmese been permitted to present their own case.

At the moment I have the ego-satisfaction of finding that the efforts of communist infiltration observed in situ, that is in place, were reported by the Manchester Guardian the same day I wrote to Chet Huntley. The details were all the same and my objection to the John Birch Society is that in looking for communists under the sofa they don’t see those sitting in the chairs.

I had to write Rudolph a letter a few days back. I am in a position to collect both materials and data; I am not in position to be refused and so I am preparing to send things to Hollywood rather than S.F. or was until a bunch of doors opened all at once.

When I returned to Lahore from this district a few years back I was attacked in public by a German professor of Oriental Philosophy who was representing the universities of his country, Great Britain and the U.S. He had credentials all over the place; he did not have knowledge. Within a week I was a hero and the overtones of that alone have me on a most busy schedule—outside my basic program.

I met some merchants there who promised to sell me things under the counter. When I called at Faletti’s I had the unusual experience of a Munshi—who had read my fortune before, coming out into the court and calling from a distance: “Hello, Samuel L. Lewis, Ahmed Murad Chisti. Welcome, I have been waiting for you.” This is not the first experience of this sort I have had. Anyhow the Munshi took so much of my time I had no chance to interview the merchants. I should be going to Lahore again about the end of the month.

In the meanwhile all my efforts have been well received and after mailing this I go to Rawalpindi to be the guest of Radio Pakistan and perhaps more. I have gone through the bazaars here and all I have located in Abbottabad are silverwork and silk things. I shall undoubtedly buy some of the latter but until I go to Peshawar, will not go into other things.

Into my life have come B.D. Qureshi and the Khan Brothers. They are independently interested in mineralogy, uncut stones, ores, etc. When I return from Rawalpindi I have an important meeting with the Khans who are going to start a ceramic factory here. This will be a story in itself which I shall not tell now, but report later, inshallah as they say here.

Before leaving San Francisco I had talks with Conlon & Associates on Clay St., James Wilson of the C. of C. and Martin Rosenblatt. This has been most fortunate, for B. D. Qureshi here has placed in my hands the possible marketing of a good bit of Moghul Wealth. Now it is one thing for the Epoops and Chaudhuri or even Coomaraswamy to give emotional exhortations as the basis for Hindu and other art and also to exclude Moghul Culture—which undoubtedly was the greatest of this region and many another region. And it is another thing to come forward with actual pieces of that art and furthermore, introduce them into commerce.

The American Academy of Asian Studies did a good job in interesting people in the Orient and an awful job in trying to explain that Orient; and in particular, that basis of dogmatism: “We Hindus are not dogmatic.” So help me God and Allah.

I have written to Martin, to Conlon and next to the Bank of America, for Qureshi is leaving for England soon and has granted me permission to act as his correspondent and secretary in his absence. I cannot, of course, predict any direct negotiations. I shall also take this up with the American Consulate at Lahore where I have found much cordiality.

Incidentally there are two other Sam Lewises here—Barker at Lahore, graduated from U. C. and Connaught here, from S.F. and Stanford. They were snubbed by the Epoops and are the best ambassadors of peace I know—not Washington symbols but the real thing. Bringing Asians and Americans together without intermediaries will straighten out many a dilemma.

Meanwhile I am learning a good deal about ancient Jewish and Greek culture here. It is time to consult the natives and not the professors from Leiden, Oxford or “Beer Hall.” Furthermore I expect to find some things. I have been given tips on Swat (descended from the Greeks) and Pathans (supposedly from the Lost Tribes). But I hope to go further since I am also getting tips on art relics.

My hope has been to get at least one Gandhara object for you from Swat but we shall see. I have also had a cordial letter from my friend, Phra Sumangalo at Penang. That is a long way off.

You will understand I love Rudolph, but I am not going to be belittled by exudation of emotions over professors from afar. That demi-god Jüng praised Koestler who abolished Mrs. Suzuki and Dr. Radhakrishnan. This ought to awaken us about all these Europeans who know much about Europe.

I saw that mob in Cairo attacking the Belgian and American Embassies. How many Egyptians have we in the U.S. teaching us about the culture of the Near East? How many Pakistanis have we talking about their culture? Here we have Indus valley, “Lost Tribes,” Greeks, Gandharas and two sorts of Islamic Culture—all subverted. No wonder the Pakistanis don’t understand us.

Anyhow we come back to business. Never mind the exhortations. Let the facts and the arti-facts speak for themselves. If there is anything I can do for you please let me know.

Cordially, Samuel L. Lewis

Rawalpindi, Pakistan

April 9, 1961

World Affairs Council of Northern California

421 Powell St.

San Francisco, Calif.

Dear Friends:

In re: The EPOOP, or European Professors of Oriental Philosophy

Today one of the newspaper leads was the ban on an Epoop book. One can well understand that. In America, or rather in the universities, the chances are that the Epoop book would be required reading. In California, in particular this is so, with a sort of cynical attitude toward books by Americans on the Orient, the same books being admired in actual Asia.

In the past 24 hours I have met about 100 persons. I am at the present moment the guest of Radio Pakistan. Last week I visited a meeting of the B.D. or Basic Democracy. It was presided over by a Sufi. The Epoops in California unanimously deny there are any important Sufis today, or if so, they are not in politics. You cannot dispute with them or you will be in serious trouble. I am going to run down the story of Prof. Barker in Lahore more, for it substantiates what I have been saying.

The manager of Radio Pakistan is a Sufi. My former host in East Pakistan, a retired general, lives in Rawalpindi, he is also a Sufi. He told me there are many Sufis in high places here. The late Ahmed Bokhari spoke to a large crowd in S.F. in 1957 but the Epoops ignored him, they had to. If Pakistan is classified as an Islamic nation, the “authorities” are Epoops or Zionists. If it is classified as a South Asian Nation, the Zionists are displaced by Hindus. No wonder Russian grapevine propaganda is successful. Lies are spread but the absence in the United States of general cultural interchange is something we cannot overcome by conferences or lofty editorials. These things never reach the masses. Subtle whisperings do.

I told my friend Ansar Nasri, Director of Radio Pakistan, that I found at least six cultures here, exclusive of Indian influences: Indus Valley, Hebrew, Greek, Gandhara, Afghan and Moghul, although I did not consider the list complete. At Harvard they accepted my verbal reports, no questions were asked, merely facts and substantiations. In California with the exception of Dick Parks and his successors it was quite another story.

Pakistan is large enough and populated enough to be given equal treatment with Italy and superior, let us say, to Sweden or Spain. We never think of that. Urdu is a cultural language with an immense literature, hardly touched. Back of Iqbal there is a whole procession of geniuses.

Circumstances in life have directed me to become interested in Moghul Art treasures and natural mineral wealth. I am following that up because all the matters have been put in my hands. Since writing Conlon I have also written to Gump’s (Martin Rosenblatt) and the Bank of America. If we can’t have cultural exchange we at least can have commercial exchange. These facts of life are going to speak out so loud that our universities will be compelled to accept them. I am very much opposed to have any non-Asian teach Asian subjects unless he has had a degree of a proper Asian university or the approval of the country in question.

Unfortunately in the case of Pakistani and its related culture, the top American—who has received Federal backing, has refused to accept papers dealing with the deeper aspects of this subject and has insisted, and quite falsely, that he does not find Muslims and Pakistanis with a good knowledge of English. We are now considering before Congress a Federal appropriation for a school of Asian studies, and if Moore gets his fingers in and appoints his Epoop friends, we might as well resign.

In the case of Pukhtunistan I recently wrote Chet Huntley a detailed report of my direct experience. But the day I mailed it the Manchester Guardian published its review and at least, although far from a scoop, I was right on every point. Up to the Kennedy Administration it has either been exceedingly difficult for an American to send in warnings, excepting to our Foreign Service who still bare the false stigma of “Ugly Americanism.” Now the Foreign Service not only receives reports from its Nationals, but they are permitted to screen these reports and send in suggestions. The Foreign Service knows what is going on and this includes the Epoops too.

I remember the time there was an Iqbal celebration in S.F. As I had corresponded with Iqbal, in a sense, am his poetic disciple. I asked to speak. “We would like to have you on the program, but we don’t want to offend the Asians.” An Epoop was one of the principal speakers. “I am very glad to have this opportunity to address you on the greatest of Asia’s poets, Rabindranath Tagore.” This man still gives our degrees on Asian subjects. He is, to say the least, not very popular in Pakistan or for that matter, Asia. Not a single Epoop is recognized in Asia, only in the U.S.

Prof. Connaught from San Francisco who also lives in Abbottabad has recently sent letters to the Chronicle. He bet me they would not be published. The Americans who see history being made, often, do not stand in with the press. But I have been here about 30 hours, have had one interview after another, addressed an audience on Islamic Culture in the U.S., am having my poetry reviewed and am promised interviews with all the top officials on each and every one of the projects which I have brought: saline soils, desert soils, salt water conversion, desert agriculture, culture exchange … and finally an interview with either the President or his Secretary. I am not ready for the last—indeed I left my introductions in Abbottabad, but this is in line with my previous relations with Pakistani officials. I had a sendoff in East Pakistan equal in every way to my being permitted to see the Royal Cemetery, etc. in Japan. (Mr. Nichols was present when Prime Minister Kishi greeted me. I seem to have friends all over and I want to use those friendships to help my country, not my ego.)

If any big interviews come to pass I shall airmail the San Rafael Journal Independent and ask them to distribute copies. I am writing as if optimistic because there is a tremendous program before me—more, far more than I can handle. I shall try to screen this program when I reach Lahore with the American Friends of the Middle East and Asia Foundation. I have been in places in each country either not visited by research workers or obtain data not yet included in authorized texts. The temptation now is to return to the University of California to work for a special degree, but there are so many opportunities before me I cannot even be sure of clarity. And if there is an opportunity now to represent Pakistan I may accept, but wish this cleared first.

Sincerely, Samuel L. Lewis

April 12, 1961

My dear Harry:

As I have told you before and will no doubt tell you again I am the damnest piece of “Fools for Luck” you ever saw. I always stumble into the right places without knowing where I am going. This is the temporary capital. The new capital will be Islamabad, nine miles to the North. In the meanwhile the governmental offices are scattered here and there, there are no maps of any kind and districts spring up like mushrooms. The busses are very cheap but not always direct.

I wanted to go to the Mining Office. Because in Abbottabad where I live there are all kinds of mines which I hope to meet and I wanted some sort of geological and mineral reports. So got a taxi. The taxi-driver, the tonga-wallah, etc., must know to drive. They don’t have to know anything elsa but “Yes” Sir and “Get in.” In some places you have to have faith in God or Allah, preferably both with a few more names thrown in to be sure you will get out alive. In Pakistan your body is perfectly safe, you know you won’t get killed. That is all you know. You may start out from a know position and that is it. You don’t get into the wild blue yonder, you just go into the wild yonder.

Well yesterday the wild yonder was the Agricultural Experimental Station. Fortunately I was shown how to get a bus back. Well there I was in the middle of a huge station and when I finally found a building a man come along and he was the man in charge of records and information. In a little while I was with Mr. Pirzada, the director. We had about two hours conversation but it was agreed that it was only a preliminary effort.

They are interested in Sugar, Strawberries, Corn, Cotton, and Mr. Pirzada is the chief Floriculturist of Pakistan. I hope to see him later and go into details. The Strawberry is a new crop. It has been planted successfully in the mountain regions and they are trying it on the plane here, elevation 1500 feet. The young plants are vigorous. They are hilled and irrigated. They have not yet fertilized and I wanted them about the Himalaya method of putting a lot of Ammosulphate and getting beautiful dark green shrubs! They put on P fertilizer separately.

I told them about F. veluntina and P. lyonii—there I go again. We discussed reforestation which will be go into from time to time. They have done experimental work on lawns but do not know about traffic grasses. The trouble is that they lump the grasses for landscaping, athletic fields and fodder, etc. and are too new in this to separate each kind out. I may go into this further later one.

My host here is Ansar Nasri, director of Radio Pakistan, whom I visit daily. On the next block is the Soil Conservation Center. There I met Mr. Riaz and we agreed that I would help him look into materials on Erosion. I started a latter to Karachi but it is unfinished. This, I think is the biggest problem next o saline soils.

Then there is General Ayub National Park. “My dear chap, you can’t go in there.” “My dear chap, I have just come from there. “Same story, but a new chapter. They use lots of pots and the big blossom at the moment is the Clarkia, which grows quite tall and branched. I saw a greenish Gazania. Sweet Peas here grow tall and straight though strings are also need. Whether it is the type, feeding or what, they stand up. This would seem to indicate K in the soil and at the Research Center nothing was said about Potash being needed.

There are all kinds of pots but I could not take notes-Cinerarias, Calendulas (which here tend to be simple and yellow), Pansies, Roses, Freesias, and Hollyhocks. I shall try to look around later, Mr. Nasri has introduced me to Secretary Shahab with whom I have had two conferences and tomorrow morning, inshallah, I am to meet President Ayub Khan in person. Say, isn’t there some mistake? How did I get in here? How! I would like to know myself; any suggestions?

Brevity is the soil of wit and I guess I am the most witness man there is. How did I get into this company?


April 15

My dear Mr. Everts:

I am enclosing a copy of a letter written to my home city although I have serious doubts of its being published or even reviewed. I have been meeting people here in such large quantities I cannot absorb all their names or positions. But I am being called into counsel on matters which are of grave importance to Pakistanis, and to us not important at all. I think I told you that one “myth” which absolutely stands in the way of friendships abroad is that about religion. We won’t touch it. But not only do we not touch it we turn it over to non-American, non-Asians and think it is overlooked.

There is the great (to the local people) question of Islamic Culture in the U.S. They want cultural exchange (Russia has granted them that) and they want also to have teachers in the U.S. on Islam.

We can’t touch religion, oh no! We have the Mosque in Washington; we have the Canadian-American Muslim League. That takes care of everything! Have you ever read their publication: Some of the best simple explanations of Qur’an and Islam I have ever come upon. And some of the nicest most sedate articles about the virtues of “Anti-Imperialism.”

Sheikh Shaltout of Al-Azhar not only lectures on Islam, he also speaks on anti-imperialism. He does not spread “Islam,” he waits until heterodox teachers go from Pakistan and then he “corrects” the teaching. The “heterodox” Pakistanis are all strongly anti-communist. The “orthodox” Aharites are “anti-imperialists,” behind the scene, they supported the mobbing of our embassy in Cairo—I was there, and they have not protested against the treatment of Muslims in UAR or China, or even India.

You never saw Sheikh Shaltout go to Russia. We don’t hear of him sending Imams to Russia. He sends Imams to the U.S. They are thoroughly clear in UAR. They are cleared of all kinds of things, but not of “anti-imperialism.” So we are going to find the U.S. encouraging “anti-imperialist” Islam and rather shun the Pakistanis, heterodox or orthodox. Then we will get rid of some of the “Epoop” control, but we shall be the laughing stock of Asia. We don’t know the religions, we don’t really study them as they are, and we do not support our friends.

I won’t go so far as to say that Imams, etc. from UAR are going to be subservient to Russia. But I do say that Imams from Pakistan will be friendly to us and all the Pakistanis I have met are strongly anti-Russian, especially the “fanatics” who are all over the place.

I have met multitudes of Sufis (whose existence is denied in the U.S.) and I have met multitudes of heterodox Muslims who want to do missionary work and whatever their brand of Islam, they are our friends.

You can see why I am so anxious to work with “The World Congress of Faiths’ which is totally non-political and which permits each faith to be presented by its own speakers. The United States started this at the World Columbia Exposition in Chicago in 1893, inviting all religions to send their representative and explain them. End of paragraph. End of subject, or maybe the beginning and the revival of a very American method—I hope so.

Sincerely, Samuel L. Lewis

My dear Florie:

It is morning, April 16 and, as, I have said, I hope to meet the Pir-o-Murshid and other Sufis today. I continued in Burckhardt which gives some idea of Sufi “philosophy” but not much of operative Sufism. The idea of utilizing love as a means of communication remains an idea. Sufism has been identified with Bhakti. In the Bhakti I have witnessed outside of Ramdas there is an ecstatical relation with what one calls “God” in some form which is nothing but transcendental infatuation. It brings ecstasy but not breadth of outlook or being. Real love is a universal communication which runs in all directions. In the spider-web each ring is connected not only with the center but with each other. Thus the love and brotherhood go together.

The other form of teaching comes from effacement before the teacher. The teacher is real and living. I have read a lot of books about spiritual teachers and the books as such, are generally true, but the writers often have no capacity for surrender. This is not abolition of self. In the prayers one puts his head to the ground and raises it up. In discipleship there is something of the same thing. In the mystical side of breath there is the same thing but none of the professors who ever taught at the Academy know this. Some of the Swamis know it and therefore I am still compelled to place Ramakrishna and even the Vedanta Society way beyond the empty-intellectualism of the professor, especially those who have their so-called knowledge from books and not from lives of persons or even their own lives.

Last night, after finishing what I had written to you, two young men came in. The father of one of them works for radio Pakistan and he is also a Sufi disciple. The young men and his friend have been troubled at the seeming dichotomy between traditional religious instruction and modern scientific instruction. I had no trouble answering their dilemmas. Actually there is not much difference between the scientific outlook and the spiritual outlook. As the world stands the metaphysician has gotten in between the scientist and mystic in the West add has sent up clouds of effluvia and fog. In Egypt it was not so and here even less. The egocentric metaphysical outlook is not strong excepting where the German and Greek cultures came in. These cultures are better than the Jewish culture in being broad, but they lack devotion entirely and their “god” is a mental abstraction, not the center of worship. On the other hand, the Jews, while worshipping, have turned this into an egocentricity. Being egocentric they symbolically “crucify” Jesus who is the opposite spirit, that of surrender and universality. But the teaching of Moses was one of surrender and universality which he tried, in vain, to impose upon the Israelites.

Burckhardt is well aware of that and also of the verbal side of hidden teaching and the hidden side of verbal teachings. That is why I shall send you this book—and some others, after reading. I have not many books here to send, so may do a little purchasing because there is no use sending a small package and less use in me carrying dead weight. I think I’ll do this even if I do duplicate purchasing in Lahore. If you ever get to Rawalpindi I must recommend the London Book store.

I think I have a formula for the reconciliation of the different types of imams and missionaries above sect. I have won same awkward debates on this point, but most people are looking for solutions, rather than debates—how to present a common front in foreign lands. Gradually I must name Louis G., even officially, to show the harm he has done, perhaps more unconsciously than by intention. The question still remains whether Islamic studies will come under the Congress of faiths, under a Cultural Centre of under Imams. It will not come under the formula adopted in San Francisco, and which has not borne fruit. There will have to be surrender. It is inane to stick to the word “Islam” and show no surrender and little lillah.

This is a prediction and not a warning. The world today needs religion without emotionalism, rhetoric, veiled self-praise, veiled or open ancestor-praise, real non-racialism, real non-class distinction, and in the West, equal right between men and women in learning, if not teaching.

April 20

Dear Jack:

I started to pun: Spays, God from whom all blessings flow. It was a thumper. Soon my roof was bombarded by hailstones and I am land-locked. There was a tiny creek below this bungalow. There was. Not now. The kids are out taking their baths. They just put on soap and shorts and out they go. But, that was before the hail. I am starting this letter as part of my diary. I have not been writing regularly, too much. I have been having doors open for me all over but at Rawalpindi they opened faster. I did not see the President but I have been in “The White House” and he approves of everything I am doing. His secretary does not like some of the people to whom I have been exposed and who stood in my way. It is incomprehensible to Asians why we import Europeans and Canadians to teach their culture. They can’t understand why we don’t employ our own Americans, and they cannot understand why, if we have so much money and have not good Americans, we don’t employ them. I have been harping about this and the Big Shots in every country I have visited have been harping about it and now I am yelling louder. There is a new staff in Lahore but they are most sympathetic. All my belly-aching is getting support.

I called on Prof. Connaught yesterday, he is from S.F. He is happy over the Fulbright Foundation which offers jobs in Asia to Americans. They can’t get jobs in the U.S. because Europeans have these jobs but Europeans cannot get on the Fulbright scholarships. They have a lot of say. We have been bombarding the President’s “Peace Corps.” They are going to take kids from college and these kids are going out and teaching sewing and masonry and carpentry and brick-laying to Africans. And the Russians will then take some Americans and give them college degrees and send them home to teach sewing and masonry and carpentry and brick-laying. How long will the Americans last?

Somehow or other I get by wherever I go, and I meet other Americans who are very popular but not in the press at home. There have been famous Americans in Asia—I don’t mean Chester Bowles and they did unusual things and became popular but they did not do it the “American Way” which is nothing but the Russian Way in reverse English. Dr. Gardner Murphy went around asking people what they wanted and they told him and that made him popular but not “at home.” I ask people questions and the easiest way to become popular here is to drink tea and associate with them. So I drink tea and associate with everybody.

I had to get a padlock because the Muslims are the most moral people in the world and they even trust each other every Friday between 2 and 4 in the afternoon, they are so superior! Next I have to get some rugs. I bought a Pakistani Umbrella and nobody knew what a Pakistani Umbrella was until I showed them—you stick the hook in the back of your neck when it is not raining and walk free!

The next thing you must do here is to pretend to be religious. It is more important to pretend than to be religious which is very fortunate. The result is that most people are either ignorant or hypocrites and they don’t know it. I met a bunch of boys who said they were atheists and challenged me. Instead of getting angry I patted them all on the back, which was not what they expected. Anything for a laugh.

Did I tell you what happened when somebody put a Pathan cap on my head and said, “Now you are a Pathan.” “Pathan nothing. I am Puck of Pukhtunistan.” That is the same thing but now it is out so I am Sam Lewis between 6 A.M. and 12:30, Ahmed Murad between 12:30 and 5 and after that Puck. I am waiting for my friend Abdul Sattar from S.F. Now the noise is more, thunder and lightning in addition to hail. I think I shall have to send a packet of my letters home for files. I also visited a silversmith and will try to get a package off to Sausalito. I shall hold this open when there is something to write about.

Dear Bill:

This is my diary entry for April 22. You will excuse the red ink for both ribbons and paper are hard to get here. I am way behind both in my entries and everything else but I have a very serious report to make, so serious I am mentioning names. For I am near a powder keg, only today the Foreign Service listens to us little Americans who have experiences. While President Kennedy is dreaming in the skies of a “Peace Corps” there are a lot of Americans going around doing things, much more mature personalities and admired in Asia. And my position has been greatly strengthened at a time it did not particularly need strengthening by California colleagues here, who have been stuck in the same mire, for the same inane nonsense which has reacted in the destruction or attacks on USIA libraries. We do not have two-way cultural exchange and instead of meeting Asians face to face, we have self-appointed “Professors of Oriental Philosophy” (like Northrup) or Europeans greatly admired in California above all, but in general through the United States, not one of whom is recognized in Asia.

International Art as a Conveyor of World Peace.

You know I was mixed up in the Roerich complexities and wrote a minority report saying that art would have become a means to world peace and understanding unless the artists themselves were the leaders. He accepted the goodwill of every politician and international gangster and in the end lost everything. His personal losses may or may not have been important, but he started something which has continued: personnel as the nexus of world peace through the arts, so it becomes individual persons, rather than movements, which become the center of the stage.

There are two kinds of persons—those filled with self-esteem and those recognized abroad. My friend, Emil Fairchild, got the same deal in California as I did, went to India and was recognized all over. He has remained there. I do not know whether I shall meet him or not, but psychologically the story is the same.

You have in San Francisco the Baptistes and I am inclined to believe that some of Walter’s claims will be laughed at, at home. This is the usual, but they will not be laughed at in India. He was recognized by the Indian authorities before I left S.F. and a lot of other people who have been paraded around as “authorities” on India, were not recognized—indeed cannot be recognized.

It has been very hard to make my California friends believe that I have been behind the scenes, that I have associated with and talked with the biggest people in Asia, usually as an equal and I know what the score is. I have half a dozen projects, all approved in person by General Ayub Khan, in fact the last of them was suggested by him in “The White House” while I was there. As former Consul-General Abdul Sattar will be in Abbottabad shortly, I wish to take up these things with him, but before that I may have accomplished at least three of my missions here, inshallah. I shall stick to Art.

Ansar Nasri, Director of Radio Pakistan at Rawalpindi and soon to be the Chief of Broadcasting in this country is a very close friend of mine. He introduced me to Q.U. Shahab who is not only the top intellectual, but the Secretary to President Ayub, a cultured Sherman Adams, so to speak, but in an official position. Even before we were introduced he threw at me that same firecracker which I had in UAR and especially from Prof. S.C. Chatterji, Haridas’ mentor—“When are we going to get rid of Non-American, Non-Asian professors of “Oriental Philosophy?” This has been done ad nauseum. But inasmuch as it includes the whole subject of Pakistan Culture and these in turn include a multitude of art and art forms, for the sake of my diary record I am detailing them here.

1. The first culture here was that of Indus Valley. I do not wish to talk about it here. I have been told by Mr. Sattar’s father-in-law that he wants to take me on a tour and this would bring me so close to Harappa I should be visiting the place and will report there.

2. There are two forms of Iranian culture at least and I do not know enough about them. In Multan we had the grand “tile” architecture. If I find my pictures I shall enclose them, but will have to get more anyhow. This shows some of the detailed art work but it is a personal picture. Incidentally the men with me there are saints and they listened to me speak on subjects from which I was barred by all the “authorities” in the S.F. Bay region—no more.

The other was merged into the landscape gardening and finally in the Moghul culture of which more below.

3. The next was the Hebrew culture. There is no mystery about what happened to the “Lost Tribes” of Israel but there is a mystery why we don’t do field work on the subject. Fortunately I have the OK from Prof. Cross of Harvard of “Dead Sea Scrolls” fame. Taxila, despite all the “experts” who have never visited the place, is full of Persian, Greek and Hebrew (or rather Aramaic) elements, far, far more than Buddhist, and even these Buddhist things are not Indian.

4. Greek-Gandharv. The story here is that the Swatis are their descendents. I have seen examples of both pure Greek and Gandharv things. It is my dream that I can obtain a piece or two for San Francisco though in what capacity, I do not know. As I have the OK from top officials this is possible. In any event I am on close terms with the very top Buddhists elsewhere, none of whom are “officially” recognized in our schools, outside of Harvard, etc.

5. Turk-Afghan. This was a “strong” manly architecture and I suppose it developed in forts. Its highest achievement was the Ktub Minar in Delhi. It did not necessarily fuse into the next step.

6. Moghul Art. This is the grandest thing in all Asia. The so-called “American Academy of Asian studies” refused any paper on this subject. There are elements in India who are denying the importance of this art. The Sri Aurobindo School has a single book on the subject and Sri Aurobindo’s writings are not only valueless but positively detrimental if one wants to study Asian Art objectively and use the arts as means of bringing peoples together.

There is not one art in all India and Pakistan which did not stem directly or indirectly from Emperor Akbar and only one man who ever taught at the Academy took note of the fact.

7. Indian Art comes out strongest in the Folk-Craft. The weakness of this art was and still is, till the last few years, the caste system. No matter what anybody says, it is contemporary art, not politicians, not philosophers, not orators, which has rescued the craftsmen here from the caste shadow.

I had two such revolutionary experiences in Rawalpindi that I am all but ill, for the opposite reason that persons usually get ill. Secretary Shahab accepted every single one of my projects and then, with General Ayub’s approval added one more. The most personal of these was my poetry and that was demanded on the spot, in his home. I had to copy one section immediately for translation into Urdu. It is being published piece-meal in East Pakistan but I have discovered an extra copy which will be taken to Rawalpindi by me on my next visit. I am accepted at the top level as a successor to Iqbal. Fortunately for me, Admiral Evenson of the American Friends of the Middle East “discovered me” through my poetry; I know it will live. I have tried to evaluate myself objectively and have not been wrong, so far.

I have written to the School already about my experiences in Lahore, wither I shall go shortly to lecture on “Islamic Art” in UAR. These things will not be repeated.

At Rawalpindi—as elsewhere—I was introduced to a fellow Sufi who operates a hotel at moderate prices. Right next to the hotel is the Folk Art exhibit and I have looked over the things. I have written Martin Rosenblatt on other things—chiefly about the Moghul Treasures which have been placed at my doorstep, but I am almost in a quandary about what I saw. I cannot, at the present time, put out more than a certain amount of my money for “gifts” or “exhibitions,” and at the same time I can even less afford to let the opportunities go.

My visits in India showed a lot of wares not on the market, but now my friend Channon has some of them. I do not wish to send him anything from Pakistan until I talk things over with Sattar, for political and other reasons. The best things would be to cajole the Government into letting me have some “samples.”

Skipping all other things, I saw the most unusual leather-ware, and sculpture in Salt and Gypsum which “knocked my eye out.” The leather-ware comes from the Multan District and as Abdul Sattar’s father-in-law has invited me to that district later I may want to look into it is detail. The son (Abdul Sattar’s brother-in-law, was partly instrumental for my quarters here, the other host being Mr. Qureshi who has the Moghul treasures).

The Salt and Gypsum things amazed me so much I do not know what to say. The reaction was exactly the same as my childhood one to alabaster and my later one to Jade. As soon as my income tax is paid (I have until June 15), I shall have a surplus of funds—unless the unforeseen happens—which I might use. Or if I can make the arrangement that my friend, Robert Clifton made, that any moneys due him be paid in art goods I shall do just that.

This situation has, however, been made a little complex. Mr. Qureshi here wants to market some of the Moghul Wealth in S.F. He has a deal in Los Angeles and I have suggested consigning the gems or part of them to the Bank of America, just as some now are in the joint hands of the Bank of England and National Bank of Pakistan in London. I have not had replies from S.F. and if I do not, I may become a sort of commission agent and work with an importer. This will take time but it would throw a lot of things into one basket.

The Salt and Gypsum things come from Peshawar which is the center of many folk-arts which must be visited by me later, perhaps twice, at least.

Then not only my friend Qureshi, but the Khan Brothers of this town are interested in mines. There are all kinds mines, real and potential here. The most operative are Tale but I am looking for details. The most interesting, to me, will be the use of ores in Ceramics and I understand there is a start of this industry not far away. This also means that I hope to integrate many of these elements together.

The outlooks which I have had are shared in common with my juniors. Just as Teucer duce, I have caught the drift of modern art trends, so the whole age seems to be coming closer to views I hold previously, to outlooks wherein I was in the minority. Some of these things were psychological, no doubt. My scientific training has made me become hard in the matter of fact-finding and very careful to see that theories do not overlook facts. My bugbear, “The European Professor of Oriental Philosophy” has reached its reductio ad abaurdum when Koestler, with the blessing of Jung, abolished Dr. Radhakrishnan. The Foreign Service knows this; the Schools did not when I left the U.S. Now may be we shall be willing to look at Asia as it is. I think I wrote that; when I visit India next I shall take numerical notes of the contribution of each culture at the caves. Etc.

End of diary note.

April 25, 1961

My dear Barry:

Life goes along humdrum, which means that part of the time it is humming and part of the time it is drumming and I am never silent—thank God, for I guess I threw everything into this journey and I can’t say there have been no results.

There are beautiful hills around here and I am getting constant confirmations of their being treasures therein. I am acting part time as secretary to one Mr. B.D. Qureshi of this city who claims to have some of the Moghul wealth and I am making copy lists of his materials. He is trying to market the things in England, New York and California. The list I have here runs into six figures and there is a bare chance, if he does not dispose of them in the other places I may run around California. Anyhow I know people in L.A. and S.F. so I am not bothered.

Qureshi also knows about mineral deposits and that of China Clay particularly interests me. I hope he will either take me or show me how to get there. I understand there is at least one mountain of it of high grade.

I also go hill climbing with Arif Khan whose family have invested in mines, etc. and are starting, I am told, both a soap factory and ceramic factory therefrom. I shall learn everything I can.

Well Arif took me past the Forestry College. It used to be down on the flat near where I live. The Administration has gone to Peshawar but this campus has been moved high up and I guess they are just training the former students till they complete the training. Anyhow as I wandered into the place I ran into Dr. Abdul Hamid Khan, U. C. Berkley, 1948. It seems I am always running into something like that. We hit it right off.

He gave me two pamphlets which I have mailed. I know. There does not seem to be universal postal legislations; each town has a different system within itself; the codes are all in English and you never know what weight system (they’d also have a “wait” system) they have. On top of that the small coins and stamps being transferred over to a duodecimal system (I think I’ll enclose some of the old samples which may soon disappear) and that makes it complex, for one system is based on a combination of 12ths and 16ths and the other 10s and portions of 100. It costs far more to calculate than to waste the coins.

The booklet on Acacias interested me very much, but it is evident through my actual life I have had more experience with different kinds of Acacias then they have. One never stops to think of such things.

Today I paid a real visit and met also the assistant botanist and the Chief Ecologist. We were together about one hour and a half and it is agreed that I am to copy the tree list from “California Desert Agriculture” and also look through the bulletins on trees of the Southwest (needed for West Pakistan) and Swamp areas (needed mostly for East Pakistan). There is no question that the problem of water-logging is next after dry climates.

During the course of conversation they gave me my leads in Lahore where I might unload my literature on these subjects and also find out what they want next. Evidently Dr. Fireman did not come here but one of his assistants did. I shall follow this up, no doubt, before the end of the month. I now have a load of things for Lahore—lectures, conferences, what not, anyhow.

They knew a little about F. velutina here but not much. They are more acquainted with Eucs, especially E. globulus but have never used it for drainage purposes. I am again reminded about the Euc. Conference in Rome but I never did get hold of any final report on it. I have seen many of them now in many places and they behave and function rather differently in different environments.

They don’t know about T. distichum here at all. Evidently I was fortunate to have lived in the Carolina swamps. Sometime it might pay me to visit that area and look it over in view of my accumulated knowledge of the past few years, especially.

I guess I shall also add to my conference subjects with you that of visiting the nursery in Saratoga or nearby which has the Calif. natives. By the time I get home I think I shall have Horace and you to a Smorgasbord to satisfy your appetites and give us a long session. Anyhow the food here is so different.

I also want to ask Dr. Hamid Khan about the training he received from Cal. While this stands out in my mind I am also aware of the lawsuit in which my close friends are involved which could lead me to some nursery work. I had a fortune teller me I would land both, splitting the year. We shall see.

I occupy a room in a hostel near the college. I went to the graduation and was asked to speak to the Junior Science Club. I thought I might tell a little about the science training at City College. Of course this will be confined to biological and chemical courses, but the systems used and the fact that they also training for lab technicians should interest the boys.

Abdul Sattar, long time Consul-General at S.F. arrives soon. He is one of my best friends. His brother-in-law goes to the college here and wants to take further work in one of the colleges or universities at S.F. Fortunately both Asia Foundation and the American Friends of the Middle East have offices at Lahore.

It is very beautiful now, gets warm in the middle of the day but not in my room and there is a pleasant balcony outside where I can also type or eat.


Samuel L. Lewis


April 25, 1961

World Affairs Council

San Francisco, Calif.

Dear Friends:

At the moment World Affairs are very much my affairs. I am enclosing a copy of letter to the Second Secretary of the Embassy at Karachi. When I visited Lahore in 1956 the Consul-General confided in me and begged me to go on several errands without mentioning his name or the source of my projects and information. Every one of his proposals were turned down flat. It has been awkward to have the strange mixed reactions to the same experiences by the three classes of persons referred to in the letter, but this was almost too much for me. You can understand then why I took so much umbrage at “The Ugly America.” The guilty classes were blaming the innocent for the “crimes.”

The new psychological policies of this administration have been wonderful. All that is necessary to treat Americans as if voting, responsible citizens. It is as simple as that. The newspaper man would have any precedence in his being in the witness-box before a jury. Indeed the actual witnesses would be given more credence. As it is that simple idea I am working for—not sending our college graduates into fields, especially where their fellow-Americans have preceded them. Some European governments require all returning citizens to tell them of the land visited. On the whole this has not been our case and not only our case but just the opposite.

My play-game about “Pukhtunistan” has brought me nothing but refreshing and delightful experiences and reactions. People like to be considered as if you were one of them and they one of you. It does not need much insight for that. It is only the idle here who heeded the Russian space-experiments. Their concerns are “bread and God.” I give them bread and that could be half the battle, but often as not we take “God” from them.

Yesterday I learned of a work “The Two Qur’ans.” You see, my friends, there are two religions everywhere. One is the religion of books and apologists, the other is practice. Westermarck’s Ritual and Belief in Morocco has never been duplicated. I find the world of Islam most interesting, full of wonder, magnificence and superstition. We have the Christianity of Bible, creeds and Eastern hats and the trouble is identifying them with one another. Outside this identification I doubt whether one can logically justify criticisms. Folk-ways are folk-ways or folk-mores; actually no hypocrisy or ill-will is intended. But if we continue to regard as “Islam” just the book or lectures given us, and often screened, we shall understand nothing. The best school for Islam that I know of in the U.S. is the Hartford Seminary for training visionaries. They have to know what they are dealing with and they learn. But as a nation we are so afraid to discuss religion, and that is where the Russians are taking every advantage and will take every advantage of us.

The grand exception is Harvard and wherever Harvard professors have gone—as in the Department of South Asia Studies in Berkeley—you find objectivity and sound scientific approaches. That is all we need.

I do not get much news from America—only “Time” but I have no time to study. I may apply for the reports from our Consulate in Lahore. I guess today I am even stronger for our foreign service than for my own projects or protests. There are plenty of alive personalities, and thank God, we have our share of them in and from America.

Samuel L. Lewis

April 26, 1961

My dear Jack:

Last night I received a telegram which I consider an emblem of good-luck. It is from one of my former pals who, because of our separate meanderings, have lost touch with one another. I am going to Lahore again at the end of the week, stopping at Rawalpindi, the capitol. It may be very hard for one at a distance to understand what is happening in my life because I, who am in the midst of continual adventures, do not always understand things myself. Part of it is no doubt due to what the Hindus call “karma,” which is now “good.” But from the Buddhist and Sufi point of view it is the harvesting of life and some of this harvesting has been favorable.

The Buddhist explanation is better because while it also teaches that we reap accordingly as we sow, it is not always through the same persons. I started out early to be a sort of “foster-uncle.” When my first boy who was the nephew of a young companion reached the age of 16 his father suddenly appeared in S.F. and took him away. This has been my history, that the boys and girls whom I have looked after were often suddenly “discovered” by their parents; but those to whom I was especially attached sometimes died, and in a few cases jealous relatives poisoned them again me. Now here I am called “Mama” which means maternal uncle and my pal, Abdul Rahman from S.F. is called “Chacha” (where did you hear that before?) which means “paternal uncle.” You see you are not the only one who has a “cha-cha.” It’s funny how the earnest things and the jest things always get mixed up.

I had been challenged for being stingy. I am not stingy (I hope) but with money in six piles it requires some book-keeping and juggling. Anyhow I told him I would give them a dinner and I made arrangements for them. Actually you can treat a lot of people for $10, but it is very difficult to get cash here. This society lived without coins and money in our sense for so long they do not easily become accustomed to it—excepting the beggars of course, they were always coin collectors. But my necessary trip to Lahore will enable me to get some ready cash and to provide for more.

I could easily pull a Gavin’s “Uncle Charlie” on you now. For certainly if I were to die there is no reason not to give you any money on hand in the Bank of America at Market & 9th St. on my account. But I have had my fortune told many times now, and I feel it, too, that I am going to live quite long. Of course I might be fooled. I would rather leave it there and ask you for material assistance—in return for cash of course, when I return or just before I return.

My belonging to the Chisti Order of Sufis has been of great social and material assistance to me although that was not in mind. The strange and immediate acceptance of my poetry plus the OK given on all my projects at the highest level has undoubtedly somewhat un-nerved me. If you struggle and struggle and get a sudden release it is not always easy to adjust. Fortunately I have received nothing but kindness and cooperation from the whole Foreign Service excepting one spinster dame in Karachi whom, I know, is stuck on Puritanism and ought not to be so serving in the foreign field.

Now my coming to Abbottabad is mixed up with a lot of San Francisco stuff. My host, Abdul Rahman, lived there many years. Then I am just across from the college where the English teacher, Prof. Connaught is from S.F. Then Hamid Khan, who is a graduate of Berkeley and it was a regular love feast. I have to go there again but my plans fit in perfectly with what they want. I do not wish to make a lot of predictions and prophecies, but between my stop-overs at Rawalpindi both before and after Lahore may bring up something. Then I shall see Abdul Satter, former Consul-General of Pakistan at S.F. for some real high-powered conferences. I am going after money, not for its own sake, but so I can have assistance and I am hoping it will be of practical nature. I am not forgetting you but I don’t wish to throw B.S. promises and fall down. My best real friends have often been those of presumably “low” social degree, likely as not colored, too. I don’t parade them and I don’t forget them.

I have been in several conferences with B. D. Qureshi here who has for immediate consignment to U.S.A. jewelry market-priced at $500,000. This does not include what he has in England, or what is in “them thar” hills. This is a long and exciting story but I want more firsthand information. If I do not get married my hope is to be able to get a car and a driver, but the fortune-tellers are optimistic about my future. B. D. Qureshi has not brought his friend, the psychic, here. He says the man is always right, and I am hoping to meet him and see what insight he has or there can be. All the people I met in 1956 said the same things—but they did not entirely come out that way. All I have met since Fuad Leithi in Alexandria have said the same things, but the time is not yet.

Saturday I go to my friend, “Judge” Ghulam Rabbani who is the most important man in these parts. What we have discussed previously has not become top level stuff with the Pakistani Government and I wish to carry this message which will certainly reach President Ayub. Then at Lahore I shall meet some very big people. Dr. Hamid Khan, above referred to, has given the names of the people I must meet and that will close my introductory cycle here, for my lectures will begin promptly. I may have to make such trips periodically.

Then the grape-vine brought us fine news. Abdul Sattar’s family is arranging for me to make a trip around August and I may see Harappa and other places of very ancient importance. Also Jamshyd Khan, the richest farmer in the Peshawar region (Mardan) says he is waiting for me. He has provided my pal, Abdul Rahman, with a car and a driver for me any time—we just have to pay for the gas. This should mean sooner or later a trip to Swat Valley and elsewhere. You see I am pretty well booked up.

I realize that the U.S. is losing face abroad. The old Frenchman, Clemenceau, said that peace and war were two things which could not be entrusted to diplomats and generals. The young kids here are not worrying over food, clothing and economic theories—they want to learn to play baseball. The teenagers want to learn to dance. I was even asked to play football (soccer) last night but I excused myself because I have a sore toe—which is true. I have umpired tennis matches. There things are equally important with a knowledge of religion and history but generals and diplomats are totally unable to understand these things.

I have purchased a lot of Erle S. Gardner and some Jack Webb which, after reading, I am taking as gifts and don’t think they won’t be gobbled up. They are worth a thousand books on how Congress conducts or misconducts itself or whether the fleet is amply provided for or tourism in the Adirondacks. Every nation in the world is (mis)educated that other people are or must be on high levels. I could make a fortune here selling some of our cheaper phonograph records—“cha-cha” again.

I don’t know how much stuff I shall enclose. Sooner or later I want to send a lot of things for my files. Also when I get to Lahore I hope to see the commercial agent on a lot of things and also find out how I can send some of my surplus luggage back. I don’t think I shall need heavy clothing until I return or else I should buy some in Hong Kong.

My problem is not bad luck, but piling up of good luck, good “karma,” opportunities, etc. Also the minor problem of going into bank-less and money-less societies which we can hardly appreciate.

My news is that lots of South-of-Market “slums” are being cleared up. I don’t know where I shall live or want to live. I would like to still live south of the lot and go back to college unless I get a job or offer and it is too early to settle. Otherwise I should prefer Fairfax or Southern Cal.

How is your Arabic research coming? You don’t have to split this three ways on Shah Jehan; you don’t have to split it all at all.

“Mama” SAM

April 27, 1961

My dear Leonora:

This is my diary entry. I supposed I would have written it to Evelyn but when I left we were not good friends. The one thing Puck said he liked in America was the Potlatch dinner and tonight he is giving a pot-latch dinner—about 8 people and the costs is around $11-$12 for all of us. There is an excellent menu. I shall probably send it to my friend, Leonard Austin. Some of the men here thought I was a skinflint. This was partly true. But when your money is divided into six parts you often have to do a lot of juggling to get it where you want. There is no regular international bank here; just two local banks which do a limited business. Now I have some extra funds in Lahore and I have to go there.

Well young Arif Khan came in after lunch and he asked me if I wanted to go mountain climbing. My hiking shoes were in the middle of the room and before I could answer the shoes were on. We climbed a mountain on the west side and the country above looked like the hills between Fairfax and Woodacre. We went as far as a divide and came back. There was a lovely gorge which has fresh spring water. It is not a “Steep Ravine” yet it was a steep ravine. Below that was a lovely Presidio where the soldiers live—a park-like section with Pines, Cypress and Eucalyptus, somewhat more hilly than the S.F. Presidio but without fog. True the sun was out when we started but it became cloudy without being oppressive and there was a slight wind.

I find generally that I can out-climb the young who are not too strong. I did miss some of the athletic games and I think it is better for me to type and get ready for my trips.

I have been most fortunate with my dervish connections. The hostel here is run by one and so the hotel in Rawalpindi. Now I had a wire from my friend Major Sadiq. We swore “eternal friendship” but lost sight of each other. In fact my old address book was stolen. As soon as I located him he wired me and he is living in Lahore which has been the most expensive place for me. At the moment, this cooperation of friends makes it appear that I will be well in the black. But I have a use for being well in the black for I have seen so many things I should like to buy.

I have a whole lot of lectures and appointments lined for Lahore. Did I tell you that the Chief Botanist here is from Berkeley and he told me what do at Lahore with my horticultural literature. In fact I do not know at the moment whether I shall go to Lyallpur or not.

Tomorrow I go to Mansehra to see my friend Ghulam Rabbani Khan, the big wig. We shall have to confer on many things. Then I shall go to Rawalpindi. The taxi costs only about $2.00 per person—shared by four or five. And it goes very quickly. In fact I shall try to go to Lahore that way. The first class rail is about $9 and the second class is $4.50. If I can get a fast station wagon for these prices I shall prefer it to the train anyhow. I want to go to the American Friends of the Middle East, Asia Foundation and many colleges and universities there.

My friend, Ansar Nasri, is promoted and I may just see him at Rawalpindi Saturday, but there is a new business in sight and I am very excited again. I am always going through astonishing things—Sufis, Moghul jewels, Secretary Shahab, universities, and now it is … you guessed it, F.D.

It seems fairly certain that the lost tribes of Israel came this way and also the Greek armies. There is plenty of evidence for both but they have never been properly studied. Most of the students here are Pathan speaking. While my friend, Mr. Qureshi, was describing the Swatis to me, and showing me on the map where the “purest” Greeks are, I began showing them sections of Greek dances. All the college boys around applauded and said that these were very much like the dances in their country. All agreed that there are descendants of the Greeks there.

This is still more interesting and exciting for me because Jamshyd Khan has sent for me. He is the richest farmer in the Mardan area and Mardan is just south of Swat. He told my companion, Abdul Rahman, that he will provide us with a driver and car any time provided we would pay for the gas. Does a fish swim? So after I came back from Lahore I shall arrange with the local college about my lectures and then go to Mardan with possible trips to Peshawar and Swat. I have been urged to make my most important rip in June or July. It will be warm then and even now the higher parts of Swat are cold. When one looks north one sees the Himalayas in snow (My “Glossed Horizons.”) You see all of this seems to make life very happy, or at least pleasant.

I am going to write Leonard later with the “Puck” news which, though droll is so true we cannot recognize or realize it. I have been hoping to learn about the Pathan dances. Here they are called “Kathak” which I think means just “folk dance” for India is full of “Kathak” and their “sacred dances” are called “Kathakali” from the same root but very different in form.

I do not know what I shall bring back with me but I am now half contemplating joining the Academy of Sciences in Golden Gate Park. I am now stopping to write to others and still add as necessary for the diary.

May 1. I did not have time to continue and now I have other reasons for “excitement.” I am in Rawalpindi and am preparing to see my friend Ansar Nasri who is going to Karachi, big promotion; he is to be the No. 2 man in radio and communications. I did not have a chance to speak to him the other day, but then I did not expect to but rather just presented my poetry.

A whole hour was taken talking over folk-music and folk-dancing. It was very pleasing from all sides. The current campaign seems to be to instill people with patriotism. I am running a sort of compassionate campaign trying to instill them with pride in their cultures past and current. This is much more attractive because it implements the raw words “patriotism,” “loyalty,” etc. with content. It fact it reached such a peak that it is very like I shall have full cooperation in regard to securing folk-records and also introductions. I cannot make any separate journeys just for such purposes but on the other hand I have to go into many of the districts where the traditions are strong and there is some likelihood of picking up dance-steps, etc. The Hebrew and Greek traditions here excite me and the Indian elements leave me cold. The popular Indian dance elements have no depth to them. By depth I mean, to begin with, something psychological and physical—they cause the whole body to rebound or thrill; then a psychic element is added which I cannot verbalize but which everybody knows—it gives the impetus to dance and to continue.

I am not concerned with morals here. There is little hip swaying or buttocks movement. I think this is on to an ancient “snake” tradition. I mean just try a “rooster-chicken” dance, an elephant dance, a horse dance, a bird-courtship dance, etc. and the body becomes different. But with the snake the outside of the body seems to move, there is gliding and what not and the Indian dancers not only seem to move their bodies externally but they move their “space” that way and it extends into choreography. Take the Greek dances, or even the slower Kolos and the whole body is involved and I think when the whole body is involved there is something deeper not only physically, physiologically and psychically, but even spiritually.

When I return today I might write to Madelynne for I may have a report on my poetry. The encouragement has been so great I am working now on another epic. This will have two parts, in contrast and the previews were accepted immediately.

I am in ribbon trouble again, but I hope to correct this at Lahore. Even my fountain pen does not work and it is only fortunate that I found a refill for my other pens. Took out my teen-age friend Naji. I knew him as an infant in S.F. and lived with his family before. We went to three shows in two days. I am near all the better cinema houses. Because the radio is poly-lingual, one has to have a transistor or many-wave set here because the language is always changing. I was also interrupted at the Radio station because of applicants for jobs—first requirements: four languages. So long.

May 1, 1961

My dear Madelynne,

This is written in Rawalpindi, the temporary capitol of Pakistan and is my dairy entry. I am assuming, of course, you will be interested in its contents and at the same time I am trying to relate events that might interest you. I have just read a review on Gide, that all his novels were really his autobiography transformed and that he was really writing about himself. This has its dangers and its virtues. For when a man asserts himself, even if he sticks to the facts, the reactions will be multifarious.

My last epic before I left U.S.A. was “The Rejected Avatar” and copies were placed in the hands of Magana Baptiste for while an epic poem it is also a dance drama. By recollection it had a good deal to do with rejected people. To be a “Jude the Obscure” and still live on and defy is an objective. But those who rejected me were almost entirely of two classes: (a) Americans who have the prosecution complex and (b) Foreign professors of Asiatics. The first group frustrated too many Americans and they revolted and got rid of them. Group (b) is still in fashion in California and is anathema all over Asia. We continue to elevate Europeans as our expositors of Asiatics and the Asians continue to mob our libraries because there is no reciprocation. Into this I need to go.

For on reaching Lahore I met another fellow from the University of California, rejected all over the lot around S.F. bay and highly honored here. His name is in the newspapers as an exponent of Islamic philosophy and related subjects. In S.F. he was kicked off the air by a prominent non-American “authority” on Asiatics who never has been to Asia and perhaps dared not come; in the universities the foreign born or educated ganged up on him and I found he was highly esteemed. I have since heard from other fellows from our general area—same story there, same story here. This might have prepared us for what followed.

Within a week I was in the home of C.M. Shahab, the “Sherman Adams” of Pakistan and its top intellectual; and then in the “White House.” All my projects were accepted and approved and two added—in direct contradiction to a lot of what is going on in California. Even the grade Aldous Huxley will have to treated as a psychological character—almost the hero of “The Razor’s Edge” and not as an exponent of anything Asian.

I have read a here a book by a German, Titus Burckhardt, who proclaims that all European exponents of Orientalia are wrong and he is right. And I think here he would be universally supported. Anyhow I am being universally supported.

My “Saladin” was gobbled at once. I had to make copies of a certain section, then I found carbon of the whole and here I am informed that it is being translated into Urdu to be published. Inasmuch as Mr. Ansar Nasri, of Radio Pakistan, my host, is being transferred, we had no time to go into it. But when the top intellectuals of a foreign nation immediately acclaim and follow this up, it makes my “Rejected Avatar” and all sorts of rejection stand out. This encouragement has provoked or inspired other poems. I have written a short piece on Mohammed and this was gobbled up and no doubt will be further when I return to Lahore, my next stop.

Then a newer epic, in two portions, has been started here dedicated to Mr. Ansar Nasri who has been just promoted to Joint Commissioner of Radio and Communications. Mr. Nasri (and Mr. Shahab) belong to a class of persons, the existence of which is categorically denied on the campuses of Berkeley, Stanford, Pacific, UCLA, and smaller fish—in California and they do not relish this denial. Fortunately here the Cultural Attaché at Lahore and its staff take other views, but then they did not graduate from Leiden or Oxford or Heidelberg and are in Asia and are Americans.

My assertion that I was the successor of Mohammed Iqbal was scorned in the U.S. excepting by Pakistanis and it took five minutes to prove it here. My “Rejected Avatar” and “Saladin” though based on symphonic form, skeletonize around the heroic iambic, but the new poem has synthesized the traditional epic with the “poetry of darkness’—shadow caves, drinking, tombs, etc. which dominate our literature, from Kenneth Rexroth to Tempest Williams, and, of course, [?] from Jeffers.

My efforts are essentially of the “light” and I follow Iqbal and Dante, and, of course, the Sufis whom they followed. Mr. Nasri leaves for Karachi, I shall keep him informed and I feel very relieved today, that artificial frustrations and a priori rejections need be no more. No one objects to rejections, but this a priori stuff is going to react and react hard.

I mentioned above that I have been in “The White House” just as I have been in the Royal Palace Grounds in Japan. I continue to go or get where Americans do not go or get. Sometimes it is merely geographical and continues to be merely geographical, but sometimes it is something else. These tow streams will be united when Dr. Abdal Sattar, long time Consul general in S.F., arrives in Abbottabad (which will be next month). Please excuse this ribbon; they are hard to get here and not good.

There are strong elements which prove that many Pathans and Kashmiri are descended from the Lost Tribes of Israel and the Swatis from the Greeks. I live in Abbottabad in a hostel, the majority of whose members speak Pathan, the language common to the Pushtuns and Swatis. I have been invited to Swat and am excited. I have tried to learn Pathan dancing. I have had many promises but most of the students are too busy preparing for examinations. Their common name for Folk Dancing is “Kathak” which is also common to India and there are common elements. But I was told Swati dances were different and Greek.

Well I showed some of the boys some elements of Greek dancing and the riot began—they all proclaimed that the Swati dances are the same! This got me excited and the more I performed the more excited they became.

My present program is to go to Lahore, presumably for two weeks, the return to Abbottabad via Rawalpindi (where I am!). Then I must write to Jamshyd Khan, very prosperous farmer at Mardan near Peshawar on the West side. He has promised my companion, Mr. Abdul Rahman (also of S.F.) and myself a car and driver provided we pay for the gas and other expenses and we can or may go to Swati either in June or at some convenient date.

I have made a few inquiries into the language there and found a few Hebrew and Greek words—I am not a linguist but this also was “exciting.” But it is the dances I wish to learn.

I took my second inquiry at radio Pakistan about folk records and will go into that later when there is no poetry to discuss. Before I leave Pakistan—one month away, I think I can arrange a shipment of good folk records. Off-hand I should like to send them to John Filipe but if he does not apprehend what I am doing it might be wasting time. But I am also going to take this matter up with the Cultural Attaché at Lahore.

I live next to the government’s Folk Art exhibit. They have only [?], shoes and no costumes and I am told I can do best at Peshawar. But they have some excellent pieces which I may send to Rudolph Schaeffer or somebody in S.F.—salt sculpture, leather vases, etc. There is no time for dullness for me. All of my projects have had approval and I shall be occupied with meeting horticultural experts, lecturing on Islamic philosophy and doing and perhaps accomplishing a lot of things categorically denied in S.F. excepting by other locals who have themselves only too often been rejected. The acceptance of Walt and Magana for instance, by Asians, is a psychological victory for honest, two-way cultural exchange, so badly needed if we are going to have peace and understanding.

I am also going to continue to howl for AMTA money for folk- and square-dance teachers instead of expenses for balleters and soloists to entertain our foreign colony. There is a tremendous cry for such things here and a need even more than the cry. I am also crying: “Meet the Asians and stop telling about ‘most the people.’” We have had too many campaigns, too little action.

Well, the Russians are here so we are getting rid of the flies. A few more Russians and maybe we shall do this, but I fear, not before and maybe too late. Unless….

Cordially, Samuel L. Lewis

My dear Florie:

This is Thursday, May 4. It is now over 100° in Lahore and I have braved the weather to come here. It is now not an easy matter for me to write here. The laws of karma are no respectors of people but I have hardly ever met a person who claimed to believe in and who lectured on karma who sincerely faced the “karma” of which he was speaking. Of course there are many who believe in karma but don’t lecture about it. And to me there is no question but that we reap as we sow and that whatsoever we do unto others, the same shall be our reward.

It is incomprehensible how any group of religious people—if they really are religious, should arrogate unto itself the right of criticisms of the consul–generals of several Islamic nations, the right to dispute with President Nasser and the right to criticize the Prophet that they are going to collect much money for a cinema house they want to label “Mosque.” You can bet right now that no foreign government and certainly no financially sound financial person or group abroad is going to subsidize a “Mosque” where the prophet may be criticized and Nimaz considered as a side-activity.

Three times I have seen money go reprinted and then withdrawn because of nonsense by so-called leaders of Mosquetizen, which is not and never has been Islam. At this writing it appears very favorable that a large amount of money will be appropriated for the student and performance of Nimaz and Salat and Kalama, with additional study of Qur’an and Hadiths in tow. There are plenty of people here who are anxious for such movements in America for Islamic religion, Islamic philosophy and Islamic Culture and not for Islamic side-shows and the psychoanalysis of the Prophet by those who have limited respect.

I am not now talking nonsense, Florie. We, who are anxious to establish the systematization of prayers and studies in the United States, are now trying to unite our efforts. I have not been successful this week in really contacting Prof. Siddiqui and I have not tried to contact Prof. Barker. At the Center Barker was not an important person; here he is. And as I shall explain the San Francisco group is more keen on criticizing the Prophet—and not apologizing for that—and for tea and delicacies than prayer and serious studies, you can mark Pakistan off your list.

Now I know the leaders will not do that. There never had been so many utterly godless people calling themselves “Muslims” as now. There are people who have no interest in Qur’an or Hadith or Prayer, but are crying over side-topics and not only crying but expecting others to subsidize their crying. Let them cry.

I have already been in the palace of one of the richest Muslims and he is very anxious to subsidize Islamic religions and Islamic culture in the U.S. And I have met an endless chain of people who want to do something more. But you can bet they are not going to contribute one rupee to a Kaffir organization calling itself “Muslim” which criticized foreign Consuls-General and the Prophet. You may tell Dr. Tamimi and his colleagues who do not know anything about surrender and even less of surrender to Allah that they are not going to get any financial help from Pakistan. But the chances are very great that the Pakistanis will subsidize, and be generous about it, any Islamic movement for serious studies and lectures. Not only that it would appear that your rejected Sam Lewis and Abdurrahman Barker are going to have a great deal to say and do about it and that there is a tremendous crest of interest in such an idea, already long ago launched here.

I do not think there will be any objection to members of the Islamic Tea- and Cinema Centre from joining the Islamic Study and Prayer Centre which may be financed from this side. Not only is the money available but the personnel are available. The question is just how much impetus will be given it from this end.

There is no question about the formation of the movement. The next step is just how far they will assimilate other missionary work. The ignorant Mullah missionaries are out. It is getting to be more difficult for them to go abroad on religious missions, especially to America, when although called “Mullahs” they have no real knowledge of Islamic culture.

I shall probably be back in Abbottabad in two weeks to discuss with Abdul Sattar the whole question of Pakistani culture, but it will be beyond his determination to make decisions upon Islamic cultures as a whole. There are too many big, serious and wealthy persons here concerned. Not only that, they wish to be on most friendly terms with Americans. This is not an Al-Azhar “anti-imperialistic” Islamic Centre. It follows Holy Qur’an in condemning unbelievers first, last and foremost. These people do not adjust their Qur’anic interpretations to the politics of the day.

Tomorrow I understand I shall be speaking in a large Mosque. I have already addressed both “saints” and Sufis on Sufism. I am not the least concerned with the reactions of European professors and pseudo-Muslim Americans. I understand there will be several social functions for me, leading up or connected with a grant campaign. All my lectures, ideas and schemes have been approved. I next have to face interviews with Urdu papers.

Another thing we are going to take up is the superiority of Sufism over Vedanta, Yoga, etc. This will be done in a friendly manner, and is more to check pseudo-Muslims who on one hand acclaim the Prophet and on the next run off to Yogis and spurn Sufism. Against the real Yogis and Vedantists there is no hard feeling, and friendliness.

I don’t know what the finance committee will do or say if I come back with large amounts of funds or commitments. “Allaho Akbar” but money is more Akbar and that is something: Inasmuch as the S.F. Center never let me report I have here an absolute veto over them and they can do or undo as they please. Their preliminary meeting has already been held and persons are being lined up to go to the U.S. There will be money behind them and they will have money. And the way they are starting out they will have suitable American introductions to go ahead. Besides under the auspices of the World Congress of Faiths I shall be able to introduce them and others.

So far we certainly are not going to exclude any people who wish to pray or wish to learn to pray; who wish to study Qur’an and Hadith on any basis, and who wish to go into the Islamic presentation of Islamic culture. Florie, the past is dead and the people who are stuck to the past and will not change, their views are worse than dead. Those who believe in Mosques and oppose inshallah are nothing but Kaffirs. They are going to be denounced and this denunciation will ring round the world. This is their karma.

Someday, no doubt the moneys and the people who appropriate the moneys will see that there are enough sincere devotees to warrant a Mosque—but not a tea- and cinema show with the reins in the hands of the critics of Rassoul-lillah. Finished.

I have had innumerable meetings with Americans, all very satisfactory and there are more on schedule. The most cordial, of course, is with the American Friends of the Middle East. I shall no doubt add to this before mailing.

Thursday Night: I was then to the tomb of Dada Hujwiri, a great Sufi saint whose works I studied first long ago and then restudied many times. I was met by a guard of honor and escorted all through the place as if I were a very important dignitary, first a guest of a Sheikh and then of a Naqshibandi Murshid who has 500,000 followers. Garlands upon garlands were thrown over my head and a special turban given me for the evening. I spoke briefly before the Sheikh and the Murshid has asked that I come again Sunday night. From the American point of view this was fantastic and impossible; from the Asian point of view we, the Americans, live in a land of dreams and fantasies. Someday, inshallah, we shall look at Asia as it really is.

I wish to diverge for a moment on the question of objectivity I oriental archeology. When I was in Ajunta both my companion (whose field it was) and I agreed that all books are wrong, that the main early caves were excavated by the Burmese. You know I disagree with all the "European experts" on the date of the introduction of Buddhism into Burma and agree with the Burmese. Now the India government, or some clever photographer, has put out a book on Ajunta and not only is there no picture of Burmese art there but not even of Gandhara art. I am on the edge of the Gandhara country and my determination now is to visit both Ajunta and Ellora and make notes. I have a right to challenge "authorities" when they step on the sensitivities of nations like the Burmese.

My friend Rabbani Khan owns the land where the Asoka rock inscription are. I did not visit them when I was in Mansehra but expect to see them many times this trip. But the maps are wrong and my feeble efforts to have them corrected have previously failed.

I have been more successful in the Taxila matter where Harvard U. is not only honestly scientific and objective but is very much interested in Jewish archeology. I have to pass through Taxila constantly so will take some time off later on an send my detailed conclusion, but this time they will undoubtedly have some confirmations and my friend Rabbani is very anxious to help in this.

Rabbani is the Pooh Bah, as I have said, but he will leave Pakistan soon. We are going to a conference in Rawalpindi before the end of the week. This is the beginning of "my show." last week concluded the rehearsals. My going to Mansehra and then far, far north of there was the preface and my intuitions always turn out into dramas, at the present time mostly successful.

However I do not wish to come this way alone again. It is too much. Success in my chosen objectives—agricultural information and cultural exchange, have brought a panorama of other matters for few Americans visit these parts and I am becoming a source of pilgrimages. The humorous and serious go together. I said when I returned to Pakistan I would start a revolution. I was at once challenged and then resolved, which I can do quickly. This has made me a hero with the young who want me to teach them dancing. Not only that my insistence that Islam would never succeed if their private brotherhood of man meant males and not mankind. All the young men support me and I have become a hero at college. But the professors go along. The difference between US and Pakistan is, as I have put it, in the US the warfare has been between the professors and the commentators and here it is between the professors and the mullahs. With Kennedy coming into office I am most happy. I hate prejudices but everything in existence has made me pro-Harvard and nearly everything has made me anti-Yale. The selection of Galbraith and Reischauer as Ambassadors is, as Shaw would put it: "Too true to be good."

I am now able to write at length to the Foreign Office. I shall continue to work for objectivity—not my views, but factuality. You may remember my diverse reactions between "ETC" and "Linguistics." But with all my assertions, this very objectivity compels me to be negative and receptive on advice. I think I can today read with much more interest the book on how to learn a language.

Bus riding with people enables me to observe types. There was a distinct Mongolian type on the bus, but I know there are two or three Mongolian faces—one being round and the other triangular. The round type seems to dominate in Tibet and Burma. The other has a sparse beard and very pointed chin. I am not sure of the ethnology and have no time for it, but one can see these things. Philology and Linguistics seem so much nearer at hand.

There are also serious political repercussions. The Afghans have been trying to stir up the Pathans to demand equal linguistic rights with Urdu. At the same time the new regime is trying to force Persian as a national language in Afghanistan. So instead of the Pathans fighting against Pakistan, many of them are coming over and acceding. No doubt Russian is behind these efforts and we will just sit by and sign more treaties and lose more countries. The communists are succeeding far more in India through the language complexities than from economic factors; and, of course, again, our "anti-communist" dialecticians fall right into it. We do not, have not, examined this subject of languages.

I am writing all this in detail because I feel with the more you know about it the more you may come up with some answer. I certainly have no answer at the moment. But I have written Senator Engle and I am following it up concerning the possibility of federal backing in the "Peace Corps." At least I have done things and do things. I wrote to my friend Bob Tice who may get my reports published in Greenwich Village. I am overwhelmed now but there may be enough here to warrant this basically serious letter—the humor often being more serious than the prose.


Samuel L. Lewis

Lahore, Pakistan,

May 7, 1961

My dear Fred and Corinne:

I have long foreseen intuitively that this period would be the most dramatic or the most important in my life. If I had not foreseen it I should not have been able to adjust to it.

I am at the moment living in the home of Major Muhammad Sadiq, a brother Sufi with the same spiritual teacher. We are in the strange position of seeing in each other a person who had advanced much in the last five years. I shall tell you more of “me” later, but I wish to introduce you to him because there is some likelihood of our being involved in one or more joint enterprises. On the surface, and perhaps the financial backing may come from those interested in Islamic culture, Pakistani culture or Sufism—which has never really been presented to the American people. Locally this may mean an alliance with or a war against Von Grünebaum at UCLA, for although that man is admired in many parts his statements that there are no important Sufis and that Sufis do not take part in politics is so ridiculous that one appearing, like President Soekarno, simply has to travel in a front-dramatic role, appealing to the side of American nature that likes that sort of appeal. So far every diplomat of Indonesia I have met is a Sufi, no exceptions, but that does not effect or affect what goes on in the schools and lecture halls in the U.S.

Major Sadiq has been blessed with a healing gift which is both spiritual and occult. He prefers to hold to the former but will apply the latter when necessary. He has the gift of healing by touch and of magnetizing water and food with super-physical vibrations which seem to have remarkably excellent effects on the health. He has even “cured” people who have been to Lourdes. His “legend” has spread far and wide and every day we have a strange sight here—long lines of people, usually peasants, to meet him; and scholars to meet me.

The general basis of his faculty, which we both hold is a grace and not a possession, coincides with the “theories” of Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan and some of the details of the applications are the same. Yet because my studies with Pir-o-Murshid have been fairly thorough, I have been able to make a few suggestions.

If we begin with the theory of Jesus Christ that the body is the temple of the holy spirit and continues on to include some of the teachings of a Pir who recently died here, we can apply to a complete method of “cure” and sanctification which is entirely in line with the original idea of “savior” which has little to do with divinity or theology, but meant, in a sense, a metaphysical or superphysical healer.

At this point please include all your interests also in psychic phenomena. There is no question that there is a clairtactic power and it seems also to both of us that the higher psychism, as against mediumship, is clearly related to the opening of centres, particularly those which we identify more or less with the Pineal and Pituitary glands. We are going today to Zikr meetings of the Naqshibandi school of Sufis which set great store on the opening and development of these and other centres and I do not know whether much of this will be enhanced in the next 24 hours or not, but I do wish to get some notes off.

Here we have had parallel and complementary developments which helps explain the common theory.

By entering into meditation Major can function clairvoyantly, locating the focus of infection and also, through chromatic clairvoyance, occultly determine the nature of disease. He has, in a few cases, corrected the wrong diagnosis which prevented physicians from effecting cures. After this correction the physicians have succeeded.

Here he does not take money for healing, though people have spent considerable sums to visit him. In the U.S. this might be on a different basis. But I must say that if we do come to the U.S. or if we wish to establish ourselves in your section, the funds will come from this end. I have already met some of the most important and also some of the wealthiest men in Pakistan, some through the Major and some through our spiritual brother, Ansar Nasri who has since been appointed to be Joint Director of Radio Pakistan, a close friend of Secretary Shahab, the real Mr. Big behind the scenes. Shahab is also a Sufi and Ayub, if not exactly one, a sort of disciple. Major told Ayub beforehand of what he was going to do and his predictions proved to be correct.

I am in such a “summit series” of events I cannot be sure of my correspondence. I have sent letters or copies to Luise, mostly by sea-mail and I ask you to share it with her and also let Hugo know. But I also add here, in addition to so many obligations on your side, no time either. There is no hurry here and long before I reach the U.S. I should be seeing Pir-o-Murshid Maulana Abdul Ghafoor, our spiritual director at Dacca and now becoming quite famous too. So any kind of verbal answer to this would be quite unnecessary.

I have an immediate impression which I do not wish to impose either. That is if the Schloss matter comes out clearly, it would be wonderful if we could be established there. In any event it is at this point my intention to ask the Major, when there is a clear way to the U.S. to get art objects, etc. for your friends or rather the Society. I have seen all kinds of things. I have to be sending some to the U.S. soon but I have some qualms of quondam associates or even life-long friends in the S.F. Bay region—certain exceptions—realizing what is happening, that this is the time of harvest and it is a real harvest, praise to God.

I have already addressed thousands here in Lahore and next week I am to speak on “Islamic Art in Cairo,” duplicates of which slides may be in your hands now. I am also preparing not only for colleges and universities, but meetings with Sufis and have just been informed of a trip to a place called Mardan where lives one of the wealthiest farmers in Pakistan, who is a good friend of mine and has been long awaiting me.

Also all my contacts have been one long series of successes. Yesterday I turned over my materials to the institution handling the problem of saline soils and learned that Prof. Fireman is coming here this winter, not last, and that there is a steady stream of cooperation between the University of California and the Pakistani officials. I still have to visit other leaders in Agriculture, etc. All preliminary conferences have been most cordial and between my assuredly selfless efforts and being a Sufi, this is, in a sense, the time of my life. But I have to be very careful, not of pride or dismay or excitement but of holding the reigns in each new series of experiences.

I have made here several contacts with psychics and generally these people are involved with astrology, too. My present idea is to soften the astrological side. We cannot be involved in too many things. I do not know how clear this all is and no doubt I shall write more later. Lahore has now on each visit given me the most blessings of any place in the world.



Sufi Ahmed Murad

Lahore, Pakistan

May 8, 1961

Department of South Asian Studies

University of California

Berkeley, Calif.

Dear Friends:

You will please excuse the use of this type of paper and the need of writing on both sides. There is something in Urdu psychology that they have no original term but use either the Arabic wakt or British time and while I am at the moment the recipient of unusual honors, it is almost impossible for me to be given any opportunity to attend to personal needs such as the purchase of badly needed clothes, drugs, stationary and postage.

I am finding myself in a position, which becomes stranger every day and yet has been a norm in every Asian country I have visited. My immediate reason for writing at this point is a most important invitation to Malay and an introduction to another high governmental official, Dr. Fazal Rahim Khan, a Director of Agriculture and a fellow-alumnus.

This sort of thing is going on almost without cessation. There is a terrible blockage in communication which makes it most difficult for those who succeed in crossing the boundary into Asian hearts to communicate with those who do not. My reading of Fielding Hall’s The Souls of a People many years back continued on to such books as In The Minds of Men by Dr. Gardner Murphy with perhaps a little of Ruth Benedict thrown in, shows that there is a simple method of connecting “exotic” peoples and even becoming one of them, but like Geoffrey Gorer too, one finds oneself an outcaste in trying to explain this. And although as a nation we are hypothetically fighting against Marxism we are so adamant against Spengler that we cannot see that neo-Spenglerism is entirely in account with modern non-Euclidean mathematics and some American philosophies that have been derived therefrom. We cannot eat our cake and have it and we can easily get rid of the political Communist invasion if we took the trouble to examine and appreciate the folk mores of Asians as we appreciate the assaying of mores. The precious values may be in unusual norms.

I came to Japan in 1956 with a single introduction which proved to be invaluable later on. On the third day I called on the chief Zen Masters and was invited immediately into their presence, an event which won for me the undying hatred of the “authorities” on Zen and related subjects in the U.S. who have no more knowledge of it than I have of Japanese. In a few weeks I was the first outsider ever to be invited to the Royal Cemetery and to see the stupa over the ashes of the Buddha. And, before I left I had the extreme honor of being a special visitor to the Palace Grounds—the first time in history for a commoner—and to be given a farewell tea by top industrialists.

At that time this looked so much like a show being put on for my benefit that I did not get the impact. The continuation of this high level program in Thailand may have been due to my sort of brother-sister relationship with Princess Poon Diskul there. But after two days in Burma I was invited to meet the Hon. U Nu and did not think myself ready for such an event nor did I wish to become entangled in politics. Yet the fact remains that in each nation I have visited I have been received socially as if a high dignitary—which I am not, at least in the ordinary sense, though I have so been received because of knowledge of the history, culture and religion of one Asian nation after another.

For purposes of communication here I will try to restrict myself to the two above invitations. The first came from my own desires to promote an international horticultural exchange program through information being passed freely through existing channels. I talked this over with several persons in Giannini Hall (Prof. Reyerson & Co.) The whole thing has been way over m head, totally successful but built on the simple premise that most peoples of Asia (and maybe elsewhere) are or wished to be associated with the land and growing of something.

So far as the University of California is concerned this is a long, complicated and marvelous program. I did dispute with the Alumni Association against the overemphasis on the discoveries of nuclear physics and related semi-destructive sciences and mentioned them, as I must repeat now, that the work of the Riverside research laboratories is of inestimable value. I shall no doubt miss Prof. Fireman as I have missed members of his staff but U. C. is, thank God and praise Allah, doing in far-away places what I have either wished or known, without receiving full accredit on the campus or off. I shall not go into this further but will add either a postscript or write separately to the Alumni Association after some forthcoming interviews.

But I did take up with the Foreign Service in Lahore and I am certainly going to take it up both with the Alumni Association and the top authorities, the need of a California-in-Asia organization like the Princeton-in-Asia organization; and I hope to go further. For I think such groups would accomplish far more than the Presidents admirable but emotional “Peace Corps.” You have very successful graduates all over the world and they are friends to the United States. But under some of our strange protocol-diplomacy, only now being renovated, the Marco Polos of this world are snubbed and the press has not learned this at all.

The invitation to Malaya comes from a very real Marco Polo who has all the credentials Prof. Burdick prates about and on top of that has been there. This is a long, complicated and sorrowful story of our failure to have an intelligent Intelligence which would listen to stories of Americans. Today at least the stories are heard and after a few more set-backs in maybe Cambodia and Burma we shall no doubt awaken to the simple facts that some Asian lands have some traditional cultures and that some Asians, conceivably, are as human as those hated, villainous Russians and Chinese.

This particular invitation comes from my knowledge of Sufism. I am not going into too much of an explanation of it here, but warn you that any effort to get knowledge of it out of the “Encyclopedia of Islam” is about as valuable as trying to understand the geography of the day from a worn-out Cram’s Atlas. We simply as a nation and as a body of intellectual institutions know practically nothing of this subject.

Yesterday I spent a considerable amount of time and money at the celebrated publishers, Ashraf & Co. One book I did not get for I have it already is Titus Burckhardt’s An Introduction to Sufi Doctrine. He says in it that not another European writer on the subject has the least inkling of its content or import. And this apparently strange ego-ic statement is entirely correct and all of Pakistan accepts it. We do not study Physics or Biology or Medicine by reading books of fine litterateurs and staying away from laboratories, but we certainly do with regard to Sufism, and to some extent the deeper or “esoteric” sides of Asian faiths.

Our strange predilection for European professors in Oriental philosophy has gotten us as a nation in very tight spots in most of Asia. Were I to name the sources of my information before a “secret” meeting of a Foreign Affairs Committee, they would blow their fuses. It has become almost monotonous and wearing to hear an endless stream of protestants on this subject from one end of Asia to another but “we” are so afraid of offending conceptual Asians that we insult physical ones. The selection of Profs. Reischauer and Galbraith ends an era of tremendous obscurity and darkness that we may not for a long time realize the impact of those appointments.

A number of years ago American Orientalists and some others held a conference and a book was written—1939 or before. At that time Prof. Wild of Harvard gave what socially would be considered a most offensive and inexcusable address, for he held some of his colleagues to absolute contempt. But the fact is here again. Wild was right, the majority was wrong and Harvard has gone out and studied Orientalia on the same objective, impersonal basis that we have used in most sciences that has given us our position of world leadership. But when personalisms dominate facts and data-gatherings, we end nowhere.

Despite all the statements of Grünebaum, Landau and your brethren of the Near East Department, the Sufis are in high places all over. I was given a special tea by the Indonesians in S.F. after “Prof. Von Flotz” said openly there were no Sufis and none in politics and they told me there were Sufis. The Indonesian consults to staff in New York told me the same; so the Embassy in Washington, so the Embassy in Cairo. I had a talk with the cultural attaché in Washington which was on a level second only to those which I had with Dr. Radhakrishnan and Swami Maharaj Ranganathananda in New Delhi, and perhaps more important because the tenor, contents and details were in direct contradiction to what is still being taught in some places. I have had four invitations to Indonesia because I am a Sufi.

I met the Sufis in UAR through a top scientist who was “converted” by his wife, who is a top scientist. This is “impossible” but true. I even met one top scientist Sufi who was a graduate from U. C.! I met them immediately in Pakistan and finally was introduced to Secretary Q.U. Shahab, the “Sherman Adams” and “Robert Frost” of Pakistan in one. From that day on, I have met Sufis all over the place and every day more and more come to meet me, an unusual American, a Sufi, who can teach Sufism to Sufis, but who was not even permitted to submit a paper on this subject in various places in California—nolle tocceri doctores Teutonicos.

I am now offering talks on “Oriental Philosophy and Modern Science” and socially meet a tremendous number of scientists, as I did in UAR. All my undertakings have been approved of by President Ayub that Fakir of first rank, perhaps. And despite Brother Grünebaum—and all the press of the U.S. the actual A. No. 1 Fakir is His Excellency Abdul Kadiri Gilani, Ambassador of Iraq to Pakistan. There never was and never an be a Hindu fakir. Even the Encyclopedia of Islam affirms that.

But the remarkable thing is that all Sufis and all dervishes are solidly against Russia and would like to help. Even in UA R I found currents and under-currents the nature of which belongs in reports to Intelligence and which would surprise us.

But the press of the U.S., even in a “cold war” is as determined to keep up the misconception of “fanatic” as they do the misconception of “fakir” and hundreds of millions of people are compelled into a neutralism into which they do not fit, but our constantly offending them and stepping on their sensitivities leaves no other room or course.

In such a situation a Sufi can do nothing but put on an act—and this is part of this discipline. As we do not take Indonesians as seriously, President Soekarno pays us back in Hollywoodian pseudo-psychologies. There is no question that Indonesia is largely under the control of men who are, or pretend to be Sufis. And equally the number of Sufi disciples in this country is enormous.

I have been given a grand ovation in one Mosque and spoken now to many assemblies of Sufis here. There is no doubt that this will be continued. I am next invited to Malaya to come as an American Sufi and the whole background and conditions are so against our newspaper traditions and psychologies that they cannot and would not believe this invitation comes through the Chief Buddhist!

In Cairo I attended the reception of Ambassador M. Aziz Hussain whom some of you may have met in San Francisco years back. I was introduced as an American Dervish. The whole Indonesian delegation immediately surrounded me and I did the unpardonable thing—won their friendship right in front of the Czech and Russian. This was unpardonable and entirely against protocol as I was the only non-diplomat at the affair.

The Americans! They were too busy with cocktails and chit-chat with NATO allies to bother with Asians.

I do not know what these affairs are for, nor our ANTA tactics of entertaining our citizens abroad and think we are accomplishing something. Our farm exchange program is exactly of the opposite nature and I am beseeched with requests to increase it. Most of the people from here west are Muslims and agriculturists in some regard. Nearly all the wealthy people I have met own or wish to own land and develop it. I have even met top financiers. I shall report later thereon.

Too late, it is true, the foreign service heeded my warning about mobs threatening USIA libraries. I also wrote, “Time” that the “fanatics” object to some of their articles. No attention, of course, but now Luce publications are barred from Indonesia. This is not yet at an end. But the Administration has started something and I hope universities will follow the Harvard M.I.T. program of getting out of “realism” and into reality.

People have, of course, every right to reject Sufism, but in a world of international relations we should at least know something of its operations and its personnel. I have failed, and perhaps it is my own fault, to reach the Near East Department (which relies on European humbugs too). I have a list of untouched subjects for research ranging from Aramaic archaeology to the music of the dervishes, and from the natural resources of Pakistan to the continuance of the caste-system in South Asia. Sometimes I long to return to the campus, but today every door is opening here in every direction because the people want to love Americans and to be loved, to know about us and to have us know about them. And, thank God, Kingsley Davis and Richard Park are known here.


Samuel L. Lewis

Sufi Ahmed Murad ex-‘18

Lahore, Pakistan

May 9, 1961

My dear Wesley:

I have just heard from Leonora that you are in the hospital as a cancer patient and I am writing to you because this is strangely in line with some “coincidences” going on here. I have written Leonora a long letter, sent sea-mail, and yet it will have little duplication with this.

All my affairs at the moment seem prospering especially on the higher levels in ways which may be appreciated but not understood in the United States. There is little hope for the world for it is divided, not into have- and have-nots, but into potters and clays. Certain nations insist they are potters and at the moment the potters are having “cold wars” and they cannot see that humanity is not divided into potters and clays.

The first thing we have to do if we are going to have peace is to stop this nonsense but we can’t. Clemenceau was a very wise man who said that war and peace were too serious to entrust to generals and diplomats but if there are two things we are unable to entrust to anybody but generals and diplomats it is war and peace. We do not need a peace-movement so much as a Clemenceau movement to entrust peace to others than diplomats and generals. But the international protocol protective association of generals and diplomats want to be left alone to carry on their cold war and consume the wealth of earth in so doing. It is not Russia that is to blame, it is not America that is to blame, it is protocol that is to blame and Russians and Americans worship the common god, protocol.

For instance the Russians sent out a ballet troupe to Kohistan and 2,000 people watch it. The Russians seem to think they have won a diplomatic point. The fact that the 2,00 people were mostly nationals of the NATO nations who happen to be in Kohistan is unheeded. The NATO peoples spend millions to arm themselves against the Russians and large sums also to be entertained by the Russians and to entertain the Russians. Then we sent Satchmo Von Piffle there and he plays to 2,500 Kohistanese and we think we have outscored the Russians and the NATO people and Greeks and Armenians rush to hear Satchmo von Piffle. The Kohistanese go right about their work with maybe a small headline criticizing the Russian Ballet, but we are so enthusiastic about the Russian ballet we overlook the Kohistani criticism. Besides the Kohistanis are fanatics and backyard people, what can we expect of them? After a few weeks they will mob our libraries and we shall be shocked and wonder and blame the communists, of course.

There can be no peace without friendship. Otherwise it is just status quo or armistice. Getting rid of arms without getting rid of hatreds is wasteful and useless. We talk about “education” but half the time we mean propaganda rather than information. We do not know what is going on in the hearts and minds of exotic peoples.

I am in Pakistan, in the Punjab which has been the site of innumerable cultures and wars. We do not know about these cultures or wars and we know even less about the hearts of peoples. Wesley, there are sciences of the heart as well as the mind and body. We live in a body which we do not study. Every time the heart beats it sends a flood of fluid through the organization. This flood of fluid feeds the cells and takes way the wastes. If we do not feed the blood rightly it cannot feed the cells, and if we do not feed the nerves rightly it cannot take away the wastes.

Medical science or the medical sciences are not exact. The laws of cause-and-effect do not hold as they do in branches of true sciences. There are too many factors at loose ends.

I am living in the home of Major Muhammad Sadiq. We have studied sciences of which the last is not aware. We have both had the some teacher. A marvelous man whose fame is just spreading now. His name is Maulana Abdul Ghafoor. From him I have learned to treat the world as a whole single body and to learn to appreciate the hearts and minds of other peoples; so I do not travel as a stranger. In San Francisco I sat in audiences or I was shut out of audiences. If I had any ideas, I was seldom permitted to express them. In the Orient, it was totally different. I was admitted into the company immediately of the top sages and later on of the top industrialists. Here it is no different, nor has it been different in Asia.

The Major has the gift of healing. There is a constant procession of people. Many of his patients have gone to Lourdes and he has even affected cures of some who have been there. He does this by the touch, by manipulation, by magnetizing water and by magnetizing bodies. These things are not as ample as they seen. He has two faculties which are not recognized in the West. They are called “Spiritual” and no doubt they are spiritual, but this does not make them non–material. The means are not to mental. He has a sense of feeling and a sort of sight or insight which enables him to locate and heal; and another faculty which enables him to diagnose when that is necessary. Usually he does not diagnose but when he is not successful he checks on the diagnoses of physicians

There are four schools of medicine here: Allopathic, Homeopathic, Greek and Indian. The last two are traditional from ancient times. The last three all use herb medicines, the Homeopathies being systematic; the Greek being based on the “humors,” the Indian or ayurvedic, I do not know at all. Between them they seem to affect a lot of cures.

I was thrown immediately into a cancer problem. The Major works with medical doctors and there was a case where he and the doctor had “lost face.” The patient was a brother of the doctor and this was not an ordinary doctor but the head of a big hospital. So the loss of face was very serious. Besides the Major seldom loses cases. He took me to the patient. I said that the man was holding a secret, either a loss or worry or there was somebody or something he hated or feared, or there was an event in his earlier life where in he felt he had submitted a sin—a sin and not a wrong. But a “sin” is a mark on one’s conscience for having done something against a code and is a mental more than an ethical tort. But whether mental or ethical it established a focus of infection and that focus could not he destroyed unless the patient stopped blaming himself. As the semanticists say, “God may forgive your sin but your subconscious own mind will not.” The patient denied this entirely and said he had clear so science.

His case did not improve. The major went again, the patient was adamant, but his pain became terrible. Then the Major demands a show-down and the patient broke down and as soon as he broke down the Major’s methods were effective and in the last days there has been a great improvement.

This is affected in part through magnetized water and when I referred your case to him he said he will take measures to send you his own magnetized water. I don’t know much about it and between times I have been exceedingly busy.

The major also has a brother who goes to a doctor for medicine. The first doctor was Allopathic, the brother goes to a Homeopath and I saw all the vegetable tinctures. I asked him about cancer and he said cancer is not a problem in Pakistan at all; they know how to cure it and he wants me to see him… All this happened before I received Leonora’s letter saying you were ill, in the hospital. I think it is remarkably coincidental and we shall see what can be done.

Both the Major and I are somewhat of legendary characters already. This being Lahore, I am more of a legendary figure than the major is, but of course in California it would be the other way around. Anyhow, we are planning a joint venture in California to bring in real Oriental philosophy and mysticism and I am trying to affect an arrangement with friends so that this can be done. It is not a matter of money but of channeling. There is no desire, in fact it would be a great danger to establish a cult, and we have plenty of cults, but we don't know the "wisdom of the East" on any level.

My letter can hardly be coherent. I am not the "Sam Lewis" of San Francisco. I am a number of characters with a number of rolls to fulfill. I have anticipated the Peace Corps and differ from the Peace Corps in that I am both a fact and a factor. We are not going to win any friends by the Peace Corps. The supposition that we are potters and the other [people clay is exceedingly anti-democratic and immoral. The Russians hold to it. The Russians and Americans are untied in what I call the Potter-Clay theory of trousers, tractors, irreligion and materials, and it will fall and fall.

Asians have cultures and prides. Imperialism and feudalism have de-humanized them but not deprived them of hearts and minds. These people are great on conferences. They can out-think everybody, even themselves. In fact they like to think and out-think, what they lack is doing. They plan and plot but they do not execute.

I've been meeting all kinds of people, and endless procession. Last night I was to dinner to an industrialist who is striving to expand the cement industry here. We had a very good number of talks. Generally the people present looked to me—on all subjects. It is very nice but so totally different from California it is hard to adjust to. I am treated with tremendous respect. When one goes into a room and not only ordinary people, but high government officials, army officers, bankers, industrialists and especially college professors stand when I come in, do not sit down until I sit down and listen attentively to everything I say it is hard to picture we are in the same universe.

Last night after we had discussed many subjects such as industrialization, development of natural resources, religion, philosophy, mysticism, etc., the host, Habibullah Khan Tiwana told me he had a complete system of socializing the whole society and has something in his mind like Social Credit. We are apt to confuse the term "socializing" with governmental ownership and not with the word "social." This was an anti-climax after a lot of climaxes.

My immediate problem is that I have not a future, I have a whole string of futures. I have been sent for to visit Malaya on a grand scale. My old associates would hardly appreciate that. My enemies—those who would never let me present my case—will be dumbfounded and a lot of them are going to be cleared out. I am not fooling, Wesley. We want world peace and understanding and employ humbugs. As Clemenceau said: "Peace and war are two things too serious to entrust to diplomats and generals." But we do entrust peace to diplomats and generals. And we entrust Oriental matters to a lot of self-elected persons, usually Europeans, who are anathema all over Asia. I was delighted and dumbfounded when the "Sherman Adams" of Pakistan attacked one of my leading enemies at our very first meeting. The deplorable situation of our looking to non-American, non-Asians as our "experts" and "authorities" for this continent is psychotic and the results can only be psychotic. There never was any Laotian problem. There was a unanimous refusal of our press to interview my American friend who lived and worked in Laos. They all regarded him as a trouble maker. Wesley, it is ten times easier to meet a Prime Minister than an editor. I don’t know whether I have met ten Prime Ministers or not, but I have not met a single American editor at any level, in regard to Asian affairs.

I have also had the negative satisfaction of seeing "Time" and "Life" debarred from Indonesia. Of course those people are "fanatics." The way to stop Russia is to call all neutralists and near-neutralists "fanatics." They just love that. So as we do not take Mr. Soekarno seriously, he does not take us seriously and has put on a comic opera show. There is a way of doing it. I do it myself but very few people will understand that Soekarno and I have had very similar training of substituting a false personality for a real one when you are not taken seriously.

Before leaving S.F. I met Porky at a diplomatic gathering. He was probably in delights when he got into that crowd. I pulled his leg all over the place. I called myself "Puck of Pukhtunistan." There were some Pathans there—the Pathans and Pushtus are the same. They confirmed everything I said. The Hindus confirmed. The Pakistanis confirmed. Porky did not know what it was all about.

Why, I am even now writing further to the Chamber of Commerce in San Francisco. I am not worried at all. Every week new opportunities and vistas before me. And while I give my first "official" public talk this week, something is going on all the time. And this in a city where it is up to 100° daily. I do not know how I live, but I am living.

My home is in Abbottabad and when I return I expect to meet my friend, Abdul Sattar, long stationed in S.F. It will be a high level meeting. By the time I get to Japan (Osaka) I shall be "Mr. San Francisco" and no kidding. That day is over. I had my future told again yesterday. I neither accept nor reject but the man told me I would not only conquer my enemies but forgive them and that a lot of people who have been standing in my way will now become friendly. I have been expecting that.

The sum and substance is that there is no bad news, only too much of it. I am going to be taken to mineral clay deposits, possibly to marble quarries and a lot of other things. The United States refused from one end to the other to take my reports seriously excepting in the Agriculture Department which accepted them all seriously—they were the same reports by the same person on the same matters.

We are not going to stop Russia by personalisms no matter who. Well, we now have Reischauer as Ambassador to Japan who is very popular in the Far East. Before him we had Mr. No. 2 who was very "popular" in the far east, far east of the Hudson! We manufacture heroes of straw and are surprised when they topple. Everybody from communist to Birch-barker lives in his own dream world which he misnames "reality" and which is filled with clay puppets. Human beings are of hearts and minds. They love and want to be loved. Everybody is seeking a kind of fulfillment and yet wants to bestow on others blessings of his own miseries, so to speak. If you suffer in a different manner there is something wrong with you. This is called sanity and civilization. Well, I'll have none of it, but I don’t want to confuse self-conceit with satisfaction and satisfaction with happiness.

I do not "prescribe" for medical patients and I am dead set against throwing empty maxims about presuming they comfort. At the moment I can't throw the weight of heaviness against you because the old dispensation is over for me. Conquering a nation or winning it for friendship is not difficult once we pass the potter-clay boundary. You and your friends have been working for peace; I have been working for friendship. But there is another "peace" of which we have only an inkling of in the West—you will find it at its best in Dr. Radhakrishnan. If you can ever get out of the hospital, and please do, report to Walt Baptiste, he is the best one in S.F. It may be hard at first, but you may be finding new life in some of the things he has to offer, really. Don't wait for me, I don’t know when I shall get back.

My very best,


Sufi Ahmed Murad

May 12, 1961

Dear Fred and Corinne:

The Hugo predictions are coming to pass at a great rate. I am with difficulty completing this communication. I meet saints, sages, seers and even spiritual teachers at a great rate. Many come to honor me. People who are regarded as non-existent float around or I meet them endlessly. Tomorrow night there will be a grand gathering including some of the biggest dignitaries of the region. In the morning I must write a big paper partly to be read, but especially to be published. Saturday night I am to be entertained by one of the richest men in the district. I have also met several other wealthy men.

They rather object to be called “non-existent” by stupid Europeans whom we select as our “experts” on Asia and whom we are afraid to remove lest we offend the Asians and the stream of dissidents in actual Asia includes everybody that is anybody and instead of meeting these people face to face we live in legends. It is not the masters of “the Far East” who are legendary, it is we, steeped in materialism who are legendary.

I went with the Major to a case of cancer which he had failed to heal. People had come all the way from Lourdes even and been healed and this cancer case he could not heal. I told him the man was hiding something; the patient denied this and again a failure. The suffering became unbearable and the patient confessed and the next treatments were successful.

There are four schools of healing here the Greek, Indian, Homeopathic and Allopathic. Between and among them they seem to be able to cure all diseases. I am particularly anxious about cancer and heart disease and I have already been given tips. I do not know whether I can follow it up on this journey which covers so many missions and I am only one person and busy all the time. I broke down in this heat, not necessarily from the heat—around 100°—but because of the totally different psychic and social atmosphere. I dare not repeat in detail what actually happens—few people would believe it. I am hoping there will be some Americans among my guests tomorrow night—they will get eye-openers.

Well I have asked about the Schloss estate and been told that it would be settled satisfactorily in 7 months. I cannot return to the U.S. soon and tonight it was definitely stated not for one year. I have much to do here, not to mention India and on top of that received a most important invitation from the friend of the Prime Minister of Malaya. I wish to see Mayor Poulson too, because he started me off. (It is very strange that the contest in L.A. should be between Norris, a former next-door neighbor, and Sam Yorty, a former pal. I win in either case, wowwie!)

The moneyed people who will be coming to these dinners will undoubtedly plan some campaigns either for the Major or myself or both together. These must be considered very carefully. I mentioned a little about “The Church of the Dawn.” We could easily combine this with Healing Sufism as we are outlining and practicing it here.

But this involves another of your interests in psychism and spiritual spiritualism. “Time” Magazine has been barred from Indonesia. We Sufis are tired of being called “fanatics” or else “non-existent.” We include within our numbers the Prime Ministers of Indonesia and Pakistan, not to mention Sudan and those questionable people, the Senussis—how is the doctor? Is he functioning? I think the idea of a Sufi healing coming to the U.S.A. might excite him, even affect him.

During the course of this writing more interruptions and some predictions, especially that after one year things will be entirely different for me in the U.S.A., and somewhat earlier in Pakistan and India. I might even have to visit UCLA and get some things straight there. The world cannot live half slave and half free and it cannot live half “real” and half “fantasy” and so far as much of Asia is concerned it is still fantasy on our part.

On the 15th we are going to shrines in Rawalpindi, the capitol city and will also consult oracles, so to speak, on the above and other matters. But I have still to clear up some things here. I started out with this best of intentions, but too many interruptions. Yet it is clear there is a “revolution” in the wind.

I am hoping to clear my main horticultural mission today. Everything is crowding, everything successful. Our main spiritual contact in West Pakistan is also Director of Food and Agriculture (there are no Sufis in politics and they never carry responsibility). Well I think this is enough sarcasm and it should not overcrowd the blessings. It is still a year off and much to be done, much to be decided. We can pray for you and intercede for you, we hope.

Love and blessings,


Sufi Ahmed Murad

Lahore, Pakistan

May 14, 1961

Prof. C. R. Cutright,

Department of Entomology,

Ohio Agricultural Exp. Station,

Wooster, Ohio

My dear Professor Cutright:

I have your letter of March 22nd and from the manner in which my program is operating, time is not a factor. Foundations are being laid and being most carefully and successfully laid, particularly in this country.

I am writing under considerably different circumstances today. In this country I am news. I should say that all facets of every type of program have reached a high level of what may be called “success.” Although I did not meet President Ayub, I had two long conferences with Secretary Shahab who occupies a position somewhat akin to that of Sherman Adams plus Lyndon Johnson and through him I have received presidential approval.

Quite independent of that I have been received in Lahore by the highest dignitaries and socially prominent and wealthy persons. This has made my program overfull and at a time when the thermometer reaches over 100° daily, plus invitations to grand dinners and receptions, keeping me busy all the time, but not promoting the best of health. This process is going on and there are every signs that it will continue.

Both these people and the executives in Agriculture that I have met tell me that I am the real “Peace Corps.” I have personally such a totally different approach to this subject of peace and I see no advantage in sending out amateur enthusiasts when this country, as Egypt, has graduates of our own American universities operating in its posts, men who will be glad to advise and assist us where we need advice and assistance most, and at no cost. There is a “Princeton-in-Asia” organization already in operation and I am suggesting that other universities or groups thereof utilize their alumni associations to promote peace and good-will.

I met a large delegation of farm-scholars from Kansas U. when I was in Karachi. These young men had already been, seen, lived in villages and completed rather successful missions of good-will and accomplishment. Yet according to present policies, particularly those of the press, they will be relatively or absolutely ignored and they too, have accomplished and done well. Every Pakistani I have met, and I have met many thousands, is or wishes to be attached to the land in some way and he is not very amenable to the potter-clay psychology used in international affairs.

This is a very long subject and I am finding much mineral wealth, etc., unexplored and unexploited.

I have been most successful in ridding myself of literature concerned with saline soils and horticulture in general. The idea is also to connect people of various lands together who have common interests. But I am carrying with me problems connected with soil erosion, agricultural literature and further examination of desert agriculture. This will take me two years and will require my crossing the continent again.

Some time ago I happened upon a book by an Englishman who laid down a tree program in 1911 or so, almost exactly what I have more recently suggested. Now I have before me a copy of Firminger’s Manual of Gardening printed in Calcutta in 1904 and so far as this part of the world is concerned I should say that 90% (ninety percent) of what I have been advocating is in that book. There are psychological roadblocks everywhere and not absence of knowledge or even “common sense” which holds the world back.

This is one item, however, which particularly interested or excited me:

Cyphomandra betacea or Tree Tomato. This is, of course solanaceous and was introduced into India from tropical America. It was propagated by seed. Naturally I am wondering whether anything has been done, or can be done about it. I have already gone into the subject of perennial Tomatoes.

Yesterday I called on Dr. Abdul Aziz Khan, Deputy Director of Agriculture, Central Jail Buildings, and unloaded on him the rest of my literature, dividing same into two portions: (a) plant protection, (b) crops. The latter includes Strawberries, Tomatoes and in discussion the Soy Bean, Avocado and drought tolerant crops. This will require a full program of following up.

Just before I left I met one Mian Muhammad Afzal Husain, who told me he had been the chief Entomologist of Pakistan and he is now retired, his address being 51/3 Lawrence Road, Lahore. Something drew me to this man and I wanted to meet him again. In the evening I was the guest of Syed Maratib Ali, who is Ford’s representative in this country and quite wealthy. There were a number of celebrities there. The last man who came to dinner was this same Mian Husain who did not know anybody and whom nobody else knew and he was seated right next to me. We have agreed that meetings and programs will be in order some time later on.

At the moment I must be in this city late in August or early in September. But even while writing I received a special invitation—through dignitaries too, to visit the new Agricultural Experimental Station at Lyallpur. And I must go to Rawalpindi, Mardan and Peshawar also. This will both take up my time and require me to see much of the country. I am, however, becoming a guest more and more and while the land is overbearing socially, my expenses have gone down enabling me to use moneys otherwise. And there is in the offing at least one organization, perhaps two, which will at least indirectly help me in my efforts.

Here the Pakistanis consider the idea of world-peace and understanding through horticultural and agricultural exchange far, far better than other proposals which have received more attention than careful consideration.

I appreciate your cooperation in regard to the seeds, knowing that this will redound to the benefit of our country and its international relations.


Samuel L. Lewis


May 18, 1961

My dear Harry,

You may remember that I hinted to you that I had had a past and it was not a particularly glorious past. Today I see the flowering and harvesting of every project I ever undertook in my whole life and going on at the same time with a fury that is both delightful and complicated.

Take the case of my poetry. When I was a little boy—and at 13 I was still mighty tiny—Archie Cloud gave me his blessing and I inferred that something was coming out of it. It was only in the months before I left S.F. that the poetry teachers of U. C. discovered I had something and it was a stranger, Admiral Evenson of the American Friends of the Middle East that proclaimed me. The Beatniks feared me for I beat them at their own game and the nice people do not like serious poetry. Well I was hardly here when I told you I had met secretary Shahab, the top civilian of this country, the chief expert on poetry and literature and the best friend of General Ayub. One page reading and three men demanded the Urdu rights. It is now being translated into Urdu and I was told it would be published but I have no time to take this up further with the bigwigs as I am in the midst of other things. I am also writing another epic and smaller poems which are acclaimed on reading and this is no nonsense.

When I left working for the army in 1945 they refused my resignation until I signed the heroes’ war book. “I am no hero.” “We know more about you, Mr. Lewis, than you know about yourself. No false modesty.” Well I had been turned down more times by the Intelligence and the FBI than one has fingers on their hands but I realize today that the rooms were bugged and perhaps I, too.

I was only last week able to tell somebody why Nixon was mobbed in India. It was withheld from the papers and the communists had little to do with it. Anyhow I faced the commies inn India and they had to run for their lives. No wonder there is a certain part of my memoires called “Madventures”—and they still go on, believe me. Since then I have seen a newspaper man who was mobbed in India—not printed in the U.S. papers, of course, promoted to a high governmental position.

I have long seen the warfare within the U.S. which I called “The Professor versus the Commentator” and thank God we have two professors admired in Asia as Ambassadors in India and Japan.

In California I was not even permitted to enroll in Islamic Studies. When I got to Harvard they would have me all right, but how? As teacher. Where did I get that wisdom? My knowledge did not change, merely the reactions of persons and the politics of institutions and here I am teaching in Islamics and I have been in many places where Americans don’t go. We never interfere with local religions, but those nice, gentlemanly, Marquis-of-Queensberry infiltrators, the Russians, are not so bound by the rules they lay down and accept.

I have recently written a cousin a letter entitled, “Four, Just Men.” I have a personal underground which in turn grape vines the whole of Asia. After Pearl Harbor, of which I had been forewarned, I resolved it would never happen again. But it did no good. I may have many letters still concerning Vietnam and Laos, but I have recently received an invitation from one of those men to come as the guest of the Prime Minister of Malaya which will probably be accepted.

Another one invited me first to Asia and said: “Sam, all Asia needs you,” etc. The fourth is Bryn Beorse Shamcher who is one of the grandest men on earth, a cloak-and-dagger here, friend of Dag Hammarskjold, cousin of at least one Prime Minister of Norway, the most thinking man I ever met in economics and long engaged in research to produce fresh water from the ocean at low cost, etc. He has also been in the recesses of the Himalayas, met real Yogis in caves and had a long string of experiences. He does everything well but get along with his wife, which is a great misfortune.

It did not take long for me to find my place here due to the combination of the friendship of Ansar Nasri, or Radio Pakistan, friend of Secretary Shahab; and now major Sadiq, friend of General Ayub. I had to stay in Lahore during the heat and had a feast every night, meeting millionaire industrialists, high army officers, high judiciary and other governmental officials, professors, etc. I have told you about the chief Entomologist already. I left the city gloriously worn out and stayed in Rawalpindi two days going to the movies in the P.M. This gave me one morning about which I shall write here.

It is written in a mixture of laughter and tears. Someday some thick headed editor in the U.S. will recognize that the peoples of the world are not concerned with “foreign aid,” “dialectics,” “cold war” or “space conquest.” Here there are two problems which dominate everything and anything and to me, show that the people are far more sensible than most. Their primary concerns are God and saline-soil problems and anybody coming here not acquainted with these is going to have a hard make-shift no matter that college he graduated from or what newspaper he worked for. True that the problems of the desert and eroded lands are also immense but it is impossible to take up all these things at once; and it is difficult for me to handle the situations before me. I am not an expert on saline soils but I am an expert in finding out what bothers others and than trying to do something about it.

The imbalance of this report is the imbalance of the facts of life. You may remember how the Japanese were so amateurish in Rose growing although the terrain and weather were suitable therefore; and the Thai the Egyptians very successful because they made a study. I had long concluded that the lands around Lahore and Rawalpindi were self-sufficient in K and deficient in N and P just by looking at the flowers.

In touring the agricultural Exp. Station at Rawalpindi I ran into the difficulty that Horticultural and Botanical Training are different. The latter includes the “experts” which means they did not dirty their hands. They had fine minds but did not have to have “green thumbs” and the Horticulturist was different. He had to know how to plant, prune, graft and bud without knowing the nomenclature, etc.

The one flower which struck me here has been the Larkspur. They are tall, immense, and bushy. In sharp contradistinction are the Snaps which are terrible, no foliage and few flowers to the stalk, seldom branched. I had long concluded that this was due to the Soil Condition. They had no soil report and there is a dearth of soil chemists, etc. in this land. I have fore borne taking a testing set—too much luggage—but I hope somebody someday will look into the matter.

I have seen shrubby Godetias and the best flowers of this type; also the related Clarkias do very well. I regret, however, to report that I missed the flower show in Abbottabad, held in my absence. Day Lilies are now in bloom and many Mexican flowering plants and low shrubs have been adopted in this Exp. Station. Roses do not do good, Dahlias much better flowering early in the warm climate, Phlox well, Sweet William very fine and some relatives thereof which I cannot name. Cone flowers in bloom offering contrast colors, Verbena excellent, Nasturtiums good. Achilleas very, very fine. Hibiscus and Nicotiana just coming out. Sunflowers and Hollyhocks doing fairly well (not enough N). Cosmos very fine (I don’t think they need so much N and do well with K). There were not only Gaillardias of the type I have seen but a compounded relative, also Margaurites, Pansies, Turk’s Cap. Gardenias doing well but not yet in blossom.

There were not many Ornamental trees around, the chief being a Cypress and one which looks like a Robinia, having excellent “brush” like flowers almost like some Myrtacea, but the leaves and pods were distinctly a Robinia type. I shall try to see Abdul Hamid Khan soon and see if he can identify it. The local name is “Shireen” which is Persian for a beautiful maiden. (Incidentally being a flower man—and may be told you, I must not touch plants, but this still does not stop me from lecturing to over a hundred beautiful maidens and getting an ovation and re-invite!)

It is very hard for me to comment on the Vegetable section as this was being used for seeds and you see immensely tall Carrot plants. I was very happy about B. vulgaris for I have been howling about more Beets here and all I run into is opposition. I tell them about Utah which is non-existent for them. This is due to a certain stubborn psychology wherever one finds Indian blood—a priori rejections. I say that the Sugar Beet can become the Salvation of Pak. as it was of Utah and maybe it will.

Then came one of the great shocks of my life and I still do not know whether to laugh or cry, and it is very, very serious. Between the Ornamental Flower and the Vegetable-seed section were huge hedges with green-bluish flowers, excellent: Artichokes! They did not know these were vegetables; they used them in flower arrangements! They make beautiful ones.

Now Harry, we sent out experts and point four people and all kinds of people from all kinds of branches of the U.N. They are making a survey for the great problem of Pakistan, malnutrition. On one hand I had to point out wild mustard and dandelions to a doctor of one school, elsewhere I find a doctor of another school using all sorts of even common flowers and weeds for medicinal purposes and to stop malnutrition. But as in India the communications are blocked. This seems to be as terrible as malnutrition itself.

I never saw better Artichoke bushes. They are naturals here and they are one of the plants I have long predicted as naturals. They have a certain amount of Na-Cl (rather than just “salt” tolerance) and there they were. Wonderful hedges and wind-breaks, full of buds and flowers. I had them pick those not in full bloom and when I go there again will re-check. This is most important and in a country whish suffers from malnutrition.

The Orchard and Small fruits are still in experimental state. The Citrus sp. has the weather problem—a report below. Many grapes have been introduced from Bauchistan. The strawberries are just coming to bloom. Fortunately unlike India, they have not doused them with N. and the fruit looks promising at this time not overcrowded with leaves. Other small fruits have not been introduced. There is much experimental work with Pear-stocking mostly for budding and grafting work. I did not go into Agronomy section.

At this point I also feel a sense of deep dissatisfaction with myself. I can almost long to return to study and perhaps I will but the pressures in other directions are terrific.

The office discussion which followed was so important that I am longing to have some good sessions with you as soon as possible upon my return. This “cold war” had made us mad and we do not look upon the earth and its problems any more. I did not know the PH if the soil although I imagine it is fairly high. The soils are fairly heavy and are of K-types.

The Legume section later gave me the weather and rainfall report which I copy for my own records:

Max. Min. Inches Max. Min. Inches

July 101º 69º 11.0 Jan. 67º 34º 2.8

Aug. 102º 74º 11.1 Feb. 80º 40º 2.9

Sept. 98º 72º 11.7 Mar. 81º 43º 3.2

Oct. 96º 64º 3.5 Apr. 94º 44º 1.6

Nov. 84º 43º 3.6 May 105º 54º 0.2

Dec. 72º 35º 1.1 June 113º 64º 0.5

Now as I have always predicted Amsulph will not work. High temperatures and heavy rain with pH 7 or over means the disintegration and loss of NH3 gas and so the N goes back to the air. I think I previously reported this that in Hong Kong they were losing their farms, in Thailand they only use organic manures and fertilizers and in India they are stuck. Even today Burma flourishes and East Pakistan starves with very similar conditions.

My informants told me that the chief result of Amsulph was the destruction of soil organisms and that this had worked terrible havoc. I gave him roughly the Sam Higginbotham formula. They had never heard of Fish Emulsion, etc. This leaves an immensely wide field open and I think something should and must be done. And this was the second big thing that came out of this visit.

At this discussion also came up the problem of Bone Meal. There was a lot of bones, waste from the meat industry and they have been conditioning them for manures, but they do not know how to use them. Actually they use Superphos which they have found much better and this is put into the soil 1-3 months prior to sowing or seeding. It seems to work very well. The “organic” value of Bone meal is counterbalanced by its slowness of availability and also by the fact that in the heavy soils there are not so many bulb plants. But actually I do not consider myself enough of an authority here. The staff did not think they should utilize the Bone Meal as a “money-crop”—i.e. it is exported to foreign lands now, especially Holland. This leaves the matter open.

There was some discussion about Avocados which I think they need but I am a little timid about any large-scale plant introductions until there is more knowledge of the soil. The above rainfall, concentrated in three hot months has a great effect upon sowing and counter indicates multiply cropping during the year. The land is too flat, off-hand for dams and reservoirs, but one can see hills not too far away which may make damning and also water-power important, I had already been the guest of the concrete industrialists but the government policy limits the local manufacture of this commodity and I quite agreed with the industrialist that this is a serious error. And without the concrete you cannot build dams. (Incidentally concrete is very well used on the highways for catch-basins, culverts, etc., etc.)

After that I went to the Legume sub-station. Unfortunately they had depended on FAO and a lot of UN people who have wonderful ideas but are not aware of facts. Seeds of 60 varieties of Soy Bean were sent—always one year too late with no knowledge of variety. They lost all but one single species. Here again one does not know whether to laugh or cry. Harry, I consider this very serious and this was always almost too much. So I am going to work and will work hard. Worse I have not had answers to my letters on this subject so will try again. I think it is most important—and I can’t go home, not with my invitation to Malaya from the Tops. I must stay here. Soon I shall go to Mardan where I will make my appointment for a later visit to my friend Jamshyd Khan, the big farmer of the area. . . I hope this is coherent, but basically it is my diary.


Samuel L. Lewis

Abbottabad, May 18

My dear Lemanda,

I have just come back from Lahore after what has been, perhaps, the most two important weeks of my life. I have to write my diary so I am doing this, the diary being the carbon of this letter.

Now it just happens that I was living with Major Mohammed Sadiq there. He is my spiritual brother and a healer. I am now waiting for a telegram from him which may come the next few days and I must join him on another trip. While I was with him I received a letter that my old and trusted friend, Walley Milley whom you know well is I the Southern Pacific Hospital with cancer. The Major says usually he sends specially magnetized water to patients in far off lands. In any case I am going to show him your letter.

He has been a very famous man. He used to live in the city of Jhelum and people come from all over Pakistan. He thinks he has treated about a million people. I saw some cures in my own presence. He also works with hospitals and doctors and I went with him to one hospital on a cancer case and to another on a T.B. case. He works every morning with the army and rests a while in the afternoon. After 5 o’clock he treats people until it is dark, then he goes to hospitals some times.

While I was with him there was feast every night. This was hard because it was very warm in the daytime, sometimes the thermometer going to 105°. And I could not walk in the heat and besides everybody treated me like a great person. Not only did the servants wait on me but all kinds of people and it is hard to believe that even some of the richest and holiest men in Pakistan waited on me. It was like living in a dream. Sometimes I went to mansions for feasts and the other times army officials and doctors and generals and ex-generals and top people in all walks of life came to see me.

I spoke some in a Mosque to thousands upon thousands of people and must have shaken hands with at least two thousand of them. I have been to many dervish meetings and was received like a holy man ans sat with teachers. I have been to shrines where Americans do not go and soon will be visiting more shrines.

You see, Lemanda, this is my home and these are my people. In this life I had to be born in a Western body so I could bring Oriental teachings to America. But this is new and hard for me. It is easy to live with the Punjabis either on this side or on the Indian side. I feel as home with that. I also feel at home with the Pathans. I can eat their food easily. The only thing I sometimes miss is coffee but you can get Nescafe. I stopped at Rawalpindi before and after going to Lahore and had excellent ice-cream there and went to dinner for relaxation. But I also had interviews there.

All my interviews with the Horticulturists have been successful, also with the engineers. They think I am doing what Kennedy wishes the Peace Corps to do. But you can’t send young strangers here. The people will challenge anybody’s religion and start arguments. They like to argue more than they like to work. Everybody here is wise in thinking but not in action. You really can’t tell them, they already know, they just don’t do.

In a sense I am becoming an expert in certain fields. This is especially true on agricultural literature and some kinds of problems. The problems here are erosion, salty soils and deserts. The people are only interested in soil problems and religion. They are not interested in space travel and dialectics and our kind of politics no matter what the newspapers say. Newsmen don’t associate with the common people and they can’t associate with the millionaires and cabinet ministers. Me, I am different, I can and do associate with everybody.

This was the holy land of the Vedas and it is still full of spiritual teachers, although some are pretenders, but some are not. Even President Ayub visits shrines and is a “fanatic” from our point of view. In fact all the rich are as “fanatical” as the poor. They visit holy men and holy shrines and believe a lot of things which the “respectable” American would dare believe. But it is even harder to believe that they came to see me, everybody it seems came to see me because Major Sadiq has friends all over, including President Ayub whom I hope to see before I leave Pakistan. After all I have been I “The White House” and over the phone he gave approval to what I’m doing and added more.

When I went to the shrines people threw garlands and garlands over me. They are something like the Hawaiian leis, but when you have a dozen or so around your neck they get heavy. I met the Naqshibandi and Chisti Sufis. It is too long to tell you about them. I also spoke at the university and over a hundred beautiful college girls came to hear me and want to hear me some more. So I shall speak at the Lahore Museum in September on the same subject, which was Islamic Art.

I could not get anybody to listen to my poetry in San Francisco and here everybody wants to hear it so I am writing more. Every morning in Lahore I visited the American Consulate or the universities or the agricultural experts, then rested and after five everything happened. When the richest man in Pakistan invites you to his home twice in a short while it is something. I am hoping we can organize to bring Major Sadiq to America to present his spiritual healing.

I also want this on account of my first dancing partner, Mrs. Hazel Reeve of Mill Valley. She has long been paralyzed and I am much concerned with her. I never had a chance to really fall in love and by the time I was on my feet financially she was a victim. I do not know whether God wants me to marry or not. I still feel pretty chipper. In San Francisco they don’t believe I know much about Oriental Philosophy but they admit my age; here they say I know the philosophy but they won’t accepted my age.

I did see a few movies in Rawalpindi. They can’t have TV here—too many languages. In this district at least four languages are spoken and over the hills to the west another one.

Abbottabad is in hills somewhat like Marin Country. You go south and east of Rawalpindi which is the temporary capital. Lahore is about 150 miles east of that, a very beautiful and historical city full of shrines and tombs and the most famous Shalimar Gardens. It has many parks and trees and flowers and much of it is landscaped. It is said the British did more there than anywhere else on the sub-continent.

President Ayub has cleaned up Pakistan and is doing much to help it. He is very honest, sincere, religious and most of all spiritual. We cannot realize how a most spiritual man should be both the head of the army and operate the government. But that is the way it is. Actually behind the scenes here are great spiritual teachers and this may mean that Pakistan will be a great Nation. People really believe in God and among the educated I have found the finest characters in the whole world.

I am back in my bungalow near the college. It is warm elsewhere but cool in my rooms. Tomorrow I shall write to S.F. on my horticultural and scientific ventures. I am only hoping that the University of California and others will take my experiences seriously. I am waiting for my friend, Abdul Sattar to arrive. During June and July there will be a great many visitors here because the plains will be very hot and then a lot of heavy rainfall will follow. I have been fortunate to secure this place.

I am trying to get the government interested in teaching folk dancing. A little more natural outlets for the young and they won’t have to worry about unrest. But there is not enough play or diversion here.

I won’t be home for a long, long time. I have now an invitation to visit Malaya from a friend of the Prime Minister. I sometimes wonder why I should come back home at all. Here I am honored and could even live without paying room and board! But America needs to learn about Asia and I think now I know as much about Asia, its history, philosophy, religion and esotericism as anybody.


Abbottabad, May 26

My dear Harry:

It is very beautiful here now. The Walnuts are in blossom and there are some excellent Euonymus and dwarf conifers standing out nearby. Larkspurs and Godetias dominate the flowering plants. And it seems that several ideas of contemporary architecture and landscaping have been introduced here. Privets, of course, are the leading shrubs, but Barberries are both cultivated and wild.

I had a long and almost sorrowful visit with Dr. Hamid Khan, the forest botanist. I had just missed Secretary Cheema. They had talked about the harm done by goats and the need of reforestation. He told me that despite the shales, it would be easy to plant trees. So today I climbed the mountain to the east—perhaps 2500-3000 feet high. It is quite evident it was a Pine forest and trees were removed. There are young Pines on the lower reaches. There were leaf deposits all over and people even “mine” the soil in certain places.

I was amazed at the number of Pomegranates growing all over and between them Barberries. Wherever it was flat the Pomes grew even into trees, but on the top too I found them and doing excellently. This shows that trees can be planted and small fruits, too. I saw plenty of young Eucs, whether escaped or man-planted, I do not know. In this there is hope for these could provide fuel and stop this ghastly dung business. If this were Japan the whole hill-side would be covered.

It is also curious that we have periodic rains in this “dry” season, sometimes even heavy thunder storms. There is no reason excepting lassitude and inertia which prevents a program from going through. But I have become at least partly cynical. Do we have to wait for the Russians to introduce the obvious tree-planting?… There were not many wild flowers, chief being a small Mallow and a relative of Hound’s Tongue. But still I feel my inadequacy at botanizing.

Some of the reactions and events are contained in a copy of a letter to the Embassy. We can stop the Russians simply by accepting reports and information from our people abroad and listening to them. It would cost nothing and satisfy a lot of gripers, and perhaps for reason. But they seem totally ineffective and thwarted.

I have discussed with Dr. Hamid also the further introduction of California natives of any kind which might grow here and be beneficial. We took up the matter of Rhus—although I wonder if they require a semi-acid or neutral soil; my impression here is that the soils around here are of high pH. This has not only come from the observation of high K, but I am told definitely the underpinnings are limestone. One does not see many acid tolerant plants and one certainly does not get the “feeling” of acidity in any of the higher places—a little, but not too much in the wetter regions around Haripur which is in the valley below. We also remarked about the need of soil-testing kits which would be invaluable. I hope to God that somebody in the “Peace Corps” dreams this up before the Russians do.

I am waiting for a letter from Jamshyd Khan, the most successful farmer to the west. After that I should be going into the hill areas in every direction from here. I met another wealthy man who is interested in basic democracy and told him that this country needs nothing but mineral surveying and tree planting. He jumped up and embraced me. I find that the wealthy and successful people here seem to have a monopoly on brains and practicality. This may be due to feudal heritage. The amount of wasted time—beggars, gossipers, tea drinking is enormous and you can almost taste the hidden wealth.

The death of Sir Syed Maratab Ali, the wealthy man who gave me two grand feasts in Lahore removed a man who seemed ready to back me in many of my projects, but I was not expecting help that soon. But I have met his sons and may meet them again before leaving the country. All one needs here is a trench pick to plant trees and dig for ore samples, but I have not seen one. If I do, God help (or bless) Pakistan.

Faithfully, Samuel L. Lewis

May 27

I wrote the above at night when I was tired and omitted the most important thing: the water requirements of plants.

There is the grave danger in discussing anything that has to do with international relations and that is one is told that the UNO or UNESCO or UNICEF is looking after it and you are wasting your time. I have already reported on the lack of viability in the soy beans sent as seed to Rawalpindi. A few years back I think I told you the story of the seed-corn in Hyderabad. And that is exactly what the officials are afraid of. Bring up a problem as they see it and they will be told it is already handled by some international organization and they have nothing to worry about. Then they worry more. Russia is not bound by any such nonsense—they are sending in prospectors and saline-soil engineers and we are going to get it!

I wrote you from UAR about how the experimental gardens were laid out in Cairo University, that they used a flooding irrigation method without gates. What they wanted to know is the water requirements of plants, etc. This is the big thing here. If an impersonal organization takes over they are liable to give 100 trees, with different ecological and natural aptitudes; some nursery man or “expert” will help in the planting and leave exact or inexact (more likely) directions for their care.

Between ignorance, laziness, and uncertainty of water supply trees are either left to “Allah” i.e. rains, or they are irrigated, and how. No peasant can easily be trained as to different water requirements of different crops. A wise person would place crops with similar water requirements close to each other and in whatever I have suggested I have kept this in mind. I am not too sure of grapes, for example, because it rains at the wrong time here.

I hope to go over the pamphlets and find out more about this and see which States have experimented; more I want to take this up either in person or get proper books.

I am now reading with much zest, Introduction to Plant Geography by Nicholas Polunin. This is an expensive book, borrowed from the college library across the way. I was surprised to find nothing on Cynodon dactylon. But while the writer is an expert, he has done all his previous writing on Arctics—and I say Arctics because this covers oceanography, ornithology, and botany and all parts of the circumpolar world—Russia, Canada, Greenland, etc. Besides the book is an “Introduction” and it has much of tremendous value. I do not know at this writing where I shall live and whether I shall want to build up my own library or buy books for someone and borrow from him from time to time.

In any case between this book and the above conversation I know there can be undergraduate work on the simple problem of water requirements of plants, and these perhaps in sandy, silt and clay soils, and with two different pH arrangements but not more (say lime and peat) at the bottom of the pot, or plots. When one goes into new lands without this information there is much waste, even tragedy. These things are not reported but they go on.

There is one other complicating problem here, and that is caste. These people argue about our Negroes, but you ain’t seen nothin’ brother.



May 28

The American Friends of the Middle East,

323 Geary St., San Francisco

Dear Admiral Evenson and Friends,

In the course of many events here I have neglected to make entries in my diary which I am now doing, sending you a letter therefrom. The rush of affairs and the multiplication of personalities into my life are more than I can assimilate and yet, from appearances at this writing, I shall have to speed up rather than retard, until I embark on local traveling and adventuring which are in the offing.

When I called at your office in Lahore I made it clear that any movement here which would purport to introduce Pakistani culture into the United States should be watched closely so that moneys would not be poured into duplicate or rival projects. At that time I had just had one visit to the home of the late Syed Marstab Ali and there were rumors of another affair. This did come off and some days later I was dining in the midst of the biggest and richest people in that part of Pakistan. It is not necessary to mention names or details, but there were and are some outstanding features.

In the first place there is that terrible nonsense masquerading as Islamic Philosophy and Sufism within the walls of our colleges and universities which has nothing whatever to so with reality. Professors, apparently only of foreign back-grounds or else tinged with Zionism, give a very warped and distorted picture of what Sufism is, based on deductions from translations or traditions. They have very few contacts and their tendency is to belittle Sufism because they either did not find Sufism or were not over-welcomed.

Now it is not my intention to defend Sufism or Islam but to point out that it is not an easy thing to be feted and dined night after night by the big persons who unanimously declare themselves to be disciples of Sufi teachers. This happened psychologically first when Secretary Shahab attacked in a very un-diplomatic manner—from our point of view—the strange predilection we have for authorizing non-American, non-Muslims as the “top brass” for our (mis)information. This has been so old hat to be it is disgusting. But ten on top of that one big personality after another comes forth and either calls on me or meets me at social functions and emphasizes exactly the opposing of scholastics, one wonders where to go next.

Anyhow within a week after I saw him Syed Marstab Ali died and I did send one notice to my former employer, Mr. Russell Smith of Ross who undoubtedly met this gentlemen or his sons during the course of his travels or functions. One often wonders how many of this type of men have to get public notices or whether I shall have to bring cards signed by Secretary Shahab, Lt. Gen. Shaikh and President Ayub to the effect that they are disciples in Sufism and whether this will do any good at all.

The aftermath of this is that now I am on the social register, so to speak, at Abbottabad and have a long refusal list too—my stomach is limited, simply because innumerable persons in this far off land wish to demonstrate that they are existing personalities. This includes most of the men I have been meeting in the course of my scientific exhibitions, etc.

I am referring to my three closets’ friends and myself as “Four, Just Men.” I think among us we have met about everybody in Asia, and I think among us we have had exactly two newspaper interviews and nothing important published by any big paper. I have long written my last protest about this for quite another reason which is also Creolism.

I have written about “finds” here, Moghul jewelry and mineral resources. No answers. This has not interfered with the negotiations on the jewelry—elsewhere of course and the extension of the Russians from Petroleum to other hidden wealth. New the French have come in. This district is full of ores and the other day I was with a man who believes he has Uranium. I may take this up with Americans around Peshawar. There is one local difficulty and that with the transfer of the capitol, government officers are constantly moving and there is often a sudden change in personal, too.

Well we have had plenty of conferences on the saline-soil problem, which is one of the worst and the next thing, after the Americans and Pakistanis have conferences, the Russians send in experts. This goes on and on.

I have differed from my fellow Americans in that I ask the authorities what they think they want or need. All I am doing basically came out of conversations with Minister M.A. Cheema of Food & Agriculture. I did not propose, I asked. We Americans tend to look over the country, see needs and offer help; we do not always ask and so we have the strange complex of insisting on one hand that these people are staring and undernourished and on the other hand of offering help in almost every other direction.

It is not amusing to come and offer certain suggestions and be rebuffed in my own country and come back and have the Pakistanis make the same suggestions over and over. There is no difference of opinion, there is difference in effectiveness. But now, instead of whishing newspapers to accept anything from me, I am afraid, because once it gets into the press the Russians will supply the need.

For instance I am a strong person for Soy Beans. I am going to make one final effort to get them introduced properly. I know what will happen in some quarters if I spoke on this subject. Oh, the UNO is taking care of that; UNICEF has solved the problem; there is UNESCO. Russians do not let these words or institutions fool them. One of these impersonal organizations sent a lot of Soy Bean seeds to the experimental station—exactly one variety grew. Waste of money, time and effort, excepting of course, the written reports which would be most favorable—and useless.

Or there is the group collecting money to help solve the pest-problem in UAR Collecting money, yes. And my friend, Dr. Hasan Salah, graduate from the University of California, top pest-control man in UAR crying for equipment. That from Germany and Russia in deficient and I know exactly what I am talking about here.

It becomes very difficult to reconcile a life torn about so oppositely. But I am deluging the Embassy with letters and reports, hoping that someday some will be accepted. One of the most frustrating has been the approved in UAR list which was sent on to Washington and dead-ended. Even if I have to wait until I return, I will tell these in person; some I think too fundamental to commit to writing even for my memories. I do not wish anybody to see them.

In the midst of my over busy period at Lahore I received an invitation from one of the “Four, Just Men” who is functioning now as a close associate of the Prime Minister of Malaya. This invitation is being accepted though I cannot foresee when I can reach those shores. It is part of the same complex of the difference between Islamic culture and what is taught in the schools. Very often what is known as Islam has departed as far from the teaching of Mohammed as, let us say, the Roman Catholic Church or the Latter Day Saints have departed from those of Jesus Christ. I think “departed” is an unsemantic term. Things are not like that. Religions tend to become often tremendous organizations, even like universes, not to be subject to personality evaluations but dare scientific and sociological studies to find out what they are and why.

So many books present certain principles after which they throw on costs of white ash or mud according to the purpose of the author. It does not occur to the student that these people are giving us photographs or maps. We are going through Id-festival here but I doubt if 5% of the people know what it is all about—I didn’t myself. Or Christmas and even more out Easter have tended far from the biblical settings and may not even be biblical festivals. But they are living institutions, and may even be regarded as “grand ones” outside over-commercialism.

Then there is a very curious turn in my own life. I used to play with being Mr. Puck of Pukhtunistan—the largest real, imagination country in the world.” I did not dream that this would be followed by over-welcomes from every sort of Pathan-speaking person I have not. I am almost in a dilemma at this writing concerning invitations from so many quarters. I am waiting, for courtesy’s sake, for a certain letter but within a week or so may be departing for the frontier section, some part. Against this has been the meeting of top forestry man who are also inviting me to their sectors.

Actually the Pukhtunistan complex is involved with one of my ironical outlines?

Russia may send spies to Asian lands but not teachers

American may send teachers to Asian lands but not spies

Asiastan may send teachers to Russia but not spies

Asiastan may send spies to America but not teachers

There is far more truth in this seeming nonsense. I think there has been exactly one Pakistani teacher in the whole country to teach about Pakistan—there may be more teachers from here but on other subjects. If you go over the roster of instructors in our colleges and universities you will find all sorts of men, but not Nationals of this country. On the other hand Russia is constantly inviting Pakistanis, both students and teachers, to come and “inform” them about this land.

As a reflex I expect of write Sectary Shahab about the library systems in the U.S. and how they handle books on Urdu, Moghul cultures, Sindhi. Etc. I took this up with your colleagues in Karachi where I was so pleased with their library, so totally different from the establishments in the U.S. The Pakistani—U.S. alliances seem to stop often at their front doors.

While I am writing some negative things here I shall not come to any ultimate conclusion yet, as I have been informed that Asia foundation is going to have a conference, here at Abbottabad sometime in the summer. This is a great summer resort, and certainly the weather is wonderful here while it is overbearing in the plains.

The border incidents continue. Part of them are due to the weakness in the Pakistanis themselves who demand a plebiscite for Kashmir but will not permit one for Pukhtunistan. Actually I believe if there were a real plebiscite—which I hardly expect—not only could the Pathans vote heavily for Pakistan on this side, but on the other side, too. A complete plebiscite of all Pathans may surprise nobody but it is as “unthinkable” as one on Azerbaijan, etc. Only the democracies may have plebiscites.

As to Kashmir I know nothing and have my hands too full although I may visit Azad Kashmir. This in part because of Tourism. This government is building hostels and inns all over. The only thing is that they do not inform the tourists how to reach such places. The foreigners land at Karachi far off.

They have also made some serious psychological mistakes. While the Tourist magazine says foreigners are given discounts, the actuality is that the best hotels have upped their rates. I am trying to get information. This is bad policy. Actually I know a lot of second-class hotels where one could live very reasonably here and spend money in the bazaars and buy local wares instead of living in luxury hotels.

I may also take out another bank account so I can learn more functions, I already have two Bank of America and two Habib Bank accounts, but I am getting rid of my last traveler’s cheques to open another account. This will enable me to have moneys wherever I go and to report to travel agents, etc. how to carry on. This will be important if the tourism does extend into the new regions as the government hopes.

There is one final matter which is a little trying. I have been bombarded by so many young men who want to come to colleges in the U.S. And when I go and get the information, etc. they tend to disappear. In UAR I must say that when they wanted to come to U.S. for higher education, they wanted just that. In Pakistan and India I think I have met all told eight young men whom I offered to sponsor in turn; no taker. And this does not include a far greater number who say they want information. On this side, however, there is also the “Indianesque” feature—they want desk jobs. The field is wide open for engineers and scientists, but no to many injuries.


Samuel L. Lewis

Sufi Ahmed Murad

May 30, 1961

My dear Rudy,

Seldom does one have the opportunity to throw all the eggs in one basket and in this communication that is exactly what is being done. You will probably find things here appealing to many or all aspects of your life and perhaps with some rejoicing or satisfaction.

One of the great American classics is The Great Stone Face of Hawthorne which shows the strange propensity of wanting to select even Messiahs by democratic processes. In the midst of a “cold war” a politician or newsman spending three days here will have an almost absolute priority over an engineer or scientist spending twenty five years. The careerist who has put in his whole life in the orient is unnoticed and we are going to send out a lot of slightly aged children labeled “peace Corps” who are going to serve the Russians well. For they are going to find that people will question them on religious subjects wherein they have neither been briefed nor educated and that all American aid is nullified by the atrocious movies and some literature which is always available at book stores in which communistic money is invested.

The same applies to spiritual things. The work laid out for me by Pir-o-Murshid Hazrat Inayat Khan was of world significance, and the very magnitude prevented anything I tried to convey, rejected. We apply democratic processes to these things. There is one Marion Beaufait, a spiritual sister, who hosted that Spalding who wrote books on Life and Teaching of the Masters of the Far East utter frauds, but he was given a grand welcome by the “elite” and, of course, by the metaphysical people who decide everything by whim and personality and are as lacking in the deep insight as they are keen superficially (they are, however, well above the materialists).

Pir-o-Murshid Hazrat Maulana Abdul Ghafoor added to the work given by Inayat Khan and in addition pointed out to me the path of the Khalandar. I guess Americans know this word from the Scheherazade Suite or from the Arabian Nights, but how can they learn anything about realities from the Europeans and Zionists who control the Islamic culture in America? Soekarno has to travel through America as a clown because the country is totally unable to discern what a true dervish or fakir is. And we shall continue to apply it to the nail-sitting Hindus and never to the true fakir who decides the destinies of Pakistan. I mean to say that this country is today almost entirely under the control of the Sufi-fakirs and no newspaper man and few professors can appreciate this. So the world of realities and realism remain far apart.

I cannot go into detail here excepting to say that all my missions, all without exception have been accepted no matter who in the S.F Bay region says what on anything. My poetry, which could not even get a reading until Admiral Evenson of the American Friends of the Middle East arrived, was gobbled up immediately by the highest authorities and I am in the midst, among other things, of writing further spiritual poetry which will live on.

I am in the Punjab which is the region of the Vedic rishis and I have even seen sacred spots which must have been the habitat of great ones of long age. It is so evident that I am now in the homeland of former incarnations and the receptions are beyond my capacity. Two weeks ago Syed Marstab Ali Shah died. He was one of the wealthiest and most influential men in Pakistan. I was guest at his house twice, meeting so many top level persons and the one thing we had in common and we did have in common was an interest in Sufism. This despite all the drivel that is mis-taught in our universities and all the nonsense that our press insists upon using with regard to “fanatics” and “fakirs.” These men, despite their wealthy, education and position were fakirs and they know how to empty their minds ad fill their hearts with God and spirituality.

At that time I was dwelling with my spiritual brother, Mohammed Sadiq, a Major in the Army who possesses a divine gift of healing and uses it. Every afternoon there were two long processions—lower class people to be blessed and healed by him and higher class people to meet me and discuss Sufism. Some came to teach, some to learn, some to discuss. But all welcomed an unusual spiritual brother from across the ocean.

I am shortly to write to Pir-o-Murshid Abdul Ghafoor for advice, to ascertain when he may be coming here. For his relatives live in Abbottabad and his own teacher is at Mardan which is not far away.

I spoke in a great mosque in Lahore before thousands; I addressed two assemblages of Sufis there; I was acclaimed at Punjabi University. I put in the hands of actual scientists and engineers the materials discussed in high level conferences and reported in the papers. They discuss I do, and shall continue to do. But I do not wish to go into this further except to say despite any and all or whomsoever of what level, capacity, function, outlook etc. in the San Francisco Bay region all my proposals and functions have been accepted without exception and usually at the very top level. This is outlook, too.

I returned to Abbottabad pretty well worn from so many dinners and honors and now I am palsy-walsy with Supt. of Police Sardar Abdul Rani who is also a spiritual brother of President Ayub, the fakir, despite all our nonsense. One thing has led to another. The other night he brought me to a house right across the road from my bungalow and there I met

Alfaqir Zulfaqir Ali Shah Nastan, Retired Tahsildar,

House No. 2509 A. Anandpura, Gawalmandi,

Rawalpindi, West Pakistan.

He is a Khalandar and was drawn to me immediately. He explained many things. For example when I want to speak on Islamic Art at the Punjabi U. I had slides which I had never gone over and it was to be a rehearsal. Instead all the seats and standing room are occupied. The lights were put out and the words came into my mouth letter perfect from beginning to end. It was like attending my own lecture. He explained to me what happened and more.

We have since spent much time together both along and in the presence of others. He claims to have many spiritual faculties and later I shall break this down into subjects. Anyhow both he and Major Sadiq—at the moment independently—wish to come to the U.S. and present spiritual healing; the Faqir more with the idea of destroying our materialism, the latter with the idea of promoting the International Sufi Brotherhood.

The Faqir told me some of his story. His own teacher is an Adept and has “ordered” him to go to America some time. Also he has solved several pressing problems of Americans and refused money. He claims that God looks after him and he does not take and does not want money for healing. However I did emphasize the practical side of his work in America; that he should take collections at lectures and use this money for traveling and hotel.

While we were discussing three times I recovered the “sign” that I should write to you at once on these matters, breaking them down.

Travel Agent. So far as I know the Faqir either has, or has access to funds. He would want to know something about both flying and sea-voyage to San Francisco. The term “flight” seems to have come up more often. In either case there would be the necessity of having complete information—thus what is the cost of flight to the U.S.? We are half way around and whether it be N.Y. or S.F. both that and the timing might be important. At the moment there is no indirection that he should land anywhere on route.

On the other hand a sea-voyage is not ruled out for there is always the possibility of functioning on board ship. But this should involve more complex time patterns—I mean from the day of embarkation. If he went by sea he would have to leave from Karachi, but by land, P.I.A. might take him Lahore or Rawalpindi and make international connections.

Even more important I told him would be the need of a travel agent within the United States who would arrange for hotels and short trips whether by bus, train or plane. He understands that this is a professional matter. Indeed his pride or conceit seems to be that he can pay and not beg. And besides, there would have to be trust and interest.

When the Zen Roshi came to San Francisco these things were well handled but I think that man had clergymen's rights. There are not recognized cleric in Islam although certain types of people are recognized such as Imams and Maulanas.

Sufism, Occultism, etc. At the moment these things are not distinct in our communications. He wishes to work I and through phenomena. He thinks the American people will be attracted to phenomena, especially what they cannot explain and it is his duty to break down the materialistic shell. This would no doubt involve a manager, too, for him. I place this before you without suggestions.

There is no question that we, as a people, need some anti-shocks to the seeking of space travel miracles, etc. I am not so sure that we shall not come up against imponderables and that sometimes even the most ignoramus psychic and metaphysician may not be ahead of "official" science which, becoming official, ceases to be scientific and accounts for many of our failures, more of which will continue until we stop a lot of democratic nonsense and use higher faculties.

It is the faculty of kashf or insight the Fakir especially wishes to demonstrate and so far as I can see he is pretty well, advanced in it. I can only say that he did get the exact years of my earlier suffering and described details of my earlier life in manners no one else ever has. He did not penetrate my spiritual being as did the Major, but my history and suffering he got very, very well indeed.

We discussed the possibilities in the US and I warned him that the country was very large and traveling might be quite expensive. He thinks he will be permitted to stay just three months and my feeling is that this should be confined to California and the S.F and L.A. regions. I did warn him against the "Orientalists" but I did not warn him against the psychics and metaphysicians. On the contrary I am inclined to feel that they may flock after him and even a few gain something from him.

Astrology. This was a tremendous "Golden Apple" thrown into my lap. He claims to have a complete spiritual astrology which is deeper that any now given to the world. When I was with Gavin Arthur I found I could "read" horoscopes and this I did by the application of both occultism and Sufi Metaphysics. But this man is an astrologer, he knows something about the "planets" within and without, and also their overtones o the higher spheres.

Some people may say Astrology is nonsense. For two or three weeks despite unending feasts, welcomes, successes, I felt nothing but gloom, gloom increased by an almost absence of news from the S.F. region and what did come indicated an unfavorable response to my reports. I am a "spiritual egotists." Maybe so, but the question is whether what I say or write is true or not—this is often overlooked. Well, about three days ago I woke up—no gloom. There was no news, there was no interior feeling, this had nothing to do with the condition of my body, etc. The gloom disappeared long before defection. So I decided that there was some Saturnian shadow over me.

When I was with the Fakir and asked him theoretical questions about Astrology ha answered each one by pointing out either an event in my past life or a prediction for my future. He did not deal with "theories"; and if there was nothing in my career to illustrate the point he selected something in his own or somebody else's life.

In my case he declared Sun and Moon to be benefic and Saturn and Mercury to be malefic and illustrated this. It is most curious and I am writing this purposely, that he was the third to predict the removal of Saturn as a shadow or determinal influence in my life around my birthday and seven best years to follow.

The detailed predictions were entirely the same, all beginning with October and continuing for seven years, the best years of my life and the same extremely favorable predictions bearing out exactly what the Pir-o-Murshid Inayat khan and Maulana Abdul Ghafoor said despite all and sundry in California. And I mean all and sundry.

The Sun will become important but not now. The Moon is important and will remain important. Although we did not go over my chart, the Moon-Venus cum Uranus trine was reflected in his interpretation. He has already pointed out my romantic and dancing tendencies and predilections.

I cannot say that I followed him in Astrology as well as in Mysticism and Metaphysics. It is not my field or forte and when he went into the overtones, which he seemed to do well, it was new territory to me. But he seemed to indicate, and this I liked very much, that he would like to present this Astrology in America.

I have, of course, very good contacts in L.A. but I seem to feel he should go to S.F. and do his work there. He is waiting for a sign from his own Murshid before he makes dated preparations. But we both feel that what can be done in principle now would expedite matters.

I do not wish to convey all false hopes or impressions and at the moment I do not feel that this man is as spiritual as deep as the Major. I do feel he is needed to break our materialistic moulds and that is what he has emphasized the most. In fact I told him that his personal success would be the greatest favor he could confer on me because I have been rejected all around by the very persons, institutions and what not who should be working with me, if not for me. I have not been appalled by rejections, but by a prioris, and there are bunches of them around S.F. covering all classes. In general the newspapers and sectors of universities have this same asinine attitude toward anybody who comes to Asia and learns anything, so my trouble there is not personal, but this strange surrealistic attitude by so-called "realists" who will not listen to facts and information and later on are "shocked" and howl at the CIA when the information was already in their hands, to land either in the waste basket or pigeonhole (if one is so lucky).

My friend, Phra Sumangalo, who got tired trying to inform the American public about Vietnam and Laos and gave up his citizenship, has invited me to Malaya whose Prime minister is a friend of his. He wants me to re-assure those peoples of the truth of Sufism. I have already had innumerable requests from Indonesia, too. Indeed I would be wondering about studying in California at all when I can live here tops at $100 per month, be received, honored, listened to and admired. But the US needs to know the spiritual light and occult truth. And I have to go back to :The Great Stone Face" or even the biblical "The stone that is rejected has become the cornerstone."

If anything is not clear, please let me know. The Fakir will be here two days more and I may (or may not) write further. I have his Rawalpindi address and it takes only two hours by taxi service—there must be more passengers—at about $2 for seventy miles! So I can visit him any time. However he says if there is any need or advantage in writing him direct I should furnish you with his address, which I have. For there will be times—and sometimes it looks soon—when I may be adventuring in the Frontier Province, and will not receive mail, nor have my typewriter with me.

I guess that is enough now, although it is far from all.


Samuel L. Lewis

June 1, 1961

U Can, Twin, Mandalay, Burma

Dear friend: I am writing you my diary entry because I need assistance, assistance in interpreting a dream. I was in the midst of some very large banquets, lots of people and I was sitting next to my friend Bill Hathaway. I need him because he has the size of stomach necessary for one attending the banquets I have to go to—protocol. It was all friendly and jolly and all that but we were just two stomachs in the midst of multitudes.

After a while I asked to be excused. I am fed up with being fed up. So I went to my room and began typing; the typing was most important but I don’t know why. I left my door open because I never eave’s drop. I just listen wholeheartedly, secret, you know with microphones and bugs. Indeed in the dream world I seem to see too, even while I remain in my room.

After I left and enjoyed the peacefulness of my room and this machine Bill suddenly became important. I don’t know why, but he did. He said: “Thank God Puck is not here. I would not want him in on what I am going to say because in his presence I have a protocol, “never say a good word” and in his absence I have another protocol, “never say a bad word.” I don’t know why this is but my father was an international spy, I mean diplomat of the highest order and I inherited. What I don’t know but I inherited.

“Now I have known Puck a long time, too long no doubt, but I know him and he is the greatest, grandest person in existence so long as he is not listening.” Well you kept on in this vain and said he (meaning me) should be given an ovation, that we had long given up “God save the U.S. but Puck had and in between you called out loud “Puck are you there?” ” Puck, are you listening?” And after the third time I yelled back, “No!” to each question and you said, “I thought so.” And then after a while more you became 12 feet tall and lifted me by the arm which became a long bar and carried me willy-nilly but more wily than nilly because I am “so modest” back to the banquet hall. By that time Bill had become the Bill cheese and everybody was admiring him and following him and when we came back into the hall together there was such a clamor and Bill lead the cheers and everybody cheered and cheered and I was a hero.

Now, U Can, Twin, at this moment it being time to get up because the bearer or his assistant or his assistant or his ass brings me bathwater at exactly 6:00 in a land where time stands still or runs like a rocket, and it was just 23 minutes early for 6:30 is exactly 5:43 or 7:13 or 6:21 exactly, exactly with no deviations because they don’t allow deviationists here. So I awake and strange to say feel wonderful, despite my self-banquet last night. For tired of banquets and all that I bought some Lady’s Fingers last night (Okra) of which I am very fond.

Well, U Can, Twin, there are only two ways of purchasing here. “The Price is Right” which means, I have found so far, for butter, oil, and superfluities you are going into Tiffany’s; and for fruits and vegetables which coast I rupee (21 cents) in America cost less than a quarter of that here and Mangos which cost 2 rupees in America cost almost as much in Abbottabad and why they put them on the market I do not know because the public can’t afford them. So they remain unsold and would be given to pigs if pigs were allowed. So they all spoil because protocol “The Price is Right” does not permit lowering prices for any purpose.

So you get butter for 72¢ a pound and in America Okra cost about 30¢ a pound and one does not know why. Therefore because I love it I wanted one rupees worth (21¢.) That is fine but Puck is Puck and sometimes he is “Ah Yaint, a saint.” Well yesterday he got it. He went into the market to get some “Lady’s Fingers” and put out one rupee. He had a big bag with him for sundries. First they weighed the Okra very carefully down to a single item but by that time the scales would not hold any more and there was enough Okra on the scale to give one enough for a week. Fine! Oh know, how for Puck, overweight, then they gave him overtime, then they gave him.

Fortunately Puck has good muscles and did not stagger because these things don’t weigh much. So he went to his favorite restaurant and ordered some fixed and then back to his pension which is a hostel because it is so friendly and overwhelmed them. And then he ate and ate because it was not protocol to eat and one does not go against protocol be—even though he takes tea between times. Tea is like with Klaus a Just tea. Only tea. Tea and … and when you describe the and … gave—save God save the bicarb. But then “You asked for it” is also protocol, and this is my fault.

To get back to the dream. The appearance of Bill is very strange and delightful because Puck has been blessed by Prophet Mohammed. He is despised, admired, loved, begged, prepared and argued over here but mostly the last. Only when Puck mentions Mohammed, this is protocol. But the Mohammed that appears to Puck is very disconcerting. Mohammed gave a perfect religion (after it is properly censored). He said he as the big cheese and the littlest boy, the commander-in-chief and the rankest rear. And so there is “revolution” which puts Mohammed over the Commander in Chief which is Ali and puts Mohammed over him. In the meanwhile Allah having no partners is just pushed out of the picture entirely.

Mohammed said in his lifetime, but this is never taught, that he was over everybody and slave of everybody. And as he was infallible they just erase the last portion. This is Islam. It is a perfect religion wherein everybody meets on equal terms excepting women, noisy small boys, all people who work with their hands excepting farmers and gardeners. So it does not make any difference what your race is it is absolutely, positively democracy for all respectable people. Mohammed is very glad of this for being relieved of being Commander in Chief by Ali; he takes special interest in women, noisy small boys, outcastes and people with dirty hands.

Puck has been reading Hadith which are absolutely as per revelation excepting the “weak hadith.” If you don’t believe in them they are “weak hadith” and if you do they are put over Qur’an. This is a wonderful science which not only works both ways, but up-down, left-right, back-forth, the most perfect science. For instance Mohammed said he liked three things: perfumes, the company of woman and prayer. This is in Hadith. Then there is this fellow Soekarno and there are three things he likes, perfumes, the company of woman and prayer.

Therefore it is never mentioned and when Soekarno goes around the world boosting for perfumes, the company of woman and prayer every respectable Muslim shudders and does not know what to say. For perfumes and the company of woman—oh, Mohammed has long been relieved and so he functions as he said he was functioning as slave-of-mankind and Messenger of Allah which you have to say and don’t have to believe “protocol” again. It is also very disconcerting for there are no clerics in Islam, no priests, no monks, and this is hard on the Mullahs, Maulanas, Imams, Muezzins, Kadis, and Hakims who explain everything and wear long faces that anybody should dare to come out for perfumes, women and prayer—excepting that they have a way of praying here which is like an un-mechanical robot and you must say your prayers in Arabic or you are unfaithful, and this makes it convenient because nobody understanding Arabic and the Maulanas, Mullahs, Imams and other non-clericals can explain things properly.

In the meanwhile Puck has been making dates with a Khalandar. Not everybody can make dates with a Khalandar but after being fed-up and more than up and more than fed by the non-existing Sufis (if you can get credits for your course) s change might be welcome. Well the Prophet and Soekarno believe in perfumes, women and prayer. But here they have “Islam” and don’t worship Allah, they worship “Islam” because God hath no partners but that does not stop anybody from being over “Green Pastures Papa.” And the Khalandar does not believe in perfumes, women and prayer. This is scandalous. He interprets everything by exactitude. For example per-fume which is per for perfect and fume for smoking so it means “Lucky Strikes” or “Dromedaries” there being no Camels here and he keeps packages in reach all over the place. He does not keep women all over the place which means you must not enjoy women. It does not mean he must not enjoy them, it must means “you” must not enjoy them. So poor Soekarno has been keeping out of Pakistan and I think like me Soekarno would accept your teachings, U Can. Twin. But by this time I think you must be converted to Islam; it is so simple, perfect and all the unemployed become attorneys trying to explain it.

Abbottabad, June 5

My dear Jack:

In the last two weeks I have received a single letter, from England. Not a single response to any letter to anybody in either Pakistan or America and all I have gotten otherwise are the banks reports—which I do need—and the news supplied by the information service of the consulate at Lahore. However this is not necessarily a complaint. This is my diary entry and whether I receive news form the world, or from my friends, I live news.

First there is the politics. Before Johnson I was being regaled be all sorts of people, the existence of which and whom is denied in the United States and to whom I shall refer below. Now, after VP came here and got a lot of plaudits—in the American press, the number of visitors has doubled and it is only on account of the great heat that I get any relief. Fortunately I am bearing up under the heat even better than most of the visitors who are Pathans rather than Punjabis—and everybody seems to require a siesta, moi ausie—so I get a rest in the early afternoon sufficient to keep me in good spirits and good health.

We have pulled at least a partial international bloomer. The U.S. policy seems to be to wave red-flags before bulls and when there is a big reaction think there is big success Mc Arthur in Japan, Nixon in India and Johnson here and each, totally ignorant or else indifferent to the feelings of the people around them have made strong announcements which have resulted in even stronger reactions.

These people do not love the Europeans and Zionists who are the teachers of “Oriental Philosophy” and I am rather sick from hearing it from the top bananas in one place after another and it is not believed. We keep on stupidly going to those persons most hated in the Orient for “information” and “briefing” and those American who know something about this part of the world are ignored. The Mayor of Berkeley long lived in Pakistan but I never saw him at an Asian gathering, but Prof. Scheercase or Von Plotz—and they are all over the place and we yell for them and they give our their private nonsense and we think we are learning something, my foot.

The one group of people with whom I got along most easily are the Americans who live here. “Creoles” I call them. For like the Spaniards who left their native land they became second-class citizens and are ignored by the home folks. Naturally they resent it or are dismayed. They are not particularly happy. I met the farm-boys from Kansad who had been sent to many parts of Pakistan and certainly had experiences and gotten some knowledge. They went home. Good-bye. They lived here for months or years. But sent reporter Untrue Fierceone out, and he will shake hands with a few people, drink with a newspaperman end our international diplomacy is changed! Well I have been hollering my head off about our pornography (called “movies”) but only after the American Broadcasting Company made a survey—pigeon-holed and every Protestant missionary knows it and the Americans here know it. “Boy meets girl”—and how—in the bed, in the bushes, in close-ups, nothing to be imagined, in “rock and roll”—rolling on the rocks on the ground and no nonsense. I even found Russian money invested. This brings profits to Hollywood and saves Russia a lot of money. This merry-go-round goes on.

Soon our “Children’s Crusade”—Peace Corps will arrive. Pease Corps my eye, some of them will be lucky to escape alive. They will be briefed all right—from the Encyclopedia of Islam written in Leiden, or by Profs. Scheercase, Von Plotz & Co. They are coming into a land where everybody is “religious,” whatever that means and they are going to be bombarded with questions to which they have not the answers. (A few from Harvard, Princeton and Minnesota excepted where they do not stand for professional “experts” but want and teach facts.) They are going to have to defend the movies and no American has gotten away with that yet. The missionaries are hamstrung and mad as can be and one can’t blame them.

Then they are going to learn Urdu and be sent into villages where the people speak Pashto, Punjabi, Sindhi and what not. This is called communication. Then they are going to teach English, weaving, manual training in districts where there is no wood and dressing dolls where there are no dolls. This is friendships.

Now look at crazy me. The entertainments here have been Football, Volley Ball and Iqbal. I have added to it—Soft Ball. I got a Soft ball and a make-shift bat and tried to teach the boys a game we have called Pinkey-on-the-bounce or Piggy-on-the-bounce. You dare not use the latter term here, besides Pinkey is correct; you use it in playing Jacks (no pun intended), etc. I did not get far. Then out of nowhere a saint appeared—you see us saints have to stick together. He stood around first-base. The batter hit a ball to center field. There was a boy there. That did not stop the saint—off he ran to center field. The next ball to short-stop; off the saint ran. He backed up everybody but the catcher. He was certainly coordinated to the hitting and maybe he had inner sight anyhow. But he tried to play all positions at once. This intrigued hard-working college youths who have a strange game—it is called arsenal. You have nothing like it in the U.S. You sit on a chair and rub the seat of your pants against the wood and it is a bet whether: the pants or the chair wears out first. So it may be called arsenal. Well the saint broke up the arsenal league in three-quarters time. It is only the hot weather that prevents progress. And me nearing 65 and throwing balls and having them batted all over the lot and becoming popular with the kinds and even with the arsenal youths.

So it being hot and me being crazy like the Englishman who goes out in the noon-day sun in reduced handball. The only trouble here as that the boys like all boys, began playing take-away and this no one had to instruct them in. But I intend to go ahead only I have to give you the news. But you can see how valuable you would be to me if you came this way and we taught the kinds a few things.

I have even suggested teaching Jacks and Jumps rope to the girls and bringing in old wheels so boys could make their own coaters. But this kind of do-it-yourself is all right for “humanity” but no good for people. These would cost little even here—the country of jute, but the Peace Corps will be too busy explaining how to do that and how the U.S. Senate meets to do anything like that.

This morning my friend Qureshi goes to Karachi. He introduced me to four things: Moghul jewelry, mines, psychics, Sufis. Someday somebody will recognize that these things are more important than Johnson’s hogwash. Well, little Ben Franklin-Samuel Lewis, his hand on typewriter pen, went to it. For nothing, about nothing. Nobody believed. But Qureshi has a deal on and it is going to be a nice slam in the face of certain people. The jewels are on the market and there will be red faces.

Then from him I as introduced to others who said there were minerals and this kept on until I met a man who claims to have a Uranium mine. It is even in the papers here now that the hills are full of Uranium, which is probably true. The Russkies know this. Tell them there is Tin and they explore, same Lead, but most of all Petrol.

I am not going to say “I told you so” because I have met stacks of Americans who have been all over Asia and it is always the same story. Politicians and newsmen are believed; the others are just trying to get up scare-stories or become famous.

Qureshi’s efforts to get me into touch with the psychics has not been successful and if there is wisdom in the Universe you can see it from what is written below. He introduced me to a Sufi. This man was a poor decrepit person like all Sufis are supposed to be in story-books, legends, etc. Yet what he told me is exactly the same as what others have told me and are telling me only they are different being of two or three types. Roughly these types are two—intellectuals and seers.

The intellectuals can’t be Sufis because the Encyclopedia of Islam and Prof. Von Plotz and Scheercase say no. They are all over the place, including most Pathans which also means most generals which also means the tops in the Government. I think I may have written to you about Lahore where all the Messrs. Big entertained me because I am a Sufi, but don’t let that influence the newsman or universities.

The fact that president Ayub has a Murshid, goes regularly to saint’s tombs or to living saints (there aren’t none darling but what a procession I get, and they don’t serve imaginary food, my stomach knows). This is a long, long story. My present pal is the Sup. of Police. If there is any class I seem to get along better with them professors, generals, cabinet members and hoo-man beans it is top police. This is good-stuff. Anyhow he is also Sufi and almost a saint and don’t you don’t believe either.

He is fairly wealthy. He also has a most beautiful wife and beautiful children which is bad because they are not in Purdah. This is quite a subject how the women first let you get a good look at them and then hurriedly cover their faces but only after you had a good look. But some forgive him this because he has open house and I am saving sheckles, beans and rupees with free eats. This does not go well with my landlord and my friend the restaurateur, excepting that the staff here at the hostel is getting more and more bakshish. They scribe it to my “goodness of heart” and I don’t say anything. But between you and me, with all my free eats, I can afford it.

Then there is the Khalandar. You never keep a date with a Khalandar but I do every day. We call him “Pir Sahib Khalandar” which is very short for his name which I may send some time. Anyhow he is preparing to go to California so I wish to keep you informed. He claims to be clairvoyant. He has told me the history of my life and I mean just that. He has gotten time, place, events, and reasons absolutely correct. When I mentioned Los Angeles yesterday he described the City Hall exactly as it is.

Incidentally, my friend Sam Yorty beat my neighbor Norris Poulsen down there so I shall congratulate. This is the first time in my life I got into a game, hands-I-win, tails-you-lose. No wonder I am looking with longing eyes to L.A.

He wishes to awaken the U.S. to spiritualism. This includes both Sufism and occultism. He has a number of faculties. I can say although he has not predicted much for me it is exactly the same as all the non-existent Sufis have predicted, no exception. Only he adds Astrology to it. Ah!

He has his own Astrology which he calls Spiritual. It appears to be profound and perhaps exact. I met my Munshi friend in Lahore several times now who is clairvoyant and has some astrology, but is not spiritually clairvoyant. And inasmuch as there is no such thing as a Khalandar he is preparing to leave for the U.S. He has his passport and airplane ticket but is waiting for some sings.

I have already written to my friend, Rudy Olsen, 166 Geary, about him. The combo of clairvoyance and a deeper Astrology should attract people. And his ability to look right at somebody and look into them too will draw crowds, I believe. It is largely going to be a question of program and arrangement. I shall probably make more reports on this.

Meanwhile I am waiting for my friend, Major Sadiq, the spiritualist healer, to write to me. He is also planning to come to U.S. and especially to California. This may have official section. This Is Not Sarcasm.

I am planning a petition to be signed by Ayub and the members of his cabinet, professors and scientists here; to be counter signed by worthies in India and by the Prime Minister and other big shots in Malaya and perhaps Indonesia, too, to the effect that they are Sufis and they would very much appreciate it if some American authorities—newspapers, Universities or government officials would awaken to this. This Is Not Sarcasm, it was suggested to me, not by me. I have already carried a top level petition though on another matter through Asia. Wm. Eilers of Asia Foundation knows it. Sam Lewis is called a “spiritual egotist” but I wish somebody some time would “call my bluff.” Wow!

Sufis do not pretend usually to have unusual powers and they have “unusual powers” just as much as a tree has leaves. All kinds of culties. This occultism of the Polynesians, the ESP and Cayce-ism are but kindergarten stuff needed because in some things the U.S. is not even in kindergarten. Add to that the complete absence of Pakistani culture in the U.S., the handling of Islamic and Oriental Culture by Scheercase & Von Plotz and you can see the two countries do not meet and do not understand. And the Americans who are here and learn, they don’t count. Or maybe some time somebody will wake up. I got sick and tired warning about USIA mobbings. It does not good. I think a couple more here or in other Asian lands and finally somebody will awaken to realities.

We are, of course, going to send more top-level entertainers here. We have millions of dollars (foreign aid??????) to send rich celebrities from home to entertain American and NATO nationals abroad, have huge audiences and the people will go right ahead not knowing about it or caring very little. We can’t send troops, jumps ropes, hoola hoops, coasters, dolls or baby swings. It jest ain’t done. Maybe the Russians will. We have all kinds of organizations collecting money for all kinds of things but chiefly to employ more people to collect more money for more all kinds of things. CARE, Asian Foundation and the American Friends of the Middle function in Asia. The others just function. Why don’t we get in on the super-gravy train—and no income tax either. I think we have missed our calling. Why not rubber caps for the poor babies of Baluchistan? They have not milk bottles but the idea is good. Money for rubber caps. We would get contributions. The only fly in the ointment is that there are fleas in the ointment, or rather in the milk. They do have milk. We may have to change to get rubber caps for milk bottles for the Chinese when they are freed from communism. You see they don’t have milk.

I feel wonderful, damn it, in the 100° weather. This is awful. I must be losing my nationality or something.


Samuel L. Lewis

S. A. M

Sufi Ahmed Murad

Abbottabad, Hazara,

West Pakistan

June 11

My dear Norman:

The other day I started write a letter to one Roy Abrahamson, an early student of the Academy and later of the Ashram—he is now away. He has given me some news of reaction on my reports which are very interesting to me. I have a large body of critics and I rather rejoice in this body of critics for they have one thing in common: “Never let him present his case.” This is good stuff if you can get away with it. It is particularly a habit of those who lecture on the “law of karma.” All my life I have heard people lecture on karma, develop a superiority complex and falling into the worst booby traps imaginable. Think nothing of it.

In this country also I have critics and also I criticize and this had brought me into contact with

Al-Faqir Zulafaqir Ali Shaha Nastan, Retired Tahsildar.

House No. 4509 A. Anandpura, Gawalpindi,

Rawalpindi, West Pakistan

He is a Khalandar. Now “everybody” knows there are no such things as Khalandars. He says he has 38,000 followers, but they are in Asia and don’t count although one of them is Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Pakistan and I have met him. This type of things is, of course, very annoying to the European professors of Oriental Philosophy but we will forget the European professors and stick to some facts.

My own spiritual teacher said I would go on the path of Khalandar, even though the Arabian Nights are history. My visit to Lahore brought me in touch with everybody who is anybody and anybody who is everybody and I had a feast every night—there were no European professors of Oriental philosophy there and I don’t think they would have been invited to any of them anyhow. This same sort of notoriety followed me here where the Superintendent of Police is a friend of my spiritual brothers and himself is a spiritual man—as are most of the big men in this country anyhow.

I think he got tired giving me tea and dinner and he took me to some friends and there I met the Khalandar Ali Shah Nastan, as above. Allah is not only great and good, but it happens that the Khalandar lives just about a block away so I have seen him often.

He is the most complete clairvoyant I have ever met. He has read a good deal of my past life—perhaps a little of the future also and given ample objective proofs of his statements. Last night I met Max Hill, a “bum” like Claude, and in the same way as I met Claude in Cairo. He was also a disciple of Paul Brunton, and seeking. When he left today he was satisfied. For the time being his search was ended, He had met Alfaqir Zulafaqir Ali Shah Nastan.

Despite all our Zionist and European experts on “Islam” the Khalandar knows a lot about living Sufism and living Sufis—that is one thing. He has also “penetrated into the sphere.” I don’t want to go into that. One reason is that he is planning, inshallah, to come to America and explain things himself. He feels we need the spiritual sciences and spiritualism. He is not seeking money; he has 38,000 followers including that Chief Justice, who is not exactly poor either. Also the head of PIA (Pakistan International Airways) is a friend of him and there will be free transportation. In other words he is planning to come to America to serve God, enlightened Americans and demonstrate spirituality; not to collect bakshish. This may be rather new to us.

The way is clear for the Khalandar to come to California but the time is not yet set. Presuming he might land in New York first I have written to Bob Slice. But the destination is ultimately California and much of the State. This involves travel. I have already written to my very good friend, Rudy Olsen, 166 Geary St, in this regard and also in regard to getting hotel reservations.

But today the Khalandar informed me that he would probably need the following:

1. A suitable car, 2. A driver 3, An organizer, 4. A publicity man.

I told him I had just the person and one who was interested in spiritualism and spirituality besides. He wanted to know about you so I have therefore enclosed his address in full.

If it were possible to devote some time and effort to these projects, he said it might be well for you to come to Pakistan. In that case he would see that you are provided with a plane-ticket, at least. But I feel he would rather discuss some things with you so I have given you the address. Besides this there must be some interest and excitement in “spiritual astrology.” I have always felt that both the science as it is presented is quite incomplete. And the persons involved not completely disciplined either.

I wrote Gavin from Lahore five Years ago about native Astrologies but received no response. I got a little in New York where there are rival Astrological magazines and I think Clancy publications would be interested. But I am more concerned with you personally. I am certainly not suggesting that you get overboard on any Pakistani project or any spiritual adventure. I am merely pointing out to what is. Furthermore in all conversations—including those at which Max Hill was present, the whole emphasis was on giving, bestowing, nothing was asked.

This is in complete support of the real spiritual outlook: that one depends actually on God—not just the words—and receiving from God can distribute to man, and on all planes.

Without pushing anything I hope you will be interested enough to make an enquiry direct, but I fell positive there is something more than what is conveyed in this letter. There are too many straws in the wind here about introducing spiritualism, Sufism, etc. into the United States and there are too many peaceful and wealthy persons concerned. (I shall mail either in the same or under separate cover other details in this regard.) Here I am concerned mostly with this projected visit of the Khalandar, the wants and needs he has of a practical nature and of having him meet interested and trustworthy people.

There is no bad news now, only a jamming up of good news—too much. I receive too many visitors and they all demand I drink tea, always with sugar. Often with milk. In 100° weather with little exercise, this is rather trying. Otherwise no bad news and lots of good implied, if not expressed.



Sufi Ahmed Murad

June 14, 1961

My blessed Pir-o-Murshid:

There are times when one has unusual experiences and these are text, no doubt, of one’s spiritual and personal ability. Jesus said: “Let us not into temptation,” and I do not know whether what I am facing is temptation or not. I have met a Khalandar and I see him almost every day, even several times a day. He is Al-Faqir Zulafaqir Ali Shah Nastan and he claims to have many followers, including the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He is planning to go to America and no doubt he will go to America. He wishes, or is guided, to bring the message of spiritualism to my country and to other countries. He has given me many evidences of his powers and what he calls “kashf” but what he calls “kashf” is not the same as what I call “kashf.” Which does not mean that I am right and he is wrong. Only his kashf seems to be concerned with seeing and an ability to escape from the body, to function in “heavens,” to meet saints, and to have grand faculties.

All this is excellent but to us it is not Tauhid. When I was in Japan I was taken to the Third Secretary at the Pakistani Embassy. “Why do you bring this man here? It is an insult. It is an insult to him and an insult to me. You do not know this man. Only the Ambassador is fit to talk to him and the only maybe.” This was rather a surprise because my host, James Otoichi Kinoshita, had already accompanied me to many sacred and holy places in Japan where foreigners do not go.

On the last day I was in Japan I had tea at noon with the Ambassador of Pakistan. He told me the story of Farid, how Farid practiced austerities and even made a lady and demanded food. She was very slow. Finally he grew impatient and seemed to threaten her. She said to him: “Do not treat me as a flock of birds that you can cause to die and be reborn.” This amazed him and he asked her the story which she gave him. It is a well-known story.

Now I am receiving instruction from the Khalandar and he believes he is one of the most powerful men in the world, and maybe he is one of the most powerful men in the world. He knows much about sacred phrases, he undoubtedly goes into heavens and he may have miraculous faculties. Maybe he is one of the few who has them and maybe many have them. He says he has 38,000 followers and they will help him to travel. I have no follower. I am going over the globe a second time. I have crossed the United States many times. I crossed the United States without having 50 rupees at any time and yet lived in fine homes and hotels as well as in poor places. I had nobody but Allah and He showed me. This was a different kind of kashf.

The Khalandar asked me to ask Mohammed where he belonged in the assemblage. I am only in the rear rank of the assemblage. I have not been allowed to see many there, only Isa (Jesus). But I told him I could not ask Mohammed because I had already asked Allah. He did not seem to realize that if I could ask Allah this might be higher than asking Mohammed.

I told him he was greater than I in all but me thing—I could be a greater pupil than he. I could learn from him, I could listen to him but he could not listen and learn from me and learn from me and although in Rubuyyat and kashf and Shuyukhuyat he was far above me, I was a greater mureed. This rather surprised him.

In some things I cannot agree with him, He places Ali above everybody and then far above the saints, Abdul Kadiri Gilani. I have only had two visits from Ali in my life and have never seen him. I am not concerned with persons, I am concerned with duties. I cannot believe that Haqiqat and Marifat are stages that the human mind can fathom. I have not often been in assemblages under Mohammed. I have been in one assemblage under Mohammed as Abdullah. In this assemblage are many persons and I am only in a rear rank. I have seen him many times clearing and cleaning a great Mosque. He does not use any magic, he does not any power. He uses love and humility and I cannot compare the love and humility of anybody to that love and humility. It is as if everybody were a baby and he had to look after everybody and with love and sweetness.

He is not exactly assisted by Jesus. Jesus washes the feet and looks after the shoes of the devotees that come to this mosque and does other very simple things. I have seen this many times. Mohammed says this is his work as Abdallah. It is not his work as Rassoul-lillah.

I have seen him in two other assemblages too and they may be called—although this is not exactly correct—the assemblages of the Nabis and the assemblages of the Rassouls or Pagambars or Avatars. The assemblages of the Nabis are all of men mentioned in Holy Qur’an. The other Assemblage consists of some not mentioned in Qur’an. These are described in my poem “Saladin.” In “Saladin” I was shown a Meraj, not exactly as it appears in the record but the old me he wished to reconcile Qur’an with Bible and I had to write it that way. Also in the highest assemblage he made me write what I have not believed and I do not think many Muslims believe.

“Saladin” has long been finished but extra copies were given to Ansar Nasri and Quadrullah Shahab to be translated into Urdu and published. I have an extra copy which you may read.

But now I am receiving another poem called. “Rassoul Gita.” It is to be, inshallah, the Islamic answer to “Bhagavad Gita.” It is a very deep poem and it requires me to be in states and stages of receptivity. I have to listen, not see, and to feel and feel more in the heart. There are many things given to me which I have either not believed or not known.

The poem is divided into two parts:

I. La Ellaha which deals with fana, the Kingdom of the Cipher and the Conquest of India—meaning every sort of “other” worship.

II. El Il Allah deals with baqa, the Kingdom of the One (Tauhid), the Conquest of

Pakistan and the Resurrection of Pakistan.

It is based on Nimaz and then on. My interpretation of Kalama has caused some dismay and opposition but I do what God whishes. Anybody who has studied the sciences, inner and outer, knows there are certain principles found, not certain personalities. The whole poem is based on principles. It is also based on fana-fi-Rassoul.

People here are unhappy, uncertain and do not have enough food. I have been sent here as a servant of Mohammed, Abdullah and he wants me to follow him as Abdullah. People call him “Rassoul-lillah” and go contrary to Hadith where he say he did not want of lot of titles like the Christians gave Jesus. If one says that Mohammed has all power, is the greatest of the great and then is concerned with Kashmir, he is a liar. I have seen greater problems than Kashmir settled. And in the poem Mohammed says the problem is Kashmir versus Kashf-mir. If this country insists on Kashmir it will go down and if it insists on Kashf-mir it will go up.

People here are concerned with Kashmir and Mohammed is concerned with Islam. People use the word “Islam” and they know nothing about submission; they only knew insistence and insistence is the enemy of submission. Besides there is no peace and though I have met quite a few who know more and believe better it is fortunate when they understand by their behavior, nafs-mutmaina.

The explanations of nafs in UAR are more complete than here and they give seven stages, four in manifestation and two beyond and the last is not nafs but comes in fana-i-baqa. There is another state between lauwama and mutmaina wherein the imagination is active and this is the usual stage of the artists and creative scientists. Anyhow I am preparing my lectures on “Islamic Philosophy and Modern Science.” Evidently this is right because some Murshids are coming here—not only to Abbottabad but very close to my residences, who are scientists. This will facilitate the reconciliation of Islamic Philosophy and modern knowledge.

I have fun into some opposition to Tauhid especially from some who say if Ibn l’Arabi was correct then Ahmed Ghulam Kadian was correct. This is nonsense; I have read the Ahmadiyya literature on nufs which is very good, but very, very incomplete. I am not interested in such discussions and; hums n logic cannot be applied to spiritual knowledge. This is one of my sub-topics in “Islamic Philosophy and Modern Logics” The modern logics know much better than the traditional logics which Al-Ghazzali had to overthrown. They do not fit into the spiritual realm.

p>“Rassoul Gita” is being written in the hopes that it will help spread the Messages of Mohammed through the world. The divines can take care of Rassoul-lillah and they will succeed or not in so far as they follow the will of Allah and not their own wills. But I have to show Mustapha, Ahmed and Abdullah and this involves a lot of things people here cannot accepted.

There is an Australian here. He gave up lucrative work and does nothing but keep the chief Mosque clean. This is acceptance of Abdullah. No talk accepts Abdullah, you do not teach, you do not command anybody and you have to learn love and reverence. This is not easy.

When I left the Khalandar yesterday convinced of his great power, a flock of little boys followed me. I danced for them and finally bought each one a sweet. I have been showing little boy’s games. I am nearly 65 but when I function Abdullah I do not feel any age. Indeed I was surprised in looking into the mirror the other day that I am looking younger. This has happened before. I have died before death and my vigor and looks is the best answer I have to that devil-show-off or whatever he is called at ‘pindi. This to me is real demonstration of the Baraka of Khidr. Also my poetry. The success of my poetry ends his claims and his false school forever because they demonstrate nothing, only claim. I claim nothing, only demonstrate, inshallah.

I have asked the Khalandar to answer me two questions:

a. Why is there starvation in West Pakistan?

b. Why is there unhappiness in West Pakistan?

He claims Abdul Kadiri-Gilani is the greatest of the great. I claim nothing. He knows Mushahida and disclaims Murakkabah. I try to practice Murakkabah in the way you showed me in the writings of Abdul Kadiri-Gilani I keep on succeeding even when I have no faculty for success.

I have met three Chisti Murshids. One does not seem to have any power at all. But all of them had love, plenty, of love. You should see the way they cherish their mureeds. They belong to each other. It was the Pir-o-Murshid of Ansar Nasri who gave me the “push” which started “Rassoul Gita” and it is you who, have given me the push to continue it. Whether I gain faculties or insight is a matter of secondary importance.

The great questions here outside my ego are those of starvation and unhappiness here (and maybe elsewhere) and the need of having the real teachings of Mohammed broadcast. By “real” teachings I mean that even a few lessons from holy Qur’an or Hadith be explained aid exemplified, not by metaphysics or even spiritualism, but right here. Jesus prayed: “Thy will be done on earth as it is in the heavens.”

It is no use claiming Islam can solve all problems when the problems remain. But if even one problem can be faced and removed that it something. Claims are to me noises, and sometimes dangerous noises. I have seen prayer work miracles and I have seen multitudes pray and nothing happens.

Today I have to meet the Khalandar again. He sees in all three worlds, so to speak. I have not even got good sight in this world. But seeing in all worlds and functioning with full mind and full heart are different.

There are those places in this universe above assemblages, even above in faculties, which are the well-springs of all blessings. I may be just sipping through one little straw from these well-springs but if I sip truly then I may be fulfilling the purpose of my life. It is exceedingly difficult to be compelled or impelled to take teachings about Mohammed from others and have these different from and often contrary to Hadith. I am not concerned with titles, I am concerned with functions.

I am today to learn about Abdullah and Ahmed. Those who proclaim Mohammedar-Rassoul lillah let them prove it by radiating love, peace, justice, tranquility, and every sort of healing. I am still in the stage of learning. I was never told I should be or become a Murshid. I even like my spiritual duties and do not seek any others until it is so ordered by Pir-o-Murshid or Rassoul or Allah. I have seen no such signs but now I am not seeing any signs excepting what is communicated here.

I received no word about coming to Lahore and think this may be because of the heat. It reached 100° here but excepting for the number of visitors I receive and so cannot rest, the heat has not bothered me. Then we have had more rain and so moderate weather than usual.

As you instructed me to learn about Khalandars I accept. I shall even receive power if Allah wills. But my interpretation of kashf is so different and my attitude toward Murakkabah and ryazat so different.

I knew the private secretary of Prime Minister Mosadegh. He is now home in his native village, drawing water are taking it to the people on the hills. This is ryazat, this is Abdullah. This does solve some problems.


Ahmed Murad Chisti

June 16

Dear Tony:

This is my badly neglected diary entry. P.P. not only stands for Puddinhead, Prelate, Potentate, Plentypentiary Puck, it also stands for Pied Piper. Well, I asked for it. I have had the crazy, stupid idea that, if you ate, slept and dined with people you would gain friends. Oy! Now I can’t walk through the streets; “Natchra,” Natchra.” It came to me that “natch”—from which we get the word “nautch” means “dance.” And then some. In the last week I have gained the friendship of scores and scores of kids. I have now given the boys at the Catholic School three softballs and intend to play more with them. And for the others, both boys and girls I dance.

This horrible, poisonous, foul scheming way to win friends with Pakistanis and keep them from Russian Subversion is of course both anti-international and anti-protocol. Especially the latter. We must fight above board and keep to the rules. When the enemy changes the rules we must follow accordingly. In jousting don’t hit below the belt; and if the enemy changes from jousting to Siamese boxing we must go and do likewise.

All invasions follow one-way traffic. Genghis Khan, his descendents, Mahmud of Ghazali, Babar and Nadar Shah prove that. So the Russians can keep to international protocol and that is all. We must accept the rules, especially we must. So crazy Puck goes around and teaches softball, demonstrates dancing and becomes popular.

There is just one family here from the U.S. not Protestant missionaries. If you become a Protestant missionary you have to swear allegiance which means that all other Protestant missionaries are devils and the Jesuits, of course, are the worst of devils and then you fail, but you do not traffic with any devils. Puck recognizes imps but not devils. He likes the Jesuits, admires their educational system and loved the boys. This is horrible copy. What is going to happen when all the boys from 6 to 21 admire Puck and grow up and take over this government?

In the meanwhile to make it in reverse one gradually lets it be known that no newspaper ever interviews Puck; that he got kicked out one university and could not get interviews at other ones; and that all the best jobs in Oriental culture are in the hands of Epoops. Why, he is so much of a hero it is horrible. No rest. Whatever I begin to say there is “Hip, hip, hurrah.” So when I write letters of protest and just let one person see, in a while the whole town knows it.

In this country they believe in God, or Allah, They have assumed that Kennedy is a believer; they have assumed that Nehru is not. So they don’t like asked being made into followers of a non-believer. If Nehru, why not Nikita? It is all the same to them.

The Afghan situation is perfectly snafu and the only change is that since I have come here more people on the other side wish to join Pakistan, or is it International Pukhtunistan? Anyhow the Pathans control this side and why not the other?

Johnson missed all the big problems. And he asked neither for advice nor suggestions. Some Americans were interviewed: “Do you approve of this plan?” “How far do you approve?” That is all, so Simon McGee who knows Urdu and engineering and mining and has spent 5 years more getting $300 a month is going to see Lizy Smuts, graduate from Yale or Smith, coming here and getting $500 a month start and more later. Is he going to like it? Or Prof. Lunch who is getting a small stipend because he speaks Urdu and knows Pakistani culture is seeing a former pupil coming here and getting a larger stipend to start while he is by-passed. He just loves that, you can bet!?!? This is diplomacy and protocol.

Now Nikita knows that people who want rice want rice and not ping-pong games; that if they want Qur’an they want Qur’an and not Roberts Rules of Order as practiced in the U.S. Sunset. If they want mining experts they want mining experts and not street planners, etc. He can’t supply them but he can say he will. And we go back and pat ourselves of a great diplomatic victory. Liberia refuses to join the Red Bloc. That is something. Since Liberia never had such intentions anyhow and may be the last country in the world to be communized, boy what nonsense. Maybe we shall see a headline: “The Pope turns Christian and absolutely refuses to compromise with Allahism.” That would be something but that is our news and it is the news here and everywhere else and the more emotional you are the more uninformed you can afford to be. Excepting Nikita.

In UAR we predicted that the Assouan dam night never be finished. As I doubt whether the Russians have experts I am not surprised that there is quite a separate “cold war” going on between UAR and U.S.S.R.—hands off, that would be very, very unfair and unjust on our part to interfere. I tell you there is going to be an untimely different cold war and it will have the God-lovers against all materialists, atheists and mammonizers. You know that and have known that.

What is needed is an entente between Islam and South America (wouldn’t Franco love that!). I think it may come. The Sufis are exceedingly strong here and I am learning more and more. But we stick to nonsense and Tillich’s “god” who is now being presented in the universities.

I am going to have a job in India fighting monkey-worship, cow-worship and elephant-worship. And here there are the anti-clericals consisting of mullahs, maulvanas, maulvis, muftis, kadis, ulema, imams; there are no clergy in Islam. If they are clergymen they are exempt from Income Tax, and if they are not they must pay. What to do?

Well Sam Yorty is now Mayor of L.A. And if I start feeding him my stuff don’t be surprised if he is in the U.S. Senate after all. I can give him facts, annotations and finally signed petitions.

My complaints, of course, make me feel fine and I am looking younger. Playing soft-ball at 65! But of course ANTA has no money for this. We must raise millions to entertain the Americans, Norwegians, French, Italians, Armenians and Greeks abroad, even the Bwiddish if they wish, but for the common people, protocol, you know. It is easier to reach Venus than the hearts of people by this nonsense. They are no guinea-pigs to be compelled to choose between Nikita and Wall St. They are human beings with hearts and souls. Everybody in the Agricultural Department in Shington knows that; maybe someday somebody in the State Department will find it out; and maybe, if there are still miracles, some newspaper editor.

No wonder I can only write nonsense, but it is true, every bit of it, even though heavily salted and peppered.


June 23, 1961

My dear Harry:

I have long contemplated writing a book, “Not so Innocent Abroad.” The main thing is that one must do everything contrary to protocol. At the present moment this is making me very popular. V.P. Johnson is just as “popular” in Pakistan as Nixon was in India. As an anti-protocolarian this is has made me popular in each country, but there are some very serious aspects to it.

I tried modesty in entering this country—it did me no good. I had to sign special papers and these papers brought me in touch with Police and especially Police Chiefs. There is nothing more satisfactory than having these men as your best pals. I got into trouble in Abbottabad and to make things satisfactory all around I registered with all the police. This also brought me more tea, free lunch and pleasant discussions.

The Top Banana here is the Superintendent of Police or S.P. He is something like a combination of a County Sheriff and Supervisor of all local Police Chiefs. When I came back from Lahore he was waiting for me and we are as thick as men can be (or as Harry Lauder says, “I think I’m the thicker of the two.” Anyhow I have a big mission here in Agriculture, etc.’ another in Islamic philosophy; another, by grace of President Ayub on Pakistan culture coming up. All of these bring me to the S.P.’s office or home with a lot more free tea, eats and conferences, all levels, all subjects.

Through him I met a Khalandar, right out of Scheherazade suite and a lot of other strange persons, but I won’t go into that here.

There seems to be an affect of all rich persons, particularly the Pathans, to invest in land. They do not care about industry, and Sardar Rani the S.P. is no different. Besides he is also a friend of president Ayub who is also an amateur-at least-fruit grower. Abbottabad is in a sort of Rift-pass, the drainage goes on three sides but the place looks like a valley. It is subject to drafts and the winds bring more moisture so we have had periodical rain right through the dry season. At the moment the Apricots here are doing fine. Crape Myrtle and Ligustrum are the chief blooms, both being used as small trees rather than shrubs. Gaillardias and Phlox dominate the flowers with Begonias, “Geraniums” and other familiar blooms being evident now.

The S.P.’s place here is at least four acres. He has large Pine trees, other Conifers and fruit trees mostly—Apricots, Apples, a local Pear and a few Plums. He has an orchard in the Peshawar district, mostly Prunus droops. He has three compost heaps—night soil, buffalo dung and leaf. I have suggested putting some dung in the leaf. He does not use the night-soil until it is a year old. I also suggested another pit for Pine needles, to be used as winter mulch. He is planning Persimmons and I think they, as well as Roses, etc. could stand the mulch.

He has been most successful with Corn (Zea mays). He said he had stands last year with as many as seven and eight ears. The soil is predominantly clayish with heavy K, as I have reported before. This is reflected in the flowers and particularly in the Carnations at the moment. This gives good stems. He is growing Okra, Onions, Lettuce, Capsicum, Chilies, Tomatoes, Grapes and several numbers of the Melon family—kept far apart. After the Corn is taken up he has planted winter Peas—two crop rotation, also other Peas and Cabbage and Spinach during the winter.

He gave me the same negative reports on Ammosulph I have had in Hong Kong, Thailand, India and Rawalpindi. Indeed the American “foreign add” insisting on this is one of the many factors making for the present ill-will. Ammosulph keeps down the soil bacteria, etc. Also the heavy monsoons leach it and how—so little is utilized.

Well, Harry, I am quite serious if I say with my money and my brains we might save the country. I am gradually going after a subsidy. I have written Secretary Shahab and sending a copy to a VIP friend and this may start something when President Ayub returns. I have the S.P. with me and can get the Food Director easily. But I am still waiting for my friend, Abdul Sattar from San Francisco. A death in the family has delayed him.

I have also a letter from Asia Foundation and I am going to but a bug in their ears, too, but perhaps later on.

I have talked twice to the S.P. about Hunza. The organic gardening economy there has caused quite a stir in certain parts of the U.S. But here they know nothing about it. You see these people have a totally different form of language and also they are followers of Aga Khan. In this clergy-less land of muftis, mullahs, maulvanas, imams, kitabs, ulema, hakims—the list is still incomplete—you must not mention Aga Khan. Besides the Aga Khan people do two things against protocol—work hard and get wealthy. I don’t know which makes them more disliked and being heterodox on top, there is no cultural communication.

Now politically speaking we are not far from Hunza though there are high mountains in the way. Inasmuch as protocol pays no attention to American, Australian and such climbing parties, we “must” do nothing, but just invited a few Russians in and somebody is going to “rediscover” Hunza land. Anyhow I have put a few bugs I the S.P.’s ears and he is going to see his Chief who is all over the police in Pakistan, etc.

We also discussed dry farming and desert Agriculture. I have not yet made my lists for Dr. Hamid Khan but when I do I shall include the S.P. with a carbon. We have also discussed the advantages of bringing in Avocado, Olive and Carob. It is also probable that he will be taking me to some landowners in the near future but his Chief is coming tonight. (I have sung for him “A Policeman’s Lot is not a “Happy One.”)

I have suggested the heavy manure or fertilizer spreading just after the Monsoons begin and the leaf-mold-compost in the winter. There seem to be some rains here at Abbottabad all year. There is some snow but it is generally sunny in the winter.

It would also be wise, I think, to get in touch with the organic Gardeners and with Atlas, but this I am leaving more or less to you to re-suggest to me, or reject when I return. To recapitulate, we have the projects of organic fertilizers instead of Ammosulph, drought tolerant crops, and heavy oil and protein foods like Soy Bean, Olive, Avocado, to take up.

Besides inflaming the people by this pro-Indian stand, Johnson paid no attention to the agricultural problems. Why is it that Russia and Yugoslavia are sending in the “saline soil” experts?

The same is true about minerals. I have now a line on Graphite, Chromite, excellent pure Silica and fine China Clay. I am asking that the young son of the owners make a list of valuable mineral deposits here giving formula and size of lode; also availability. I did not wish to take up more at one sitting. But as things stand, unless we really wake up to Pakistan and Asia, we shall either see further Russian infiltrations or hope that the Japanese get there the firstest with the mosts.

Asia Foundation is calling on Americans here to make some suggestions. I have not me a single one who does not feel rebuffed by Johnson and in general by the Embassy. The very ones who understand about this land are the last ones consulted. (Where would I be without gripes?)


June 24

My dear Harry:

There is a certain type of man—and so far I have found them only in India or with mixed “Indian” blood—I do not know the face type, that is absolutely imperious, immovable, dictatorial and from my point of view impossible. They all have in common—and this is also unusual for people from this region, a capacity for hard work and effort which is not general. So they often get to the top.

My host here is one M. Yakub Khan who owns a drug store and around him and his partners several worthies gather from time to time. I would characterize there men as “imam” though is some respects they resemble our old “cracker-barrel” philosophers. The evenings are mild and when clear the number of persons who join them is sometimes liable to be large.

Last night one

Agha Faqir Shah (P.C. Retired) Land Acquisition Officer & Collector.

“The R x,” Link Road, Tarbela Dam Project,

Abbottabad P.O. Ghazi, West Pakistan

sought me out and I shall have a good deal to write about him below (this is my diary again). We discussed the dam and its possibilities and later on the Assouan dam, etc., etc.

We did not get very far when we were interrupted by a man who claimed to be not only “a” but “the” expert on Wheat, Rice and Sugar and I never saw such a bundle of negations in my life. We are passing through a series of international misunderstandings. This man sneered at all the experimental stations I have been too—it was always the wrong ones. He belittled everything being done and I certainly did not take the trouble to mention my contacts, nor the fact that M. A. Cheema who “briefed” me is regarded as the top No. 1 Agricultural Expert for Pakistan. Besides this man knew more.

He got everybody to laugh at me when I said there was 75-90% recovery from the Sugar Beet. I let him win the arguments and I told the Agha later that we utilized all the Sugar Beet and all the Sugar Cane but not all for Sugar. I did not ask for the “expert’s” name and he told me the top man from the whole world had come here and neither German, Russians nor Americans had been able to solve the “local problem.” But it was quite obvious to me the “local problem” consisted of non-receptive “experts.”

One has to begin with the food habit—I did not bring this up. A large percentage of “faminizism” in India has been due to the stubborn adherence to Rice and a restriction even of “Rice-and…. Here there is some stubborn restriction to Wheat. All right, the people must have Wheat. Now these have been migratory people, many having ancestors from distant places like Agha Shah above. They carry their eating habits into lands of different capabilities.

As the Agha well recognized, but the “expert” did not, there have never been thorough Soil, Hydrological or Geological surveys here. The main experimental station for Sugar and Wheat started in 1912. What have they solved? Other then knowing in rough that there is much fairly high pH, heavy soil here; one has not much more to start in with. Texas Seed Corn has failed, but has it? So far as I could tell from the “expert”—they have their own planting seasons, different. The soil chemistry is different. And the only fertilizing is done with Ammosulph. Now if you add Ammosulph to soil of high pH in warm, rainy weather, there is some chemical reaction, liberating the Ammonium ion and so you lose N. I am not going to discuss this with experts from exp. stations established from 1912 who have not found this out.

I am not enough versed in Genetics to have gone into the relation of new breeds and the best soil chemistry for them. But I do know I can discuss this rationally with the staff at the Forest Station above and I shall do something about it.

As to Sugar I refused to play my cards. So far as I can see, with a changing planting season, the whole process of photosynthesis is altered and, when on adds the problems put to me in UAR they are way off base. Next, the “expert” insisted that the machine system alone would solve the problem, that the cost of labor was too high and that a peasant economy was expensive and wasteful. The only answer to this I can see is to abolish humanity. It has survived some rather in inefficient systems and perhaps systems will always have a high degree of inefficiency.

I went into the Beet Sugar thing and this is too early to face economical but I again refused to play my cards with an “expert.” To utilize Cane Sugar in its entirety you have to have some machinery, not so much for Sugar extraction but for by-products and wastes. Look at the history of PABCO. Well, if “experts” don’t know these things it is too bad. Whatever way one turned he had a flock of reasons, always ending with “the world experts have been here and failed” and I can say whether the world experts have been here been here or not, you can’t convince stubborn minds and closed ears. I will later on try to by-pass such things.

As to Maize, he laughed at every statement I made and refused to take down the names of persons who had succeeded. As the S.P. is very proud of his own experiments I am going over this point with him. Perhaps the whole organic gardening philosophy is involved and maybe Hunza will provide a partial answer, but when I get to the “cracker-barrel” people in the “experts’” absence I shall tell them a thing or two.

How in God’s or the devil’s name can one introduce expressive machines into a land which has not good mechanics and where iron-mongers are held in low repute? So long as there are countries in which you have the gold is greater than silver is greater than copper is greater than iron, you reach an impasse. The Jewish Falashas in Abyssinia (Ethiopia) won their economic independence when technology reached that country because they had a monopoly on iron-smithing! (Jews, of course, never work with their hands, and lot of baloney still exists!)

All this time the Agha was trying to tell me of the Tarbela Dam on the Indus, the conditions under which it is being built. A very large-lake reservoir will be made and this will affect the water supply. Unlike the Assouan dam, although the temperature rises just as high, this is during June, July, August, when the greatest rains also come. The rain supply is more than sufficient to overbalance any loss by evaporation. And there are neither the technical difficulties of Assouan nor political involvements.

I think I have referred to a Nabob who wishes to see me, he controls the land on one side and four villages must be moved. But this is a minor obstruction because the villages can be moved more rapidly than the dam can be built.

Agha Faqir Shah lives very near me. Link Road is the main highway immediately to my right. He took me his home and we had some very long discussions, coupled with my favorite drink-Maxell House Coffee!

The first problem he put to me was where could he get literature on the color of flowers.

Now he has worked with fly Hydrangeas but tells me Alsuph is hard to get here and he has never used Iron sulphate. Besides, as I have said, the pH is high here. He could use Ammosulph but his objection to this was even longer than what I have heard from other quarters. He positively confirmed the peasants’ objections to it but then more in detail.

Outside my work in the fields common to us my largest project is in the philosophy of Integration. My leader in the U.S. is Prof. Oliver Reiser, Philosophy Department, Pittsburgh U. I have been trying to get him in touch with various philosophers in the Orient. As luck would have it, he has by-passed me in this. This will save me much time, the personal contacts having can made.

The Integral approach is compulsory in the engineering field, you cannot omit anything and many formulas are based on integrals. But the medical field is exactly the opposite. We have diagnoses and diagnoses and diagnoses but putting jig-saws back is not always accomplished. The Gestalt Psychology offers another approach in integration or near integration.

I told the Agha that I objected to the Hendelian approach because it did not take the soil chemistry; the auxin-problems are complicated with photosynthesis and related light problems; and the genetic factors seem to be quite different in different plants. I immediately gave him the address of Ohio State U. and if I can find it shall give him the N.Y. Horticultural Society. As I was warned in Karachi, They know little here about Agricultural literature, how to use abstracts, etc. If this cannot be handled by correspondence I shall look up Poole, etc. when I return. I do not know whether our agricultural attachés have Poole. I think I may find it at Dehra Dun but with delicate international feelings, you just don’t do things that way.

Indeed the Agha reacted just like S.P. when I mentioned Hunza. On top of that I looked up the scientific edition of Pakistan Quarterly referred to above and what they are doing in soil science is elementary. There is a part on Tobacco. The “exports” recommended Ammosulph and they got huge yields at very poor grade. My “expert” friend above told me that he was also skilled in this field. Now, Harry, in my aeonic existence I have worked this crop in the Carolinas and there were great debates there on fertilizations, soil chemistry and residual effects. When rejected foliage and stock plants are turned back into the ground as soil conditioners, the economic and qualitative loss to the soil is much lessened. There is some uncertainty whether there may or may not be some symbiosis or N fixation with this plant, too.

Experts here do not work the ground. They just give orders and the Soil Chemistry also reports a peasant revolt against Ammosulph. Undoubtedly I have been verbose here but I want to get everything down on paper. I am not pessimistic about anything. I may see the Agha before I mail this. I wish to see his garden, etc.

It is curious to have met two such men at the same time. The “expert” constantly interrupting, but I am sure he has also interrupted anybody sent here from abroad. I would not dare approach him on saline-tolerant [?]. And though I was sneered at for not yet going to Lyallpur and Peshawar, this is not going to affect my approach; it will largely acquaint me with more species, etc. I stop at this point and will either mail, or add.

June 21, 1961

Dear Tony:

I axed for it and the axe has descended. This is my diary entry. I have neglected it. I am writing some Puck stuff and more poetry. But the axe—give ‘em the axe. I axed for eating, praying and dancing. You can testify there is no God but God and Samuel had three principles. Tomorrow, for instance, the Chief Pathan’s secretary has asked us for tea. Between being Puck and accepting food and also as they have been in California, mostly Sacramento, this is a must and why not? I walk to the bazaar. One hour off, chai, gossip and sometimes sweets. I get two blocks more. La même chose, but there is no choosing chose. And so on. Sometimes I eat meals. I am sending for more dollars or rupees because I think I should have them but with this system they go for, very far indeed.

The infants call me “Tam bleeze.” This is supposed to make me want to chasethem. I don’t know how it got started but this is protocol. The infants must have called me “Tam bleeze.” Then the next groups and the groups are growing—natchna! natchna!, which means “dance” (same root as “Nautch”) so I natchna and natchna. Only the paths are stony and it is fortunately where and when I can find a grassy spot, or a courtyard. I dance with a brick on my head or I dance with castanets of I just dance. But it is the unanimous opinion of the sires that I must take tea with them, and of the children that I must dance for them. There are the Pathans, they are called “submitters” and if there are any people on earth who do more insisting than the Pathans I have yet to meet them. If they were not Pathans I might object, but again Puck axed for it and the axe has descended.

My friend Steadman has moved from Ohio to the home of the late Dr. Baker who was great on this Puck stuff. When she is dead, poor lady, but I would like some psychologist to explain—my pals are Pathans all over.

And what an argument in the bazaar. I mentioned “Pukhtunistan” and people pale “white.” It is a forbidden word. Nobody believes in it. I said: “You are wrong. Pukhtunistan is not part of Pakistan, Pakistan is part of Pukhtunistan. Who is your president, Ayub Khan, and what do you think he is? Who is his chief assistant? Lt. Gen. Sheikh? And wherefrom? Who is the top banana here? Who are the Murshids, the professors, the engineers, the scientists? Pathans, the whole bunch. They run East Pakistan, they run West Pakistan—can you name one honest man in office who is not a Pathan?” Boy, what a session! And my friend, Abdul Rahman from S.F just sits and laughs and laughs. He came from the Pathan district himself!

Of course now the combination gun-mit-boomerang which my –friend” Quetta Guy sold to the Afghans is working time. For once the protocol that only Russians may invade and the traffic down Khaibar Pass is one way only, has gotten upset, or maybe water is running up-hill. Anyhow the whole thing has gone back on the Afghans and they have sent for Ayub. Ayub has trouble of his own. Lyndon Johnson did not exactly perform puja to Rama but he might as well have. After all did not Prof. Von Plotz, on Iqbal day say: “I am most happy to address you on the celebration of the birthday of the greatest of Asia’s poets—Rabindranath Tagore!” What else can be expected?

It is Nixon all over. After he “converted” the Hindus we had to send Earl Warren to straighten out the mess. And we are getting it in South America. We cannot and do not conceive the value of religion. People want to be loved, but within confines. In last “Readers Digest” it tells of a church father who cleaned up one of the west villages in Pakistan. Wait until the Children’s Crusade Peace Corps come to a welcoming committee of mosquitoes, diseased eyes, raving mullahs and hungry peasants. They are going to ?teach? them how to weave. “What is your religion? Why? Why don’t you believe in Mohammed? Did you ever study Qur’an? How can you reject it if you haven’t studied it?

Well Ayub is a Sufi and so was Prof. Hussain who has been in California and has probably greatly impressed the “professors” who will continue to teach that there are no great Sufis and the downfall of Islam is due to the reticence of Sufis to take part in politics. Shall we discuss Basic Democracy? (which has the same meaning as “Shall we dance?” by Groucho). Only the Sufis and Church Fathers accomplish anything but it is anti-protocol to discuss such things.

I have seen a lot of valuable mineral ores and I have urged my young friend Arif Khan to make a list, giving chemical formula and richness of lodes, etc, and bring it to America. It may do some good if the Russian don’t come in. There are great China clay deposits and fine Silica ores. I am going to try to “sell” them to Japan. Years ago we had a man write on the “lives of the masters of the Far East“—humbug and fraud, but what a lot of people believed. Today we have our Von Plotzes; they are believed, and look at the tensions. A fact is a fact in science but in politics it is always “who dun it?” and then there in a question anyhow.

Ii is very hot in the plains and although it has been running around 100° the last days have cooled off.

Fine Peaches and Plums now on the market. Melons and Apricots are very cheap but the other fruits are surprisingly high—not for an American, but way out of line with peasant’s pockets. There are now poor grade Mangoes but the best thing from them is their juice. I amd going to try to start a campaign that Pakistanis offer this abroad instead of the splendid cocktails they offer to non-Muslims and earn disrespect for themselves all over the lot.

Abdul Rahman and I have planned some tourist. Next month we go to Muzzafarabad which is in “Azad Kashmir” which I want to see. Americans are not popular there now but wait until I meet those guys. Puck will pull the rug under their feet and Sam will prove they are not Muslims and they will have to take it. It is the same comic opera—their patience is always exhausted but the whole actual Islamic world is against them. If they resort to arms they will disprove that Islam is peaceful. If they try a Gandhian invasion it will be a joke; who is going to join them? They are not even united among themselves. Ask a Kashmiri what he believes in and he will probably answer either “Allah” or “Give me some more.” Starvation under any other term is not a bit more comfortable.

The news I get about S.F. is uniformly bad. It ain’t anymore. Something retains the name and politicians are in the City Hall. I am only hoping that the Curry Bowl or the Captain’s Galley will still be there. But my first appointment with you must be the Nugget on Post. St., if it is still left.

I must confess I miss TV with all its faults and will probably have one. But I must keep up exercise and will probably work with the Baptists if I live in that area. My friend Welley Miller, who became the dancing partner of Leonora Martin, has been ill and Leonora also lost her other best gentleman friend. Well I had two busted romances and the augurs, soothsayers, seeks and clairvoyants say one is coming up, only when I return. Aware the Ides of May!

The boys now have a big swing here. I said that was enough—foot-ball, tennis balls (for handball), softball. etc., as well as, let’s call it Quoits. And when I pass the Catholic School. Gosh I wish some diplomat come here, or a newspaper man arrive and see what a humble, bumble, stumble lone American can do—inshallah!.

June 25

Well, Harry, I am in a series of jams. I have more invitations than I can handle and am behind both in my creative writing and reports. I have again seen the Agha and there is no question we may come very close. I cannot vouchsafe for his methods of research in color-in-flowers. But I have seen some results of his cross-breading. He has some fine double Petunias—I don’t care for this flower in particular but I am always interested in breading results. He has some dark Dahlias. He sent to his son for some “blue-Dahlias” and bulbs were shipped air-mail but did not come up. He is proud of his dahlias, which flower seems to adopt itself to all kinds of Asian conditions. But I still have to see anything like those of the Pacific Northwest.

His Carnation-Pelargium crosses are really most interesting and varied. One never knows exactly what will come thereof and he still has to do some selective-straining (straining in both senses and no pun intended). But he has no cutting bench here and I have not asked him how he does his propagation work—it is not bad. His few fruit trees are decidedly the best here.

But what struck me most were his reports on Tomatoes. There used to be a selection—and it may have been a cross—leading to a spicy variety, very select here and which offered its flower when cooked. It may still be grown in the Peshawar region. Still more important was his report on perennial Tomatoes which are found in the Malakand area—I have not visited it yet but one of the reason of the present jam is the series of invitations to go into every region and I have not been able to program.

Meanwhile I have lost prestige with some of my cronies who look upon the “expert” referred to in the beginning as the top scientist. For my part I should say “God help him.” I have never seen any real soil-control experiment here and there are few complete reports—the rest on NPK and pH. As the “expert” says he has interviewed the top Rice, Wheat, Maize and Sugar men of the world—I can believe it and I can believe they got nowhere with him. He has two arguments against every suggestion; and, with the lack of organic gardening philosophy and the strained relations between the “Ammosulph experts” and the peasants, there is certainly a road-block here.

Fortunately this does not disturb me at all. For I have just heard from India. A most delightful series of events has brought a number of my friends together in New Delhi and they are planning some welcome for me. This is months ahead of time but it will give me an opportunity to program. My first host, Syed Mahmud, is now the head of the whole Islamic community.

Now my present thinking habits come from my studies under Cassius Keyser of Columbia, author of The Human Worth of Rigorous Thinking and other books. I have been working with his chief disciple, Oliver Reiser of Pittsburgh. Reiser has been successful, independently, in establishing relations with Indian Philosophers. But my letter concerning friends happen to be those who are close to Reiser also socially and intellectually I may have my eggs in one basket.

If there is one way to arouse the Pakistanis it is to tell them that you will bring your stuff to India, and if there is on way to rouse the Hindus it is to take the opposite course. So if any “expert” tries the personality, phony-baloney stuff on me he is going to have to face some interesting events. Fortunately Dr. Hamid Khan, the Forest Botanist, has begged me for more sessions, and I shall try to clear and see him, but with many invitations and social events—I am just one man. I am going to lay some of these things before Asia Foundation, too. There is probably a lot more and with interruptions I don’t know how complete these reports are.


June 27, 1961

My dear Jack:

This is my diary entry. The bottoms of the pages will be left blank for notes before mailing. I do not wish to mail until I get my bank returns. At the moment there is a possibility of revaluation not in the direction of retrenchment but opposite. I have now been the guest of many people and even when I have remained my rooms in Abbottabad and gone elsewhere, through the kindness of friends my budget is small. Even now, it is early morning; I am up because at 7.30 I go for a free trip. The manager of the Government Transport Service has been very kind and hospitable. True, I am arranging to go in four directions: east, west, north-west and north-east from here. These are all into mountain areas, off the beaten paths and one does not know exactly what accommodations one will have. But I want to go not only for sight-seeing, but if I can break down the red-tape of some office-holding bastards, I might help build tourism here.

There is enough Indian blood in their veins so the pride and joy of life is to sit behind a desk. Any “good-cheese-blooded” Asian would rather get Rs. 200 rupees a month, just given a desk, free tea and some authority than get Rs. 500-1000 by working. My friends Arif Khan told me of his brother who is a mining engineer. That guy worked and got five times as much salary as expected. He is, of course, an outcaste, but he is having fun instead of being miserable. To be miserable is to be normal—I am still around Pukhtunistan. And where I go they speak Pashto, Hinkal, a little Punjabi and Gilgiti—the Peace Groups will learn Urdu and English and go forth; like young Galahads to find—well just wait until they do.

In addition to the above the news is very pleasant. Across the way Prof. Durrani, a Sufi and a big professor has just come. We had our preliminary talk last night. It was almost like falling in love. In the first place no professors are Sufis and no Sufis are professors see you, if you want your degree in Asian philosophy. In the next place he has a universal attitude and next he stresses love more than knowledge. Now it is all right for any ignoramus to stress love but for a professor who gets Rs. per mouth this is “unthinkable” and there are more “unthinkable” people here than you can imagine.

Then there is Agha Shah. He is in charge of the payrolls for the big dam on the Indus. He is interested in experiments in Floriculture. We have had a delightful time and he also lives quite close by. But we were interrupted constantly by a man who claimed he is in charge of all the Agricultural Experiments in the next district. The fact that all have failed means nothing. He has said be has met the biggest men in the world and they could not help. Actually they could not help “him.” I would not be proud of a lot of experiments that have failed. But he has authority, and he does not know that I have the low-down and am working in a sense, for this superiors.

So I worked out some reports for Prof. Hamid Khan, ex-University of California and Chief Forest Botanist in Pakistan. As luck, or Allah willed, I met the real Top Banana scientist of all the Frontier District, M.O. Ghani, from Peshawar. When I put to him the basic problems with Sugar, Wheat and Maize he agreed entirely. When I asked the “expert” to visit a certain garden here where they are growing top Maize he refused to go. This is “science.” But he does not know that the grower is a friend of President Ayub and got some of his materials from none other than.

For postscripts:

This grower is the S.P. Superintendent of Police, Sardar Rani. Now, Jack, I must advise you when traveling abroad the most important thing is to become acquainted with the top police. This is one of the first themes for my unwritten book, “Not So Innocent Abroad.” I have been threatened with arrest but with three police stations on my side, from tops to bottoms, and having eaten with the common copy, my erstwhile “enemy” has probably had a hard time finding someone who would deliver a warrant. Anyhow I have waited a long time for arrest and nothing doing.

Now as to Love. The new national anthem is “Ahmed Murad, Zindabad.” In each district there are crowds of kinds who expect entertainment. We in the U.S. are now spending a lot sending a vaudeville team here. But I am causing consternation in delivering unfair blows in the cold war—soft, ball, hand-ball, dancing, etc., but chief of all the swing I had put up in front of my rooms. Somehow or other kids like swings better than dialectics but this would be unfair to Khrushchev to introduce them. And as for hammocks—whoever brings hammocks here will become king. Anyhow wherever I go, a crowd of small fry, and a traffic jam.

Next I got a letter from India. As I have always said, some Hindus just done like Germans, Poles, Hungarians and Englishman teaching “Indian Philosophy.” This is complex because the philosophy is not and the pay is real. Why can’t we pay real Hindus to teach real Hindu Philosophy for real pay? Beloved, it jest ain’t done and this makes us popular but God knows where. So the Hindus have already notified me to a grand welcome, surprisingly. On top of that one of them is Surindar Suri, whom Lloyd Morain thought was his best friend, but Lloyd & Co. could not possibly interfere with any Ph.D. no matter what the Ph.D. said. And I don’t think Brother Gavin will relish hearing that the Hindus who have been in S.F. are getting ready to welcome me after my long efforts to see that some of them could teach Asiatics instead of European emigrés.

Incidentally I found the villain in my non-delivery of mail: the U.S. Consulate at Karachi. They sent everything back despite a double precaution on my part. This has been very awkward.

Interlude for breakfast. Now I am not only in a jam, a jam is in me. That’s a joke, son. Dog did not show up. I fed him already. To show you how poor the Muslims are here, dogs are treated well and cats nix. In Egypt, where the “pure religion” is taught, the cats are kings and the dogs scavengers. This has been since 60,000 B.C. and in China too, but here dogs are not curs, simply mongrels. I have to play every day with him, too; also push kids on swings and dance.

Yesterday I met Samuel Brown. He is not eligible for the Peace Corps. He speaks every language of Pukhtunistan and has been all over the place, even climbed high mountains and got into inaccessible valleys. But there is one thing he has failed in—he believes in God or Allah and not protocol. This makes him ineligible. It makes a lot of other Americans here ineligible and they are seeing top jobs going to enthusiastic young kids who won’t be able to answer the crazy questions put before them. Besides the Americans here believe baseball is more important than vaudeville shows. You see what happens to us poor saps abroad! So I am writing John Shelley without any idea that it will do any good. Brother-in-law has spoken.

On the other hand, my pal Sam, Sam Yorty, is now mayor of L.A. He is the king of the gripers and maybe I will tell him the Mish-mash-mush story of my life and he will use it when he runs for senator and he might even get in. It is possible that enough people will like ideas better than fancies…. Breakfast is over and dog is back and I will write some foot-notes and then leave.

K-482 Kunj St.

Abbottabad, Hazara

West Pakistan

June 30, 1961

Dr. C. Cutright and Associates

Ohio State Exp. Station,

Wooster, Ohio

In re: Horticultural Problems and the Cold War

Dear Friends:

There are a number of events in a crowded life which impel me to write to you.

Agha Faqir Shah is an engineer who has a home nearby. His hobby is solar experimentation in plants. I have asked him to write to your colleagues at Columbus. There is very little good literature here. When partition took place, all the good books were at Dehra Dun in Northern India, which I have visited before and hope to visit again. So men here do not know about Poole and in general even the best experimentalists do not know how to use pamphlets and reports.

This man is using mostly two methods–soil reactions and selections through breeding. His crosses have often resulted in very fine strains but not along the lines expected.

Soil Problems. I have just completed Geography of Living Things by M.S. Anderson, one of a series put out by Professor Frank Debenham of Cambridge University. I am so enamored of this book that I am going to purchase it and others of the series either for myself or for my friend, Harry Nelson, in San Francisco. It deals among other things with the grand food problems of the day.

The evening I met the Agha our conversations were constantly interrupted by a worthy who said he was in charge of all agricultural experiments in the next district dealing with Maize, Sugar, Wheat and Grain. He said he could get no help from the world’s great experts. I personally believe he himself is the great stumbling block and was able to find his superior, by accident (?) a couple of days later. This was one Dr. Ghani, chief of all scientific research in the Peshawar district.

The soil in all this region is predominantly alkaline, high K but there have been few analyses. Indeed I may have to bring a soil-testing kit next time I come. But I understand there is a German expert on Tea living near me who has made a detailed study of this subject. My first reaction to failures in Rice is that it is planted in soil of high pH. There is no good fertilization program and this has taken a most complex form. The farmers are in direct revolt against the Ammosulph approach. The Chinese farmers were successful in both Hong Kong and Thailand. Now only complete fertilizers are used in the former and only organics in the latter.

My own views are these–subject to correction, of course. In alkaline soils, at high temperatures, either Ca or K unite with the SO4–releasing Ammonia gas. When it rains there is much leaching, when it is dry much burning. The available N is much lower than expected.

In the next place–and I have heard this all over, Ammosulph is detrimental to soil organisms. There are not many organisms as it is in lands which divert manures. I am a very close friend of the S.P. (Superintendent of Police) here, who in turn is a friend of President Ayub. He has three compost heaps–night soil, buffalo dung, and vegetable wastes. I have suggested a partial combination of the last two and another pit for pine-needles. It snows here in the winter and they do not know about Mulches. He has already introduced the Persimmon and I have suggested mulches for both this and the Roses. But I shall tell him later of the Maize-mulches for the Roses such as your colleagues use on the campus at Columbus.

The S. P. knows nothing of the Hunza method. We have made some serious mistakes. Vice-President Johnson, in coming here, overlooked the whole agricultural community with its severe problems, concentrating on civic reforms. In this manure-wasting land there is no knowledge of Hunza. Each district or set of districts has its local language or idiom and most communication is through English, not Urdu. Our ”Peace Corps” is not going to be properly briefed and are headed for severe trouble. The only Americans here who know all the dialects are the Protestant missionaries and they are—because of our strange protocol—the last persons to be consulted about situations here. It is ridiculous, it is terrible and it is going to lead to worse situations.

Maize Experiments of the S. P. Last year he was most successful in getting five or more ears per stalk and his guesses were that the average height was about 8 feet. As the “expert” referred to above refused to meet him I am going to get a careful measurement of his field—number of stalks, how planted, manuring program, number of ears, size and even weight. I think a complete report of this kind might throw some light on local, and foreign situations. The Chinese and Japanese use night-soils plus, but here there does not seem to be any specific program.

Another thing is the general absence of check-plots in experimental stations.

Problems in Photosynthesis. This is my own conclusion. In UAR I was presented the double-reaction equilibria between Monosaccharides and Disaccharides. I had hoped for some solution here but the Sugar program is way out of kilter. Now during the months of July and August here where there should be a near maximum of light, one gets heavy rains. In fact I just had to shut the door because of a dust storm and these are usually followed by thunder-and-lightning. In any case whether there is a downpour or not, there is a diminution in light-hours.

My present view is that Sugars are encouraged in K-soils when there is much light. Diminution of light means less photosynthetic activity. On the other hand there are other elements needed and without proper soil analysis and correction, the Sugar problems will continue. The possibility of the Beet taking over in alkaline-encrusted soils has met with opposition here (there are some “Hindu” minds which are very stubborn and closed—I do not find this so in any other peoples). As my “expert” has rejected all reports from Utah, I am compelled to “do it yourself.” Unfortunately I have had no cooperation from our Embassy at all—I had nothing else but in UAR so I have written several letters of protest.

Strange Areas of Ignorance or Failing. The FAO is so full of red tape that when they sent Soy Beans seeds—60 varieties, they did not consider viability and only one strain grew. By the time they collected the seeds from all over and were ready to ship them, the seeds were out of season. Furthermore it is only possible to sow this crop in the pre-monsoon period (as now). There is neither water nor heat in the winter which must be used for truck-garden crops.

Also I found the Artichoke, which to some extent is salt-tolerant, being grown as an Ornamental Flower! And there is a hill-side near me, absolutely barren, with rich leaf-mold (“mined” by peasants) and no Grapes, no Strawberries and they have never even heard of the Blackberry!

Tomatoes. I have heard from the Agha referred to above, and confirmed by Dr. Ghani, the chief research scientists, that there are perennials in the district of Malakand. I expect to go there within the next two months and will obtain all information possible. There is also another Tomato, confined to the Pushtu people, which has a sharper taste and is used in curries. I shall try to get all the information possible, or even seeds (which, of course, would have to go through quarantine).

Pests. (You can pun here.) There is a constant near-war situation on the Afghan border. There is still more pressing danger of a Locust invasion. They have been seen in large quantities in Iraq and Iran but have not taken to flight and nobody knows which direction they will go. If anything important comes up I shall let you know. With the intense food problems of this region, we have the constant stress on near excitement among peoples reported I the papers.

Saline soils. This has undoubtedly been the problem of the country. Americans and others have come and had "conferences." These conferences are immediately followed by the Russians sending in "experts." But I was the first person to bring in crop lists of tolerant plants! Nobody else thought of that and Dr. Firemen from Riverside, California, will not be here until winter, at least. And when people grow Artichokes and ornamentals, don’t want Beets and won’t eat Asparagus, what to do?

Freeport opening. This is the best news possible for Pakistan, but they do not yet realize its import. Any success in this line means the opening of vast areas.

Desert Agriculture. I have been most fortunate in finding that the Chief Forest Botanist, one Dr. Hamid Khan, graduated from the University of California. I gave him the first list of plants—trees and shrubs, listed by the same university in its "Desert Agriculture" plus some few I know about from direct experience. I climbed the nearby mountain, referred to above, and found it largely unplanted but having Persimmons grow wild. I have suggested the Olive for hill tops and this has been approved by the various persons referred to herein. Butter costs as much as in the United States.

Oil sources. We are discussing Olive, Avocado, Cotton and Coconut. The Coconut could be better grown I East Pakistan. There is a species of wild Olive here and my friend, Dr. Rabbani Khan, has used it for grafting. I shall be calling on him after posting this and find out what progress he has made.

I have been asked by Dr. Ghani, the chief scientists, to inquire into a strain of Cotton which can be grown in saline soils—they have it in UAR. This will not only benefit the people here but if they concentrate on the seed for oil, etc. more than on the fiber as such, I think there will be universal benefit. I have turned over my other UAR notes to the chief Entomologist in Lahore. I gave him your name but hope to see him later.

The Avocado will be new here. I think it will take in general the same soil and conditions as the Mango. It will also provide some protein, and of course, fat. I suggested this formerly. But I have found that every single proposal I have ever made was also made previously by British horticulturists—and by-passed.

Water supplies. The Indus is being dammed. As the Agha referred to above is one of the chief engineers in these projects I have asked him a number of questions. Unlike the Nile, the Indus receives plenty of rainfall in July and August, diminishing water losses through evaporation. The evaporation problem has not been given serious studies by the enthusiasts in the UAR but here it may not arise. The Indus thus has two seasons—the melting snow, and the rainfall (monsoon) period.

Prunus fruits. I have seen all the varieties of Plum that I tasted I childhood. They are fine here in quantity and quality. There are just two main types of Apricot—those of deep color which are sweet but not firm, those much lighter, less sweet but excellent in texture. The Peaches so far have been of two varieties, fairly good tasting, firm but small. I understand the larger Peaches will come out later.

As they have a shortage of Sugar, canning and drying are both hazardous, but in the higher regions and again in Afghanistan and Turkestan I know drying is an old industry. Unfortunately there are terrific caste distinctions here—far worse because they try to hide them—and you cannot go into certain technical matters which concern operations of "low-born."

There are several types of what we should call "Cherry Plums." I have not seen sweet Cherries. But I have suggested the introduction of at least P. lyonii and P. ilicifolia from California during the coming years.

Pomes. There have been three "Apples" out, all smaller and quite different from those in our land and rather low in pectins as well as sugars. There are two types of Pears, just coming. One seems to be small and in large quantity; the other I have not yet seen but I am told it is excellent.

Gourds. There are numerous Melons and above all Vegetable Marrow. The Watermelon are little different from those in the US excepting there are no refrigerators. There are some smaller ones between the Watermelon and Cucumber which I have not tasted. Cucumbers are plentiful and good. Then there are all sorts of small sweet melons, some resembling those of the Sates, some quite different, especially in shape. They are very cheap and plentiful

Other fruits are quite different and not always good. The price of mangoes is held up until they are almost spoiled. Oranges and Bananas are expensive and not very good. I would suggest a larger bottling program for Mango juice, consuming the "seconds" which have not much edible material.

Nuts. Walnuts grow fine here but I have not purchased any. That is because of the large stocks of Pine nuts and Almonds—the last not too good, the former excellent. There are plenty of Peanuts (Ground nuts) but they do not look appetizing.

Vegetables. These are nearly all familiar. Plenty of Potatoes, Onions, Beets—Spinach is on and off, Lettuce and cabbage and Peas mostly in the winter. There are many Legumes, some not found in the US.

Erosion. This is the main problem I am taking back with e. The extent of eroded soils is tremendous. Of course I am going to follow up the Desert Agricultural situation. They know nothing of Opuntias on the one hand, or Fungi on the other. There is a grand need for tree planting, etc., etc.

I have already been extended most cordial welcomes to India and Malaya, and my social contacts have been of the best. I am not asking for shipment of seeds, literature, etc, until I can fix proper dates and places. I am hoping that my efforts will be integrated into a larger movement. I am not too anxious to carry on personal work, but I shall be pleased to place my notes and experiences in the hands of interested person.


Samuel L. Lewis

July 3, 1961

Dear Tony;

Page all psychologists, psychiatrists, psychometrists, psychics, psychos, also telepathists, telekinesists, grape vines and what have you. It comes from wearing a Pathan shirt and pretending to be Puck of Pukhtunistan. Well my pal, Abdul Rahman from Mission St. were walking through the bazaars whom two men accosted us, stopped us, blocked us, (lights out) and barred our way: Khalid Is Coming To Abbottabad! Why pick on us and like that? Maybe you will believe now some of the experiences I go through in this “Glossed Horizons” land.

1. I am now the guest of Akbar Rahman whom Puck calls Obdurate Rahman who took me to the Himalayas last week. Now we plan to go to Nathiagalli and Murree, then to Azad Kashmir. I have already written for reservations at Peshawar but not until July 20 and by that time Khalid should be here and then some.

2. Major Rabbani has moved to Abbottabad. He is a fellow-disciple of the same Sufi teacher and regards me as his elder brother. We get along capitally. The other night I said, “Come to see me at 5 P.M. and then I shall take you to the S.P. (Supt. of Police). We went out and while gone a note came inviting me to the S.P. that night (see first sentence). So we went and I met the S.P. from Lahore and we had a wonderful time.

3. Across the street has moved Prof. Durrani. This is impossible. He comes from a celebrated family which has provided hosts of Robin Hoods, caravan traffic cops and “kick out the other rascals” campaigners. He is a top Physicist, top Engineer and Sufi Teacher. We are as thick as the thieves from whom he has descended. I am meeting all kinds of Sufis and celebrities either through him or with him. He is taking me somewhere or other tomorrow night.

Meanwhile—go back to the first sentence and think of Puck—he has invited me to a complete tour of the Pathan country in August. So I am planning a quickie or not so quickie toward the end of this month and a careful repeat performance later on. This is necessary because:

4. I have been blocked in my work by a man who says he is the top scientific researcher in the next province and he sneered at my work. I determined to get around him and within 48 hours met his supervisor. Dr. Ghani of Peshawar and gave him some solid technical reports which were accepted on the spot and I have been given some very nice technical problems which are ?handled? by the UNO, FAO, FOA, FOE, and such and so the people starve while committees meet and confer and decide on policies and programs.

5. Meanwhile I have not only presented lists of crops but are working with the proper forestry and tree men and everything is going well excepting I am busy from 6.00 A.M. until… it is nearly 9 P.M. now.

I have written to the Alumni Assn. at Berkeley protesting against the teaching on the campuses that there are not Sufis and if so, they are unimportant men who never take part in politics. The same view is held here about the Pathans. Well I asked who is Ayub? As he is both Sufi and Pathan—what’s the use, the professor can’t be wrong. I am convincing people here that instead of being riled about Pukhtunistan they are part of it and had better wake up the fact: Who is President? Who are the Cabinet Members? Who are the Supts. of police? Who are the top scientists? Who are the Governors-General? Generally Sufis and Pathans—but don’t let that interfere with the press and intellectuals and book-writers and such. I think it did hurt some Urduists to have to admit they were being ruled by Pathans and that a large part of Afghanistan wants to accede—this way. If they have a fair election on both side of the border, exist Afghanistan, only the Urduists have no sense of humor and the Pathans, well, they more than make up for it. And they dance and the long-faces do not.

Life is both pleasant and hard. The kids all expect me to dance for them excepting those in the neighborhood who expect me to play ball. The arsenists (not arsonists) want to sit and damn Kennedy but they know I am not on good terms with the U.S. government and have a hard time getting letters answered so they don’t blame me; they just blame Kennedy and Johnson more! Then the intellectuals and sages and the non-clerical maulvis, maulanas, mullahs, katins, imams, ulema, kadis and others want to join in with the real Sufis and they listen to me a good deal. The evidence is so overwhelming I way become even compassionate when I present it. It is hopelessly ridiculous to ignore hard faces.

But I am still against sending over young kids with missionary spirits and no idea of God or religion to come here and in addition face hardship of which they have no inkling. True. “Readers Digest” told of what one Father did in part of this country. But it takes a great spiritual pioneer to do these things and ego-emotionalism and enthusiasm is not going to get anybody elsewhere. In fact if I were to remain here when they come the locals would probably subsidize me to try to convert them to Islam.

In the meanwhile a very gala invitation has been extended of which Puck refers to by Indian professors who agree that Germans, Poles, Hungarians, English and Basques are not the best teachers of Oriental Philosophy and besides this they would like to share the wealth. The reactions from my crusade against this nonsense in America are terrific all over, but not news. We are fortunate indeed that the communists are failing in production.

No wonder I am interested in Quadros. For the moment that man seems to have a world of sense, and maybe more than sense. We have become complicated and artificial and so ridden with clichés, slogans, banners and nice phrases that we have lost all contact with realities. There is hardly a speech read which has any meaning or else it has so many possible interpretations that it is worthless.

My last dancing partner, Leonora, had a most dramatic month. She lost her two best men friends through death and in the middle of it received three proposals of marriage from a business associate and finally accepted. I am relieved because in the last few years she has had a hard life. Deafness incapacitated her for most employment despite her efficiency and made her become a laundress manager. She has had nothing but troubles and worries. But me with my far-away determination could not be mixed in these things anymore and if I do marry—which is always possible, it should be to a woman who has a far-away attitude.

I now have two extremely contrary yearnings—to settle down in one place either to study or work with plants; to travel to certain parts of Europe: Sweden, U.K. and Spain, and to the West Indies. Maybe I may live long enough, but again I do not care and it is always possible I shall have some sort of recognition. I am getting it here and it look as if I shall in India and Malaya and East Pakistan—now he cards are all loaded for me and then some.

Morning. U Can, Twin: How to find lost handkerchiefs. My stock dwindled and dwindled and then some. Well last night I met a Khatib and he invited me to his mosque. So I looked for a skull cap, I have two. Here a hankie, there a hankie, everywhere a hankie pankie—trousers, luggage, bags and pockets, boy, did they show up—I mean, the hankies. Finally, in a wrong place, of course, my headgear.

July 5, 1961

Your Excellent Excellency Ruth:

Never were things in Pukhtunistan in such a mess—for the first time in history they are being a straightened out. You must know—the Epoop-protocol point of view, that the Pathans are ignorant peasants and never take responsibilities for anything. Durrani Sahib, about whom more below, took Puck to the next village, Kakul, where he met the landlord—a Pathan of course, exceedingly well educated with the sons graduates of European universities. We discussed the Pathans, also the Pukhtuns, also the Pushtuns. By then it was time to leave. We learned all about the peasants, the landlords, the tenures, the agricultural systems. etc.

Durrani took Puck to task—why did not you speak about yourself? Now Puck is a very (im)modest man who is quite willing to talk about himself when such dull subjects as Laos, Tunisia, Kruelchef, the Cold War and the next hockey game are being discussed—but, when it is Pukhtunistan—why Puck is amazed that a fellow should be willing to compromise with protocol or society. Finally Puck won his point.

Besides Durrani comes from a long line of Caravan Traffic Cops (or Robbers) and has the same relation to Robin Hood as Puck has to Willie the Snake. Besides Durrani has invited Puck to a person tour of Pukhtunistan late in August or so and of course this has been.... Anyhow Durrani the Pathan is the top scientist and the top Sufi here which is impossible and this change of impossibilities just goes to show.

Meanwhile Puck is not always seeing Durrani. Obdurate Rahman has been over. Puck twice gave him the Leprechaun sign—never again. Boy Puck is beginning to suspect he is just as much a bas…—illegitimate as Puck is. He acts, looks, and thinks like Leprechaun; even his accept is suspect. Anyhow he sent Puck off to Murree via Nathiagalli. Nathiagalli is at least 9,000 feet high. As soon as Puck arrived, up walks Malik Khyber—”What are you doing here? Why aren’t you visiting me at my home?” “But you are not at home.” “That is right.” “What are you doing here?”

Malik Khyber: This is my 14th honeymoon. I am almost 80. But what a time I have supporting my relatives and the Pukhtunistan Mortuary Combine. Fortunately I am wealthy enough. Now please visit my home and family but don’t tell them where I am. I have left ample funds for them and I want to enjoy my honeymoon, a little.” So sooner or later off to Khyber, of a course. Even sometimes protocol and will agree.

We got to Murree. Puck thought he was incognita. He was until he entered a book store. He wanted some information about Ahmed Bashir Minto, formerly of S.F. We got just six wrong directions and started to turn back and whom do you think we meet, smiling at us? Some psychiatrist or psychometrist or psychic should look into these things. Anyhow we had a good long talk and a good long walk.

Next morning Puck visited the U.S. Embassy and gave them a heart-to-heart talk about Epoop (this in Murree). Then we visited the USIS Library. The astounding thing is that it was almost empty and with all the free parking space for bottom–up among a people who should rather sit down and do not even want rocking chairs.

After that Puck followed the dotted line to the Indian High Commissioner. Perhaps he was called High Commissioner because it is 7,000 feet up. He was not in. Puck wanted a visa form. “References?” “President, Prime Minister, Vice President, Minister of External Affairs, Minister of Internal Affairs, Minister of Infernal Affairs, Minister of External Affairs, Pres. Bank of India, President of Hindustani National Bank. “Is that all?” “What—I suppose you will want my granduncle’s maiden name, too?” Just then a door opened and out walked the High Commissioner himself: “What’s all this going on? Don’t you know to whom you are speaking? Potentate-Plenitolentiary Puck, International head of the Anti-Epoop Society. Give him what he wants. No, I’ll do it myself.” (please don’t have S.F. papers copy, they would not believe on a stack of stacks.

Now Puck is asking you indulgence so he can call on Felix Knath, also of S.F. who has been in North Pukhtunistan called “Baltistan.“ He has been mountain climbing. I must explain mountain arithmetic:

Newspaper man at 6,000”=Russian at 12,000”= American at 21,000”= Austrian at 24,000’ to get in news maybe.

Puck’s English: Nuclear physics = unclear physics

Russian arithmetic = Chinese mountains are climbed by proclamations

Arsonists will never set the world on fire

Puck is now going to read the news. Don’t say it does not influence him. What is eating him all the time; what is he eating all the time—Rusks.

Puck on the School Bill. Having been briefed by L. Leprechaun Puck is solidly for aid to parochial schools—the money will be used for education and books. And Puck is against aid to so-called public schools—for each one million dollars

$250,000 to architects, contractors and materials men,

$250,000 to carpenters, plumbers, masons, electricians,

$250,000 to physicists for sound prove rooms, air conditioning and maintenance engineers, leaving

$250,000 for teachers, maybe, including clerical help and window washing.

The buildings will be beautiful palaces so sprawled there will be no room for play-grounds. This is modern education and they want more money for it.

In Pukhtunistan we say: “Your parents pay taxes for schools for your kids or else we’ll double them” and that is that and you don’t have marble walls excepting sometimes marble is cheaper than wood.

Mountain Sickness. The report in the first paragraph is substantially correct. Lowell Thomas came this way and everything was perfume and roses. He did not climb, but he took shots and used rose-colored lenses. Now the objective reports I find and find substantiated are so different and they all corroborate one another. We have made our berth—the authorities on Asia must be American newsmen and European professor and never European newsmen and American professors.

“The Roof of the world” is inhabited by very mixed people with mixed languages and in general they seem to be followers of Agha Khan. There are many deficiency diseases and the people are not happy. They do not starve but they do not know how to make use of the green herbs at their doors. This is all the more astounding because between the Greek (Junani), Hindu (Ayurvedic) and Homeopathic schools, medicines are made from about everything that grows—then the prices become prohibitive. The Japanese and Indonesians eat the herbs and don’t run to the doctors.

Peshawar. By the time I get there I can just walk in. I have such a long list of people who wish to be my hosts I know I can’t fulfill such a program. My first visit will be strictly tourism—I hope my money comes soon, then I shall buy. My next will be professional and then I hope to see and even learn a little of the folk dances.

I have not been too well and seem very sensitive to atmospheric conditions. I actually have no bad news but am wondering how long it will be before Americans can become objective. I think the people will, on the whole, but the press—ow! and all the protocolians. “Protocolians of the world, disunite, when we get rid of you we shall be rid of our chains.”

July 7, 1961

My dear Horace;

This is my diary and please excuse me if I be verbose because I have a lot to record and only hope it will be interesting. Some days ago one Abdur Rahman, manager of the GTS, Government Transport Service, took over and in a rather humorous fashion arranged two trips for me. One was straight north 60 miles to a place called Sachal at the foot of the Himalayas and the other 40 miles east to Murree, the Summer Capital. This required us to go to Nathiagalli which is over 9,000 feet and then to Murree over 7,000—which I have visited before.

The road to Sachal was through scenery very much like the Arkansas gorge in Colorado. But the river comes suddenly out of the ground. This is a phenomenon I have seen in this valley, too, and around Rishikesh (where Yogis are supposed to congregate) where the Ganges comes out. I am pretty sure that there are general such phenomena and there is one river, the Saraswati which is supposed to go underground and come out at different times.

The one thing evident was the marked glacial effect. Not only were there many boulders (I once wrote on “Rock and Roll”—you roll rocks) but did I see them! But they are of totally different composition—some huge masses of pure Mica, some almost pure Quartz, some a Granite containing these two. One of two distinctly Basalt, and then all kinds fragmentary sedimentary and stratified deposits. The immediate reaction was that I feel like returning to study rather than to lecture or teach to learn more of Geology and Petrology, so I can enjoy the country.

I am not keen on languages and find it difficult to study them. And in these travels the local dialects are different, some being vestiges of very old Indo-Germanic speech, some brought in by invaders and some, like Urdu, hodgepodges of intermarriages.

I am met one Samuel Brown, a medical missionary, who is at war with the administration. He has visited almost every mountain and valley in north and north-west Pakistan. He knows all about the idioms, folk customs, etc. but be was cold-shouldered by Johnson and the “family” who have set up the American policy for Pakistan. The result is the different waves of popularity—and from the Pakistanis who are for almost any anti-administration American; and one from the Americans here, snubbed and by-passed. And in these trips everything I learned corroborated what he told me, down to fine points.

We are going to send youngsters here who are going into remote villages which won’t be described because their instructors have not visited them; the languages are not taught in the U.S. excepting Urdu and that not much and in general our “experts” are men ignored or loathed in Asia—most of them being Canadians and Europeans, or if Americans, newspaper men.

Any intensity I have has been increased by the return of Mrs. Knauth of San Francisco who returned from Baltistan in the North where she has been—her husband follows soon. They are raving mad at the reports given by Lowell Thomas. They assure me that conditions in Hunza, about which I should refer later, are not so glossy, although also not so bad. But a few news men can make it extremely difficult for scientists to send invalid reports and more evil is going to come from this source.

In the valley north from here where irrigation is possible Rice is grown and where it is not, Maize. The borderlines and sometimes property lines are planted with Apricot trees. Apricots have the advantage of being easily dried and there are few weevils in the cold winter. Also the kernels are used for nuts if sweet, for oil if bitter.

The streams abound with trout—so much so that they have an 8” limit and a catch of 6 per person, but by having a boy with one this means 12 per person. And the locals do not eat fish. I had no time for this but if I come this way again this may be important.

The road to Nathiagalli was very rough. There has never been any good geological survey and so little knowledge of the potential road-bed. There have been earthquakes and we saw a minor landslide. As we went East the pH lowered. We passed from the P. longifolia to Deodar Country and then two Pines with curved needles, which I would call “soft.” These continued up to Murree where the ground was impregnated with iron.

There is an annual Marguerite blooming all over, in the upper regions and a shrub which appears to be of the Hydrangea family, not in bloom. There were many tall Hickories and I understand they furnish good timber. The very steep slopes are still wooded—too hard to cut. But from Murree the hills are so barren. And neither is there any prospecting going on. This is in part to laziness and ineptitude. The government is offering subsidies for the discovery of new minerals.

I was just interrupted by my young friend, Arif Khan who is planning his reports on local minerals, etc., and we have a date for tomorrow. If this letter is not too long and there is a valuable addendum, it will be added. We did see one big black extrusion not far from here which looked as if it might be graphite or coal from a distance. There are many canyons which we could easily walk through not too far from here and water is available. So I hope we can do some hiking.

Murree and Nathiagalli were both established by the British. The former has two hotels, rather high-priced and luxury; and one hostel where we met some Boy Scouts from the U.S. There is a kind of wild Rose used as a hedge in both places. Snaps are out but not doing too well. There is one Lily which grows high up. Alpine grasses only.

At Murree we met a good friend, also from S.F. and I called at the American Embassy and Indian High Commission. It seems I have a high level invitation to India, rather a surprise, too, and the Commissioner was very cooperative and gave me papers, but I am liable to enter India by an untrodden path (so far as Americans are concerned). Both the Commissioner and Abdul Hamid here urged me to visit the Desert Research Station in Rajasthan. I shall probably get a more official invitation later from my friends in Delhi.

Murree is largely landscaped, but mountain tops. But I find here as elsewhere the slopes very steep but the crests rolling—very different from the Alps or higher Himalayas. They grow vegetables at Murree, I think largely for tourist consumption and the Cabbages are not doing well—the soil is acid with little leaf or humus. Whenever the slopes are not too steep they are terraced and grains grown. Meat in the wilder districts comes from hunting. I am told that leopards, tigers and bears abound but not one is curious where the slopes are over 45°.

I shall later go to Murree, I believe, to visit the Vegetable, Soil, Potato and Pest Control stations. At the moment there is great interest in Pest Control research at Peshawar where I am booked, presumably for the 26th. When I returned I called on Abdul Hamid, the Forest Botanist, to discuss the Garst Plan—I think I have written, the Garsts were Khruschev’s hosts and they are agricultural engineers and experimenters. He has asked me to check on available literature at Delhi and Dehra Dun which I have visited before—I think I sent Harry some things but I may duplicate next rather than skip.

This morning I had an Indian Mango for breakfast. It has a thick green skin whereas the Pakistani has a thin yellow one, but it sticks. The fruit is sweeter, more tasty and much more easily removed from the stone. Nor is the stone as large in proportion to the size of the fruit. I may repeat purchases. I have been buying Plums. There are several very large sized ones on the market now, very delicious. One is a purple round one, one is still larger but nearer apricot-ish in color and flavor, and one looks almost like and Apple and has a slightly pomish taste, too, but very good.

Besides Abdur Rahman, I am also a guest almost every day of Prof. Durrani from Peshawar, who lives across the way. He is a great scientist, engineer and a teacher of Sufi mysticism. This is the name of a very famous Afghan family and he has invited me to go to many places in the Pathan country.

When I returned from abroad I created the character of “Puck of Pukhtunistan” and as life has gone on, I have not only become identified with this “character” but everywhere the Pathans (Pukhtuns, Pushtuns) have greeted me with open arms. If I wanted to pun, I should say the Pathans greet with open arms, the other with open palms.

I will not go into the Durrani discussions much here. I am preparing to lecture on “Oriental Philosophy and Modern Science” both in this country and India and perhaps in Malaya too. I have had general rejection in the U.S. but the man whose works I was going to introduce, Prof. Reiser of Pittsburgh has actually beaten me by being recognized already. Actually this will help me very much. About the last people to recognize this will be the USIS with its lofty, Tory-like attitude, bringing in only the most refined culture and arm. Boy, do they have money to give lectures on Richard Neutra, but none for baseball or basket-ball. We spend huge sums to entertain Americans and Europeans in Asia and called this “foreign aid.”

I also visit the S.P. or Superintendent of Police who is another Pathan and Sufi. I met his nephew last night who is an industrial chemist turning out fertilizers. I hope to meet him again.

The Garst plan calls for “urea” bases and not Ammosulph. There is a struggle going on between “experts” and peasants and it is getting worse. The Hunza system is not known here at all. It has the merits (and demerits), of organic gardening. My friend across the street who is hosting Dr. Durrani only added superphos to the soil but he uses sewage water for his plants as does my landlord. This is of course a sort of organic urea-base system. The S.P. is on the slopes and has to depend upon rain.

I am writing how much this is a “Lost Horizon.” It is not only in a rift valley-pass, but it has sporadic rains all the time, much more than any part of West Pakistan, so far as I have been able to find out, excepting maybe a few uplands which is not habitable. Yet the land is not fully cultivated and the mountains unplanted. I am going to check as much as possible on the details of the Maize growing here, using it as an example, to see how the different systems of watering and fertilizing work. This might provide some good objective material. Actually I expect to begin this on the 9th.

No conclusions will be reached until I visit as much of the country around both Peshawar (which I hope to see this month and again in August) and Lyallpur—on my September schedule. I am not the least sanguine about acceptance by the press or diplomatic corps but I am pretty sure some agriculturalists and others will listen. But I hope to avoid half-cocked conclusions.

I have again been appealed to on the soil erosion problem. We have on one hand the extremely high-level UN representatives who are responsible to no one and on the other hand the farm boys who do things and then are forgotten or ignored. For my part I would not give the whole scheme of newsmen for a single farm-exchange youth and I think the Americans here in general agree. But how is one going to put this over?

I am waiting for Ayub’s work in Washington. I accept neither the American nor Pakistani reports. Not only do I mistrust the papers but they report the same events so differently sometimes it is hard to recognize the events. I also hope to go to “Azad Kashmir.” These people are rolling in mineral wealth and spending all their time and effort in politics.

You may be able to understand how difficult diplomatic and psychological relations are from a discussion I had last night. A group of college men asked me, without taking leave of my host, to join them at tea. I don’t think tea and discussions interest them so much as it gives an excuse for sitting down. Everything is an excuse for sitting down.

I told them I was interested in working on food problems. The economics professor said that the population problem was the main thing. I agreed. He insisted it was so. I told him that that was his profession and I had no idea as to what to do. He said it was an easy problem to solve and I said it was probably so, that every problem might be easy for those in that profession and impossible for those in quite different professions; that I knew nothing of economics but might do something about land and food problems.

He then tackled me on general soil problems. Every time I tried to be specific he dodged. I tried to make him face the actual agricultural problems of actual lands, places, etc. He dodged and insisted on generalities. He denied that the hills could be planted; I invited him to visit any hill with me and I would show him what could be done. “But that does not settle the saline soil problem” I answered: “You never asked me about that. But we Americans have solved such problems.” At that he went abruptly away just after having invited me away from the host referred to above, or even my conveniences.

I have found that the minds here are up in the air and difficult to pin. They do not define terms during discussions and constantly bring in irrelevant facts and factors.

These are things one really has to face. My previous visit to Dr. Abdul Hamid that morning was of exactly the opposite tenure.

I have just received a report from Singapore of some strange experiments by a friend of mine talking to seeds and cuttings and having them grow successfully. I am writing to him asking him to hold copies thereof so I can mail same to Harry later on. I have made also another tentative arrangement to leave Singapore for California in March. This means trying to complete my Indian trip by January, then East Pakistan and Malaya. This, of course, is tentative. My Indian plans at the moment are way beyond me, but I shall have to face them.


P.S. I shall leave this open in case I get a mineralogical report; otherwise should mail this p.m.

July 13, 1961

Harry Nelson,

Floriculture Department,

City College, San Francisco

My dear Harry:

I am sending a copy of this letter to Giannini Hall and in many respects it contains several important reports. I am doing this because they sent me to one Jonathan Garst. His brother was the host to Khrushchev in Iowa. The two of them are in a certain sense engineering-scientific-horticulturalists. Anyhow Jonathan gave me his plan for India and asked me to present it as he was going to Poland. I kept this plan intact but last week between the delicate political situations vis-à-vis the United States and Pakistan, and my complete friendship and cooperation with Prof. Abdul Hamid Khan, chief forest botanist and a graduate of Berkeley, I decided to unload it on him. It has proven to be very timely.

I am going to see Hamid this morning on another matter. M. Kusaka who was my guide when I visited the Royal Cemetery, Forestry Experimental Station, Nursery, etc. at Mount Takao in Japan, and whom I had met previously at the Ag. Dept. station in Tokyo in 1956 in touring these parts. He is my colleague through James Kinoshita. I have not met him but our lines are criss-crossing.

At the moment the Summer Session of the Forestry College at Peshawar is having its summer session immediately adjacent to my headquarters and I am having a number of small interesting sessions with the students. This is complicated by the vast differences between the problems and situations in West Pakistan and East Pakistan.

Garst Plan. This is to begin fertilizer factories using Urea base. Jonathan has worked it out showing that the cost of such factories would be considerably less than what is spent now for the purchase of food-imports. Off-hand I can only admire it for it is an alternative for several programs. But it differs from them in one respect—it is a comprehensive, integrating program and fits in perfectly with my philosophical ventures, which I may or may not report later on.

The situation is amusingly complicated to me because the chief in the Ammosulph production here, whom I have also met in the last week, is a nephew of my pal, the Superintendent of Police. I have already written a good deal against the Ammosulph approach and from what I hear the peasants are universally against it everywhere. My own approach is quite different.

I have failed to find any clear soil reports. Experiments are made without a clear picture of pH and such tests that occur usually confine themselves to NKP. This becomes more complicated because of nutritional and other deficiencies and lack of attention to Ca, and innumerable “trace elements.” There is also a fundamental difference in “grassland” and “forestry approaches” which have not been thought out.

But at the moment I am excited because there is going to be a new fertilizer adventure.

“Sargodha. The Provincial Government is considering the possibility of installing organic manure producing plants by using night soil as raw material in all big cities of the province.

The Agricultural Department officials who were consulted on the subject are in complete agreement with the Government’s views about using the city refuse for the manufacture of fertilizer. A circular letter issued by the Provincial Government states that manure and fertilizer could bring prosperity to the community by increasing agricultural production but certain institutions appeared to be ignorant of the importance of night soil or rubbish collected from the towns.”

This is to be very important and pleasing because of the preliminary report which follows. At the present time I am usually the guest of either the S.P. referred to above, or to his Paymaster who lives across the way. They are both, like myself, Sufis and through them I am meeting some of the top scientists and worthies, just as I did in Lahore. But we do not study actual mysticism or realize that these are the most practical and sometimes the only practical men in Pakistan. It is the commentators and the literary people who are the meta-physicians and who scorn realism (more below).

These gentlemen are very good friends of each other and they both are now using a special hybrid seed corn, the nature of which I have not ascertained.

Garden of the Paymaster.

I first went there to examine the maize on the 10th. The seed was broadcast and used to fill in empty spaces. Last winter he mixed in Superphos and so far as I know he was the only man around here who did that. Roughly speaking he has a few more than a hundred stalks, but it is probable that the stand on the lot just below is his, too, which could almost double the stand.

It is perhaps the fastest growing Corn here too. He tells me he planted about the 1st of June. There has been about 6” rain since then—a guess based on the measurements of the nearest station seven miles away. The stalks in the shade cover are about 7’ now. The others run from 4’-8’, the median bout 6’. There was one stalk about 9’ and it already has four ears coming, but mostly the ears were not yet out. Even tassel formation is not yet complete.

He has sunflowers average 10’-12’ but he does not know the food value for the seeds—these are eaten in many parts of India and seemed to be an important part of vegetarian diets. The Hollyhocks were averaging 8’. In general his plants do very good. His house is vined with Passiflora, and the fruit, which is incidental, is the most delicious of its kind I have ever eaten.

His pride are his Leeks. He planted them in March using Ammosulph—he did not use this on other crops. He has made four harvests, cutting the tops down and keeping the roots. He says he is able to supply his family and all his friends with them. They are cooked with the Rice or added to something like the Indonesian program which I mailed to you from UAR

He not only depends on rain, but on seepage water. This is a mixture of two kinds. His garden is situated at the base of the adjacent mountain. There is a characteristic here of water coming out at the plain-level as if there is limestone or other layer just within. But in addition there is a mixture of “seepage” from a few places on the hillside which means that much water has fertilizer value, urea-base. This is not measured but it undoubtedly gives the plants an amount of weak fertilizer comparable to the Ohio State program. He also has a storage tank which combines seepage and rainwater.

I visit this garden almost daily and there will be further reports according to progress.

Garden of the Superintendent of Police (S.P.)

He controls large properties. I assume that the estate he occupies is his official resident. Now owns lands around Peshawar and comes from an important Pathan family. He is also a friend of President Ayub who has given him his grapes and who usually visits him once annually to look at be crops.

Roughly speaking his Maize covers 3-4 acres. I do not know the boundaries or how much is under special “peasant” cultivation for the help. He has about four plots on different levels. Those below either benefit from water-run off, or were planted earlier. The Paymaster says he put in his seeds about 1st of June and I should hazard that the S.P. began about the same time. At present the average height is about 4.” With some up to 7” but that in turn is sometimes due to shading from trees and not necessarily to vigor.

As reported before the S.P. has three composts—Leaf, Buffalo Dung and night-soil. The last is conditioned and is never used before six months. A mixer is made of these three and worked in, presumably with the plowing. The humus is the richest I have examined in Pakistan.

Last year the S.P. said he had the best stand in the valley. But he depends entirely on rainfall and water is therefore a limiting factor. We have been running about 3” per month. Which is said to be unusual. The nearest gauge is up the valley seven miles away.

Water here is generally that of streams which have their source in springs; or else is sewage. Most sewage is run down in streams or flumes toward the Rawalpindi section. This is not only temporary capital but is the center of truck gardening. The sewage is excellent for fruits but wakes havoc with vegetables. There are few good advisers.

These reports are of course, tentative. I have asked a good deal about the adjacent districts and when you add rides, have seen the entire valley. Mostly the stands are low but this may be due to later planting. However the soil seems quite sterile and with the limited rainfall the prognosis is not good. Peasants irrigate Rice, not Maize.

The Malnutrition Complex. I refer you to the list of Indonesian vegetables sent from UAR I already have reported that they do not use wild Mustard and Dandelions. My friends, the Knauths of San Francisco, have just returned from Baltistan and report goiters and other deficiency diseases. But they insist the people have enough to eat.

Yesterday I went to the Fruit Market I am eating assorted Mangoes and also a kind of Plum which is “pomish.” The skin is stripped like some Apples, the texture is firm and the taste is somewhat between the Prune-plum and pomes. I have seen more varieties of Plums here by far than anywhere.

I was able to purchase Kohlrabi, exceedingly cheap. This was my experience with Okra too. In general fruits (excepting Melons) are too high for poor people, but the reverse is true with vegetables. Not only that the fruit merchants rather let their stock spoil than reduce prices, but the vegetable people are different. May be this is because fruits are eaten raw and vegetables, excepting Tomato, Onion and Cucumber, are cooked.

Purslane. To my delight this is on the market as a vegetable. I think I’ll try to gather some when I return and cook it, etc. we certainly have it in abundance as a weed.

Ayub-Kennedy Meeting. As usual I am a “prophet” for the simplest of reasons. The great problem here is water-logging, saline infiltration and all the papers talk about is Kashmir, as if this country depends on it. I made some mistakes in past reports. I have found that even if the local press is unanimous it is wrong. They were advertising that the Russians were coming in here to examine mineral deposits—and now it comes out that American geologists are arriving. But worse, after there was an American-Pakistan conference on saline soils the papers unanimously reported the arrival of Russian experts. Then they reported that the Yugo-Slavs were coming in. I have never heard of Yugo-Slavia having a saline infiltration or where they got their experts.

I sent to the Alumni Association, Cal. a report from the USIS press releases of Lahore about Abis. in UAR where the U. C. Paul Keim has supervised the recovery 38,000 acres. When I tried to tell people here about it they felt grossly insulted.

I predicted that when Ayub and Kennedy got together, the first thing they would discuss is saline infiltration. This has taken place. And in talking to the forestry boys here they are very much concerned with erosion. And that is right. What good is it to add people and have nothing to feed them with?

The Commentators Versus the Scientists. This is the real world war, and it is not a cold war either. The British setting up of the “humanist” versus the “scientific” outlooks is universal. The press and “social scientists” stick to theories and fight each other; the scientists stick to facts and cooperate.

All those things which I have reported are of prime importance to the officials, and I certainly mentioned enough. I have even told you of the visit to the “White House” and Ayub asked through Secretary Shahab that I help introduce Pakistani culture into the U.S.A. None of the top sensible officials are going ga-ga over Kashmir or any other political or pseudo-political problem. If the press ignores me, Senator Engle is now listening. Actually I was bitten by the same bugs as his own daughter—our European “experts” on this part of the world.

When Murrow broadcast that he would welcome suggestions and criticisms, I wrote back doubting it. The worst reports on this part of the world have been broadcast by Lowell Thomas and if I know the profession, they would rather lambaste the President (any president) than find fault with each other. Thomas’s reports were totally superficial, if not actually untrue, and the worst of these was about the Hunza situation.

I have not yet the complete report from Felix Knauth who has just come back from Baltistan, but a compendium of all Americans here is the existence of absolute disgust. They were never heard by Johnson and Shriver, and I may have to go and make piece with Prof. Burdick, joint author of The Ugly American. The situations described were not true in S.E. Asia but they are certainly true here. All of us outcaste—creoles have exactly the same opinions, very similar experiences and we can’t get any recognition from our Embassy or generally speaking, from the press at home. It was Johnson’s mistakes that compelled the visit of Ayub. There are few places in the world that have more potentially arable waste-lands than West Pakistan; there are few places in the world more mismanaged than East Pakistan. Adjacent Burma gets three crops a year while East Pak. gets one.

-5 July 14

The latest reports came out that the United States is offering money to a new biological control lab, in Rawalpindi or Lahore. I did not go into details when I met the pest control people but should be in Lahore in September. Here there are not many pests besides Flies. There are two kinds of spray work being done around here and they have certainly controlled Ants and Mosquitoes. I have seen some Dragon Flies and the other night a large Mantis was outside my room. After a while he flew away, and it was a very graceful flight. I have seen some across the road, but have not examined them closely.

When I went to Murree there was a kind of Butterfly. It would close its wings and drop to earth like a fallen leaf. The other thing was at this season the actual larvae are green and the Butterflies were brown, but quite deceiving just the same. The way to tell is that so many look alike and one does not find the larvae resembling each other so much.

There is now a movement for proper control of both water supply and sewage. This should bring in sewage disposal in time and this may become a partial answer to fertilizer needs. I have also been watching the stands of Maize. Last night I went to Nowshera which is in the northwest corner of this valley. There, too, waters gush out from the base of the mountains in fountains, springs and gorges, very delightful. Most of the Maize stands were in rows, but not high. None were lush and it is obvious they depend on rainfall. It is cloudy at this moment and it is supposed to be monsoon season. I am told that the monsoon is very irregular and uncertain.

I am only interested in the Water-supply problem with regards to Kashmir. The politics remains outside my field. Whatever way it is settled it is certain that engineers have to take over. But the people here are not industrious. You do not see the peasants and never the city-dwellers along the Indus doing anything like the levee-workers on the Mississippi. Now they have to call the army out. Everybody expects others to do their duty.

There will be a research branch opening at the Agricultural College in Lyallpur on September 1st. I am scheduled to visit it and I should prefer to make it official as my friends have planned, rather than just make a personal call. I am at the moment in a crazy mix-up in exchanging dollars for rupees, When that is straightened out I expect to go to Peshawar and vicinity regardless of the weather. I am hearing more and more good things. Nowshera is near to Peshawar and I have a friend as manager in the DDT factory which I hope to visit.

I am told that about the first of August there will be an increased amount of fruits on the market, particularly Grapes which are just coming in. At Peshawar the story is that the fruits are in great quantity and very cheap. Some come from Afghanistan but there are border disputes going on—snafu. I want to see Khyber Pass which is historical.

Both the daily papers and American press reports—received from Lahore while writing, deal in generalities. Verbal love does not fill stomachs. And continued talks with Americans show a downright opposition to the “Peace Corps” but a warm welcome for the actual experts on saline soils and prospecting.

One of my next projects is the preparation of papers for lectures at the colleges. I have no unfavorable reports on any subject, and look to be home in about ten months.


Samuel L. Lewis

July 13, 1961

My dear Walt:

The more I think of you the more news I have to send to you. I shall try to make some sense of it.

Some weeks ago I met a Khalandar, Faqir All Mastana of Rawalpindi. I may have written to you about him. Anyhow I have written to several people in San Francisco. He is planning to come to California and we have more or less a tentative agreement to meet in Singapore and come the rest of the way together. This is by far from final, especially in view of other items contained in this.

Ali Mastana is a clairvoyant, much greater in degree than any I have met but I do not know if he is greater in kind. He sees, he knows, but he does not seem to get beyond the ego-states. There is no question that he has peered very successfully into my past; he has described cities and even people in the U.S. whom he has not met.

He wishes to speak on spiritually and not on religion. He claims to get all his directions from his own Pir-o-Murshid, or teacher. As to funds, this is not a mystery. He counts among his disciples the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (who I have met) and some heads at the PIA, the Pakistani International Airlines. In fact he is away collecting more money. He is not interested in getting money in the U.S. He says he has more than he made now and he is emphatic about wishing to spread spiritualism and spirituality.

Of this I am sure and if he has egotism or egoism it goes to faculties and not to fame or fortune. So far as he sees the way is clear for him and I have given him a number of hints. I may write more on this subject, but I have written to my friend, Rudy Olson, 166 Geary St. I have written to others but often no response.

This strange absence of responses from the U.S. has been coupled by a continual surge toward my meeting more holy people here. Until yesterday it has largely been a search by me; but now summonses are coming to meet holy people, especially in this general vicinity.

To begin with I have my one spiritual brother, Major Mohammad Sadiq, who is a healer and who both heals by his hands and also by magnetizing water and perhaps food. Evidently at one time he was stag aged in mass-healing. I do not know now but he still has been quite successful and on a scale that would have made Amy Semple or Oral Roberts envious. But he is a sober type, a military official, and quite capable of lecturing on mystical philosophy and human brotherhood.

My two chief friends in this city are the superintendent of Police and the Paymaster. I visit each often and we have high-powered discussions. It is needless to add that these discussions would go over the heads of all the Europeans and Northrups in the U.S. They would not know what we are talking about. It is the paymaster who is now arranging my trips to holy men.

The guest in his home is Prof. Durrani, head of the Physics Department and sometimes Engineering section, Peshwar University. It is unthinkable, inconceivable and impossible that abgreat scientist would be a mystic and vice-versa but as in the UAR it is so—at the tops one finds the tops. Durrani is a Murshid or teacher to boot and is regarded as a strange sort of holy man and authority. The Khalandar, Ali Mastana, lives about a block away and the Paymaster in between. Besides Prof. Durrani likes daytime, preferably morning visits and other people want evening visits.

One time Mastana said to me: “I am greater than you. I know more than you. I have more cows. I am a greater mystic, teacher, seer. I am greater than you in everything.” I said, “There is one exception.” “What can that be?” “I am a grater pupil than you are!” That did it.

When E. G. Browne visited the tomb of Shah Nimatullah, Persia’s more important mystic, he learned “That among the Gnostics there is no difference in sects.” So Prof. Durrani is not only a Sufi, he is one of the most complete Yogis I have ever met. I was telling him one morning. “There is a teaching derived from Abdul Kadiri-Gilani that even the Kadiri Sufis do not know. “That is absolutely correct.”

(This teaching is that Rama, Krishna, Siva, Buddha, Jesus and Mohammad all lead to the same Universal Oneself.) The Khalandar come by and he never said a word. He listened to Durrani listen to me and did not say a word. He had met the professor before and had acknowledged his superiority and there he was noting the prof. listen to me! Since then I have spoken to many Sufis and disciples in that house. Then I met another Khalandar there, a sober type who gave me his blessing. This is not verbal, it is a communication in heart-energizing and magnetization. I may meet this man again, but do not know.

Then last night the Paymaster took me to a Sadhu Baba, who is both a Sadhu and Sufi. He lives a few miles out of the next town below here (Havelian). He had heard about me and so I went. It was not hard to find him. We sat in attunement and it “took.” I was able to renounce the ego and get into both his breath- and heart-vibrations. I had previously gotten into Paul Brunton’s breath-vibrations, but not heart; and into the second Khalandar’s heart-vibrations, but not breath.

Sadhu Baba is quite an old man and very much respected. One of his disciples gave me a thorough massaging and I see this done in some places. I know it is wall practiced in Kashmir. I am hoping to go to Azad Kashmir soon and may look into such matters further.

This morning the professor returned and we had a most high-level discussion. He gave me a booklet, Whither Ye Sadhu and said he could give me more. I want these for you, but will not ship them until I have a collection. The contents are entirely spiritual. It is impossible to determine the boundary between so-called Sufism and so-called Sadhuism or Yoga. And perhaps this is just what we want.

I do not know whether I have written that a gala reception is promised me for India. However Indians and Pakistanis differ; they are entirely for me in my campaign that Asians should be given at last equal rights with Englishmen, Hungarians, Germans and Poles to tell Americans about Asia. No other land in the world is so stupid. And the thing is snowballing for a very large number of intellectual here are preparing to support me in India.

I am now firm and strong enough that I expect to go to universities and other places and demand objectivity. The strange speculations of these foreigners is not only a source of offense—endless offenses—to Asians, but is also a source of confusion. Then we like the Koestlers who come along and say the whole thing is blah. Koestler is only doing harm in America; elsewhere they don’t take him seriously. Lowell Thomas has also done tremendous harm by wrongly describing the mountain areas here. This is not only not a long subject but it is possible that we may arrange for Prof. Felix Knauth of San Francisco, now living in Abbottabad, to show slides of that area when he returns—this is a matter which will be taken up when his own schedule is clear.

Whither Ye Sadhu is a spiritual book and can hardly be read intellectually. It seems even more unintelligible (?) than Swami Ramdas’ The World is God but to those who pass tests and have gone through, it is quite clear. There is too much stress on Yoga as path, and not enough on Yoga as experience and accomplishment. But I must add one thing that Ayub has just said: we must beware of the intellectuals who discuss everything in detail and arrive at no conclusions or actions. This is about as for from truth as one can get.

Next morning. I learned that the Sadhu is none other than my friend, Prof. Durrani above. We had a grand meeting of highly intellectual Sufis late night, the elements of which would have been totally incomprehensible to any European prof. whomsoever. I may not mail this immediately because other things of interest are coming up.

Abbottabad, Hazara

July 19, 1961

My dear John:

I am writing this letter in triplicate, sending one copy to Mr. Stockwell Everts at the Embassy in Karachi. But I have decided that the only way to get action out of a Foreign Service is to get to Prof. Burdick in Berkeley, apologize to him and give him a lot of stories—and they will be stories.

The one thing that stands in the way is the complete cooperation I am getting from Senator Engle. But this has been made possible by two off-the-beat of factors. Someday no doubt the American Foreign Service which trust its fellow-citizens as alert human beings. Changes of Administration have not brought this about, and the types of psychological promotions we have do not increase wisdom, nor is there any accumulation of knowledges gained in practices within a country. A man or woman is promoted and whatever he has learned is dead ended.

Under the previous administration an Englishman went around India on a bicycle and he was summoned by the State Department and asked “What is wrong with our Foreign Policy?” The thing that is basically wrong with our foreign policy was and is and will continue to be: that these questions are asked of foreigners and not of our own people.

The Reverend X. lives in Pakistan, works in Pakistan, knows more languages of West Pakistan than any person I have ever heard of, including some top level experts in Asian languages, knows the hearts and minds of these people, but he is in the wrong profession. If he had been a newspaper man and toured these same districts superficially, took pictures and wrote a book, this would close the chapter. I have said before and I say again; “Our authorities on Asia are American newspaper men and European professors and never must they be European Newspaper men and American professors.” There has been a slight change in this but not much.

The Cultural Attaché has returned to Karachi. I was refused point blank an interview by his assistant. Nothing doing. Two weeks later I am a guest of Secretary Shahab, top intellectual of this country and he put to me very bluntly and rudely the same terrible question asked by Princess Poon Diskul in Thailand, Prof, S. C. Chatterji of Calcutta University, Prof. Rahul top Indian Mahayana Buddhist, Prof. A. A. Siddiqui in Lahore and Prof. Mohammed Hussein in Cairo and a lot of lesser lights. We made fools of ourselves wasting tax-payer’s money in 1957 in San Francisco with a convention under UNESCO, “How to bring Asians and Americans Together” and the only thing decided was to raise the salaries of the promoters. Americans and Asians were not brought together. And all the Rev. X’s in the world can’t overcome a few obstacles to normal, man-to-man speeches on the type of morality we have in our Jury System.

I have protested and will protest against this “Peace Corps.” We have our field workers here, all kinds of people from Asia Foundation and Protestant Missionaries to farm-exchange boys. We ignore them. The USIS press releases from Lahore report a speech given in San Francisco by one Mohammad Jamil, former president of the West Pakistan Chamber of Commerce.

He said: “The way to help us is not to send over experts to lecture us. I am convinced that the greatest benefit would come from sending over a working farm family, such as I visited in Kansas and Minnesota, and have them set up a model farming operation, the way you do it there, and show us how to make money from it…. If we were shown how to organize, I’m sure American farming techniques could be easily adapted in Pakistan.

The heading is the usual erroneous “Madison Ave” stuff: “Lahore Businessman says American Technical Advance can benefit Pakistan.” Certainly Technical Advance will help but the simple basic suggestion is overlooked and will be overlooked and will be overlooked. Asia Foundation tried something like that and was snowed under by criticism. You have to get “down to earth” and I shall try to see Mr. Jamil myself before I leave, for there will be nothing to stand in the way.

While this is going on, what are those nice chess-playing Russians doing? Making speeches? Lecturing the natives? They are doing the most simple, self- evident counter-measure than even a ten-year old would understand! They are sending in “experts,” every time there is a problem they send in “experts.” And in the entourage of these “experts” are at least one good Muslim who slips off to a Mosque on Friday, says prayers with the natives, particularly peasants and then tells them how wonderful the Muslim live in Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and … Uzbekistan. It is simple, elementary and true.

I may have written to you that my chief social confidants here are among the police chiefs. Well I meet them and they give me the stuff off-hand of their experiences. They cannot, of course, tell the emissaries of a foreign nation. I had a counter-measure for this in the United States and with one exception was pooh-poohed all over the place; and I have yet to hear a Muslim, any Nation, who did not welcome my suggestion with open arms—and open hearts. I understand I am very popular here in Abbottabad. This may be a minor matter, but I do meet with and mingle with the people as no American newspaper man or European professor is capable of doing; but not necessarily any better than any other American who may be a professor, and certainly not so well as some Protestant missionaries.

The newspaper are constantly telling of more Russian “experts” coming and they will come and they will brief the peasants and our Peace Corps will come, and lecture, despite Mr. Jamil and they will not know how to pray with the people or talk to them in simple manner, on the human level. They will, of course, be welcomed by the Cultural Attachés who refuse others appointments, and by the Agricultural Attachés who don’t answer letters and the only way out would seem to be to go to Professor Burdick, which will be a last resort, and then all the State Department employees in this era of democracy, honesty, fair-dealing and humbug-slogans will run to cover.

Fortunately I had “two-strikes” on Senator Engle. You see the late Ambassador Grady accepted in toto my repots and his wife. Mrs. Eucretia Grady has given me every sort of encouragement. And then the Senator’s own daughter was badly handled socially by one of the European experts on Oriental Philosophy who rides high in California, but would not even dare to visit Pakistan.

All right the Peace Corps will come; also the Russians will come and this is a “cold war” in which the logistics of the hot wars are dropped.

The next thing I have told Senator Engle is that if tax-paid public servants of the American Government refuse interviews and cooperation with American citizens abroad, this could become an element of contention in the next election. Today I know of too many persons who would only be glad to use my facts.

Then there is our Ambassador here, Mr. Rountree. He has been away and I cannot put personal blame on him for negligence to mail. But talking to other Americans here we are unanimous that we are second class citizens. I have an introduction to the Ambassador. I am not going to use it. It is from my lifelong friend, Phra Sumangalo. He was an American citizen. He became alarmed about Southeast Asia; he did not get a single interview in the State Department or press. He gave up his citizens, returned to the United States—ah, that was different. Well, one of the persons who then permitted and interview with him was the same Ambassador Rountree! A nice way to get an appointment, and I won’t use it.

Well, we now have another cliché artist commentator in charge of USIS. He writes the same pompous editorials that he welcomes criticisms and suggestions. That is for home consumption. If I should place copy of my letter, and some of my facts before some of his rival commentators, there would be a hue-and-cry all over the country, for it would then get national hook-up attention. In other words, honesty, fact-finding and the objective approach used in the sciences, is to be by-passed whenever it interferes with protocol.

I am now being briefed by Sufis as to how to meet the communist hecklers in India. They have told me where I should be meeting them and how. The communists are ambivalent with regards to religion using it either way. This gives them a tremendous weapon because we use it no way. Protestant missionaries nix and Sufis nix. Only a Sufi happens to the head of the whole Islamic community in India, he was the former Minister of Foreign Affairs, a spiritual brother in an exact sense, but I was not permitted to use his name publicly in certain institutions in the U.S. As we go around promising that someday we shall look up the Sufis—which we shall continue to do a la Encyclopedia of Islam and European and Canadian experts and never mind the human beings!

I am also preparing now on my lectures, "Islamic Philosophy and Modern Science." The previews have been accepted by Prof. Durrani, head of the Engineering College at Peshawar, also chief Physicist of the region, also a Sufi Murshid or teacher. I am being given every facility by the local professors. This becomes more complex and important because of my forth-coming programs for India, East Pakistan and Malaya, all with excellent introductions and the best boding.

The way to meet the people is to meet the people. This has been done before. It was done most successfully in India by two American-Americans: Rev. Samuel Higginbottam who did more to stop communism than any other man, and Gertrude Emerson. The first is rejected by protocol because he was a Protestant missionary, the second because she change to become a Hindu. It is only Americans who stop there. Fortunately the Russians have no such achievement. I shall champion all Americans who accomplish anything.

The papers here are yelling that Kashmir is the great problem. The facts are that saline infiltration is the greatest problem of West Pakistan and the enormous rising birthrate and lowered death-rate in East Pakistan. Nothing is comparable to these and politics must go on.

On the simple side of the problem of malnutrition I am pleased to find that although the people ignore Mustard and Dandelion they do eat Purslane. There are many weeds which can help with many ills. What is needed here is a parliament of all schools of medicine and Herbology and a cataloguing of foods and medicines which can be obtained from common plants at low cost and added to the diet. Japan and Indonesia have already done this. But what can a simple American do? He can't go to his own Foreign Service, he has to go to somebody like Prof. Burdick. And I have already sent in sufficient reports to different departments of the University of California to substantiate anything I might have to say—and won't he eat it up!

I am sending copy of this to the Embassy and also to a leading national commentator. We are all cheering Ayub. When it comes to rational and effective action I am afraid what will happen will be just what happened to Mr. Hamid's speech. There is nothing that he has said that I have not written, recommended and yelled for. All the information I have is that the food:population ratio is getting worse in Russia and far worse in China. As the Russians "catch-up" in production (I can prove this is nonsense mathematically), they are overproducing people, and so on.

This is ironically counterbalanced by a greatly increased infant mortality in Africa and the absence of any sane, objective, and universally rational approach to problems. Everybody changes his yard stick indifferent areas.

Well, the "Peace Corps" is coming, the Russians are coming—and we shall see.


Samuel L. Lewis

July 24, 1961

My dear Rosemary,

This is the news. (Apologies to the man who patented this Phrase and to … will him, otherwise.)

As you know there are not Sufis and they are not scientists. Across the street from me is Prof. Durrani who is head of the Engineering College at Peshawar, the top Physicist of the section and a Sufi spiritual teacher. This is impossible you know at Cal., Stanford, Pacific, UCLA etc. Besides he is a Pathan and has a son following in his footsteps. Anyhow I had to go to Peshawar U. to arrange some lectures for me and before I even got started I was signed up by Mardan College, which shows what fools these people are, or something.

Then I left the Administration building and in the role of “Puck of Pukhtunistan” started off toward the Pashto Institute. I did not get far when I ran into Durrani’s son—how did he get there?—and he proceeded to guide me around. The meetings with the tops of the Pashto Institute with Puck of Pukhtunistan will make history. It is long and technical. Briefly the Russkis are sending in experts—one scientist and a big entourage, all Muslims. The Russians are non-religious, of course, so on Fridays the entourage distributes itself and visits Mosques, joins in prayer, shakes hands with everybody and then tells them how wonderful life is in Soviet countries for Muslims. They have pictures, the naughty men. So they pray and eat with the people just like Puck does which is anti-protocol but very effective and useless.

The Sufis have their own war against Russia but being fanatics and bigots and superstitious we will have nothing to do with them. Besides they can’t bore all Sufis because they don’t resemble what you read in the Encyclopedia of Islam or listening to the profs. I ran into them in UAR and find they have a huge counter-espionage system. While the Russians run around the Islamic world disguised as religions or something, the Sufis run around the Russian world disguised as Marxists. This is so anti-protocol that it is unthinkable, and I would ask you to forget it but it means such charming correspondence. The fact that it is entirely true has nothing to do with it.

So the Pathan Academy is starting a huge institute for the study of Central Asian Cultures—we can’t think of that. Hitler might but we must not do anything Hitler did because! Anyhow refugees and volunteers, who speak Cheena, Balti, Dard, Baluchis, Brahui, East Persian, Kashmiri, Gilgiti, etc, go on. This is very crude because while we are celebrating International Freedom Day in the U.S. calling for the liberations of the Letts, Lithuanians, and Estonians, to whom we added (protocol, you knew) the Hungarians, we cawn’t, can’t and cain’t have the Armenians, Leshgians, Tajiks, Uzbeks, Turkomens, etc., etc., etc. There is no God but protocol and he ain’t got no prophet.

The Americans have turned down this Institute cold so they will probably appeal to the Germans and this extremely ugly American will appeal to the Buddhists, etc. who have funds to throw around and much to learn from the study of these languages will go in where “Christians” do not dare go. The word “Christians” here excluded all and sundry Protestant missionaries who know and do and that is the worst thing possible.

Maybe I’ll tell you more about this someday but Puck of Pukhtunistan is now utterly triumphant and ever meeting deans and chancellors. We walked in the directions of the Durrani house but never got there. You see, darklink, Asian Foundation is doing something—that is very wrong not being “realists” and without waiting for the Children’s Crusade Peace Corps. And what they are doing would speak for itself, but there are no commentators and politicians connected with it and God save the king or President. I don’t know whether Asian Foundation tells the press or gave it up as useless.

They are very enthusiastic about the “Peace Corps.” Just as I am.

Then I met Ted Thatcher, U.S. 48. He is the chief Science Adviser at Peshawar University. You see a large number of universities have a real exchange program which is doing wonderful things or I am a liar. I have never presumed that one American on the spot was any better than any other American; but with the exception of newsmen they are ignored. I began with my beef and I will stick to it, that the farm buys who came over here and did things have been ignored. So many of our grand universities are doing things and big things without fanfare, meeting realities and meeting the people (and not just any hokum phrase about democracy and brotherhood).

We have here the I.C.A. program, the Fulbright program and the reciprocal college exchange. I am for all of them but for the latter much more. Unfortunately in our democracy some men are more equal than others and no Fulbright man is equal to an I.C.A., but a tourist or bum is more equal than a Fulbright man and everybody is more equal than a Protestant missionary. All of us are aware that the Russians are flooding Afghanistan with “experts” and propaganda. And as protocol has so long since established one-way traffic through the Khyber, it must be just that and no other. So the Muslim-Soviets will come—or rather than came. I have run into this myself but my source of information is very official—the police inspectors. They are my best friends all over.

Murrow has pontificated that he welcomes criticism and suggestions. He has united the whole American colony in disgust. He did something—I don’t know what—while I was on Shipboard which turned them all against him from the beginning. And my being refused an interview with the cultural attaché at Karachi was accepted without a murmur by Americans here who seem almost unanimously of the opinion: “we could have told you that.” And the intelligentsia say that it is useless and hopeless to give high-tension intellectual lectures to a few people and think we are communicating. We are wasting funds, duplicating and kidding on a large scale. Self-praise never brought about international sanity and protocol has long since discarded Talleyrand and Disraeli that if you want to rob others, praise them and keep on praising them and don’t put in a good word or any word about yourself.

Ted Thatcher’s work is road-blocked by protocol so I am going to see fellow Californian Dr. Abdul Hamid shortly so that these two fellow Californians can get together and work together. There is a lot in this which we shall skip. So I left Peshawar U. more than reassured.

I can’t wish to belittle our foreign service. They pulled me cut of a strange scrape. The Bank of America made a mistake in sending me a draft. The recipient bank here promptly stuck it in a desk drawer and it took two long distance calls for them to disgorge. I was stuck and did not know what the trouble was. I have written to S.F. but meanwhile I had to have cash. Here I am, owing nobody in particular, but money in five or six piles, all too small for operations. Anyhow I was able to cash $100 and this may keep me until funds arrive, but I don’t know when. In turn this has interfered with plans. I did some small buying in Peshawar and wish to do more. I purchased cards at the Peshawar Museum for the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design and the Chinese Buddhists Temple.

I am waiting now for a long objective report on mineral deposits here. I am not waiting for “experts.” I shall see Thatcher again, no doubt. And I certainly can recommend both him and Knauth as speakers.

Well the papers here are worse and the rumors—such as Bowles being on the way out—get around. And five times now the Russians have sent in experts here and I have still to see one. The only place we have crossed trails is at Mosques, and this, you know protocolly, is impossible.


Samuel L. Lewis

July 25, 1961

Dear Bill,

A copy of this letter is going to Leonard Austin of San Francisco and any resemblance to persons living or dead is strictly. For Puck has officially and unofficially met Maulana Abdul Qadir, Director of the Pashto Academy and Leonard will go around singing, “I told you so, I told you so.”

First the news. A prehistoric skull 1.750,000 years old found in Africa, proving the first man. My first impression was to send it to Harriet Anderson and sing, “That old Sweetheart of Mine.” But that mood—well what can you expect?

Next the news. I got into a financial jam. Bankamerica sent me a check or cheque or draft with one amount in writing and another in enumeration. Habib bank promptly took the check or cheque or draft and filed it away. This helped a lot but I don’t know to whom. After two long distance calls and a threat of calling off the Foreign Aid they returned it. I did not have enough money or time to go to Lahore, but this is Pukhtunistan and Puck got a free ride from the Forestry College at Peshawar and all is better that ends better. Anyhow they cashed a check and I got rupees which saved a lot of trouble. I got the cold shoulder in the hotel (Dean’s) until I was about to leave. Then I informed them of Puck and Ahmed Murad and they did not exactly grovel. Aren’t we devils! One rickshaw-wallah cheated me out of 1 rupee and then it was grape vined (by the loud speaker) that I was a Sufi. I got a free ride—just like that. Then I overpaid another taxi-wallah because I got more money at the bank than I expected. After which I looked for shoes and just as I entered the bazaar I was hailed in English and the man had exactly what I wanted at a price I was quite willing to pay.

Next more news. Saturday I went to Peshawar University and met one of the staff who immediately insisted that I go to the Pashto Academy. Maybe he thought, no he did recognize Puck. But before I got there I met the son of Prof. Durrani the Pathan-Sufi, Engineer, Physicist and everything and the boy took me around. I got in the crossfire of dinner invitations and lecture engagements and never did finish anything.

Well I met Maulan Abdul Qadir who—pardon my falling arches—is a Sufi and a scientist. We talked about Pashto, we talked about Central Asian languages, we talked about Austerlitz and had a long discussion on the need for Comparitive Iranian. You see the Hruskies are doing just that and these fanatical Sufis don’t like red-beards—Muslims should use henna—and they have a nickname for the soviet ears which is “swine,” based on a pun and they don’t want any of them. And we Americans who are so anti-communist????? that we want a united front or something, don’t recognize anybody that doesn’t recognize protocol.

You see darlink, as soon as the Russians heard about the “Peace Corps” they surrendered in the cold war, it is over. The very idea of those pampered manner’s darklings I-ists was too much. So they sent in some “experts.” “Experts” are always sent in. And those “experts” have entourages of Uzbeks, Turkomens, Tajiks, [?] Khirghiz and others and they go to the Mosques (communists don’t pray—protocol) and after the Friday Service they don’t show pornography—they leave that to our cinema—they show pictures of how wonderful Muslims are getting along in Sovietopia. This attracts a lot of people and is so against protocol and diplomacy it is beneath out notice. And besides praying with the people they eat with them. And they are just going to sit by and let the “Peace Corps” come in.

Meanwhile we are shedding tears over the Lotts, Lithuanians, Hungarians and Estonians and forgetting the Armenians, Lesghians, Azerbaijanis, Turks, Turkmens, Kazaks, etc., etc. because we believe all me are equal provided the provided is most important.

Maulana Abdul Qadir, the Sufi, proposed that we have refugee camps here too, for all these people fleeing from behind the Curtains and select as many as possible to teach us their language, then their poetry and music. Such an idea is outrageous. If it would just be Spanish or if the Luxembourgers only had to flee it would be accepted at once. So the Russians are doing all the research on Afghan Persian dialects and we are compelled to use their backs. Another victory for democracy!

I bought a Pashto book and was amazed and concluded it was a mixed language, but what was mixed with the Old Persian I don’t know. The Maulana says that in those mountains there is something like a Caucasus. There are three different Aryan groups represented—Dard, Iranians and Indian; also Chinese, Tibetan, and Turki. But in the manuscripts we might find more such as remains of Tokhari, and also Mongolian cognates.

We discussed at length the need for Comparitive Iranians and also for work on Buddhist manuscripts following Sven Hedin, Aurel Stein and Skrine. The U. of Michigan is sending over a representative. But I wish you would let Austerlitz know and the Maulana is very anxious to correspond with him or with anybody else you might suggest. In Baltistan there is Cheena which is a mixture to begin with, of Tibetan, Chinese and Dard.

He also says that Borushevski is not an isolated tongue and is not related to the speech of the Caucasus. There are cognates in the borderlands between Chinese and Russian Turkistan. All the tongues of this region show mixtures of and from base elements and they tend to graduate one from the other. So it is not surprising that though there are many common words between Urdu and [?] the languages are totally unlike. Some of these common terms are borrowed from Arabic and especially Persian.

He mentioned a lot of other tongues or which I know nothing. But he was ill and I am going to Peshawar perhaps twice more.

Puck: How die!

Prof. Mohammed: My God and a thousand welcomes. Yes.

Puck: But I have not asked for anything.

Prof.: Petition granted. When?

So we get to Mardan on September 4 to lecture and between August 15 and 30 will be another trip in that region too, so we are on our way. Boy, what greetings.

Then the Americans. The same thing. They were all overlooked by the Johnson-Shriver people and are they mad. I told the representative of Asian Foundation I could stick out my neck and fight the “Peace Corps” but he might lose his job. He said he would fight and wouldn’t lose his job. The way we overlook our citizen abroad who accomplish things. But let a fly-by-night reporter or a big politician come this way and it si world news—lots of trimmings and horse radish but no meat.

I am in the throes both of writing and creative writing. Prof. Durrani wanted my latest poem before it was completed. And the reactions I got are delightful. Another colleague in Lahore lined up during course of conversation and I have not even started at Abbottabad.

Visited the Gandara works at Peshawar museum. The big boys say they are Roman, not Greek! This is against protocol and for Bufano and boy won’t they eat it up.

Well I leave you on your won. Please write to Austerlitz and Adbul Qadir. I am going after the money for these projects. Carry On.

July 27, 1961

My dear Harry,

This is my diary entry and it will cover a hodge-podge. I remember the first time I heard you speak, about “thinking” and I am going to present a problem to you which certainly does not require any answer by mail. Indeed the problem is a compendium of reports.

I have to start with a gripe—against the Peace Corps. The fly-by-night politicians did not visit. Americans here did not observe what they are doing and overlooked the two things in which people are interested here—food and God. But food is more connected with land, land ownership, and development than just food for its own sake. People want “the good earth.”

Fellow San Franciscan Felix Knauth and his wife have returned from Baltistan. Baltistan is not far from the Hunza country which Lowell Thomas and his fellow newsmen treat as a sort of Shangri-la or paradise. I think I have hinted that mountain climbers and professors differ. (Our authorities on Asia are American newsmen and European professors and never, never must or can they be European newsmen and American professors—this is protocol and God save the U.S.)

They found nothing but goiter and deficiency diseases. People do not eat fish. There are wonderful fresh-water trout but I don’t know much about the trace-elements found in the fresh-water fish. Anyhow fish is not particularly liked. I ate all I could when I was in Peshawar recently.

There is a grand soil analysis program going on but it is restricted almost entirely to NKP and without too careful attention to pH either. This means that one does not know actually the content of the soil and more money can be wasted because of incomplete methods. I think I have told you the Russians have a more exact limited method of analysis.

Until I reported Purslane on the vegetable market I was downright disgusted with the lack of knowledge of edible weeds here. The whole thing is a series of vicious circles. Anyhow with lazy people I have concluded that there is more than plenty thyroid and perhaps other glandular trouble. No one knows what elements are absorbed into the food crops. And on the other extreme the different types of herbalists and schools of medicine know, and keep very esoteric and trade-secret the values of more plants than we realize. In fact even now I have been promised introductions on a high level when I visit Peshawar again later on.

Now this is the problem: Is it necessary or mustn’t we begin with more complete analyses, determine what trace elements are lacking, relate this to dietary needs, etc., and make an overall report and suggestions? This is a natural for Stanford research. Therefore, I again am proposing an almost seclusion for myself on return until I see you and get advice or whatever you may want to say.

Farm Advice Upper Level. I have already reported to you about the lower levels. The boys were by-passed by the State Dept. So were the men. The top man here is Ted Thatcher, U.S. ’48. He is theoretically over all the agricultural advisers and instructors on a huge exchange program—which I very much favor—between Colorado State U. and Peshawar U. But he is restricted to supervising the staff and the teachers of the live sciences at the university. He wants to meet Hamid Khan here and I am arranging to bring them together.

All the Americans feel they have been let down by the administration and made to look cheap. One Mr. Hamid of the C. of C. of Lahore spoke recently in San Francisco on the need of settling farm families in this land and have them work with the people. Incidentally I suggested exactly the same plan some time ago. Headlines: Pakistan welcomes American technical assistance. This is the eternal, infernal war between the publicity hounds and the intellectuals. It was the same when there was a demand for more science and math students and the press demanded more science, math, and language students with a corresponding increase of 90% in the language students.

I just received a letter from my friend Paul Keim who was successful in UAR in desalting 38,000 acres; perhaps in more when I left. He will be back on the Berkeley campus on August 19. Department of Engineering.

I got into a strange money-mix-up and had to go to the nearest American Consulate (BankAmerica made a mistake). I received a free ride from the Forestry Department, Peshawar U. Anyhow I got my money. I stayed at Dean’s Hotel and there we saw a Buddleia with a blue flower, shaped almost like a Lilac and one can much better understand the term “Summer Lilac” from this variety. Incidentally I have failed to report that there are Buddleias all over, whether escaped or this is their natural habitat I do not know.

Points or grown with leaders and look like small trees. The Zinnia is the most wide spread cut-flower at this season. They are firm but not tall. On the other hand—if you can stand a pun—the corn is Ze Amaze! I have seen plenty 10-12 ‘ feet high. The ground is too wet at the moment for me to make a survey. But the height can be deducted from the K content in the soil.

At the moment there are plenty of ears on the stand of my friend, the Paymaster. Under the corn there are Tomatoes. The fruit stands low, near the ground and the plants form a sort of umbrella over them. There is a good count but I think the rain may have washed off some of the coming buds. He is also experimenting with his Sunflowers. Although some are tall the corn-stalks are on higher,

I also visited the Supt. but the ground was too moist. In Peshawar the seeds or kernels were mostly broadcast. There are many who do not distinguish between the handling of Z. Mays and Sugar Cane. I am learning more about the latter, and there is a problem whether light-hours or heat or both produce the sugars. I believe, of course, that the K content helps but I cannot know details. As Peshawar is near Mardan; on my next trip I shall visit there for Sugar and then Malakand, for Tomatoes, etc.

The country toward the Indus is a wilderness. I once wrote, “There ain’t no industries on the Indus.” Even less is industriousness. Then one goes up the Kabul Valley and as one nears Peshawar the soil is more fertile but I could not compare it with Haripur below here. I saw many kinds of Melons. We were served cooked one of those pomish plums and they also tasted somewhere between our plums and apples—perhaps they have malic acid in them in quantity. They do not taste anything like our prune plums. I understand there will be more fruits in shortly and all kinds of grapes just beginning to appear. Also Apples, mostly like pippins.

I met the chief prof. of Entomology and we became friends but he had to cut his visit short. Actually he is disturbed on account of the locusts and I don’t blame them. Just add the locusts, borers, saline infiltration, water-logging, floods, lack of forests, malnutrition, etc. etc. and all the press is concerned with is Kashmir, Kashmir, Kashmir! If the locusts do come the public will not be warned as they are not warned about either the Indus or Ganges floods--just Kashmir, Kashmir, Kashmir! They are crying because the Indians control the head-waters and they are getting not under-supplies but floods!

My friend, Abdul Sattar, long time Consul-General in S.F. and one of my best friends is now here. I am meeting “everybody” all the time and have had a nice letter from the President’s press secretary and an important communiqué (that spelling makes it important) from the Joint Director, Radio Pakistan. I am signed up for all kinds of lectures and conferences. And on top of that for collaboration in lectures back home—and are they piling up. In the meanwhile my friends in India are gathering and with another friend, Dr. Radhakrishnan, now in first place—skip it. I don’t know how these things happen but they do. On the other hand I am being converted to enjoying cricket; this is awful.

These are just odds and ends for my own record and I hope you can stand them. I am hoping to return to college and study anthropology and more botanical sciences, as they say here, inshallah.

July 28, 1961

My dear Florie:

This is the news. Foreign policies are based on the assumption that all that all men are fools excepting politicians and commentators. Russia is free from that and we are stuck because, while holding to this attitude we preach something that we call “democracy” which has nothing to do with humanity.

I am in a strange monetary mix-up and it compelled me to go to Peshawar. I was given a free trip by the Forestry College boys. I met a lot of American, and my statement that the authorities in Asia “must be European professors and American newsmen and never, never American professors and European newsmen.” You can bet that the American professors unanimously feel they have been let down by the so-called “Peace Corps” propaganda: It implies that their work is ineffective.

I don’t know whether you heard Mr. Hamid of Lahore speak in S.F. He called for the establishment of farm families among the people here and that we should stop preaching. Nearly all the news one reads in the Press Reports from USIA are sermons. Nothing but ineffective, sickening, sugary sermons redound with self-praise—as if this wins friends. The Russians are not idle. They are sending in expects. These “experts” go to mosques and pray with the people and they eat with the people. So while the big boys are making lovey-dovey the Russians are just going to wait for our next move and do nothing. Well they are “in” in East Pakistan—where they were not scheduled to be; and they are not where the newspapers say they are.

There is absolute unanimity on the “Peace Corps” here. We are going to send over some bright young men and may be women, who can scale mountains, survey the land, calculate the distance of the stars, teaching weaving, mechanics and basketry to people who have little cloth or metal and the first thing that they are going to be met with will be what they think of Allah and maybe Mohammed and Jesus. And they will be about as ready to discuss these matters as they are to talk in Tibetan or Satchanese. There are only two things to discuss—religion and food-raising and that is just about what they won’t be prepared in.

I have been hammering away on the food situation and I have run into the delight of finding that the chief Botanist here comes from the University of California—he is Pakistani; and the chief science adviser is also a Cal. graduate but represents the Colorado State University and is over the teachers of the agricultural sciences. I am trying to bring them together. But so far as Johnson and brothers-in-law are concerned they do not exist. We are going to have the “Peace Corps.” We are going to snub the Americans in the fields; we are going to have the Vice-President praise Dr. Seagrave while he ignored in “toto” the American medical missionaries here and we think we are carrying on a war against subversion!

I sent a note to Ayub before he left—this is “unthinkable,” of course; well I received a nice answer from us press secretary after they returned. Abdul Sattar is here and we expect to discuss a real Pakistani-American cultural exchange. We have sent over a pianist to play in Karachi to help raise funds for the East Pakistani flood relief victims and nearly all his selections are by German composers. I don’t know what this proves and other than getting some moneys—which could be raised by other methods—we still have to establish real cultural relationships.

I am meeting a lot of Sufis—all the time. I met more in Peshawar—at the Pashto Academy and from the School of Engineering which is topped by one; and I have now a flock of invitations to speak in universities. All of this is off the record. The idea of an American circulating with the people and doing anything actually isn’t. But I am glad to hear that Dr. Barker, ex of Berkeley and a Muslim, is becoming famous and effective; only Russians can go to mosques but he is doing it anyhow and he is becoming successful, alhamdu lillah.

Meanwhile there has been a congress including American Muslims in Cairo. The Pakistani papers—and I say God damn them without any reservations—who are constantly yelling for a united Islamic world—give them no publicity excepting what they get from the Americans. It is sickening. In UAR there are some efforts to have world Islamic movements (actual) and here they are editorials and people believe then and the Muslims are being nicely divided by editors all yelling for their own private international Islam.

I am not writing to Dr. Hosny in Washington now. I shall wait until I see what funds are offered here for the presentation of Islamic cultures and then work for a united front of some kind—not a lot of hokum fund-raising for “mosques” by people who don’t care about prayers. It is certain that one or two important persons will be in San Francisco next year. They will probably be presenting spiritual aspects of Islam and Mohammed. They are dedicated to bring the world back to a recognition of a living God. I have written to Norman McGhee in detail about this, but also to several other persons, some of whom you probably know, others maybe not so. On the whole the people here have far more heart than the Arabs, but less real heads, or rather they won’t work. For the time being I see no other course than to accept the leadership of the Egyptians in Washington.

I am convinced I should buy more books. I have a large consignment in Lahore. When I go next, assuming my moneys are released, I shall add to the purchase and send them on to you. The life of Omar just completed is very satisfactory, but some of the smaller brochures not so good; in fact I may not send them. As a rule the larger books are better in every way.

I have had a second letter from Satya Agrawal for my trip to Delhi where I should be in August. But the other letters I receive, plus my feverish inspirations in poetry, keep me going. I have still a lot of tourism too, so I work from 6:00 A.M. till 9:30 P.M. excepting for a siesta and am not keeping up.

I believe the Russians will try to focus attention on Berlin while they penetrate elsewhere. Afghanistan and Burma are “soft,” and there are large communist movements among the Malays. We just can’t study Islam as it is or Buddhism as it is and consider the feelings of these peoples. It is not done.

There are Buddhist excavations going on in the Northwest and I hope to visit some of these places and also see Jamshyd Khan who visited S.F. a few years ago. Felix Knauth of S.F. came back from Baltistan and the reports he and others make of that country is in every way contradictory to what Lowell Thomas reported, so it can’t be made public. We hope to collaborate and throw a few bomb-shells around, and I am not fooling.

It is the Sufis who are taking the lead here, too, in counterespionage. This is a long story; besides the Sufis are always exactly what the books and professors say they are not.

It is now monsoon season and the Maize has been growing very rapidly, I am doing a little study of it. The papers are yelling about Afghanistan and Kashmir and the country faces most serious problems—floods, water-logging, erosion, locusts, hurricanes, malnutrition, etc. Ayub is back and won much acclaim, though I doubt whether he accomplished what the papers wanted and I believe he accomplished some things that the country needs.

This is all I can think of for my diary—and I have much poetry to write.



August 1

Mrs. Rosemary Benton, Librarian

World Affairs Council,

San Francisco, Calif.

My dear Rosemary:

I found an envelope addressed to you so I sending you my diary notes. Things are happening so fast, and apparently so favorable, that I am unable to keep up with my writings, consignments, etc. Abdul Sattar is in this region and I have to keep one eye for him; and the other eye for a mineral report which I have been promising for some time. These hills are filled with wealth and the most natural and simple way of obtaining capital and investments here would be through the same means which have made California, Colorado and Alaska in turn prosperous—but which is beyond the ken of many of the folks here.

The only comprehensive book written on this region was A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province by a British civil servant named Rose, Abott 1894. This was objective and on the spot recording. Now we have a whole bunch of “experts,” Europeans, Zionists and Canadians telling us about “Muslims” which tales are as subjective as Marx’s stuff, written in the same dialectical spiritual and totally untrue. The wiping out of the poor European Jews has not prevented well-known (and chiefly non-American writers) from having other whipping posts and we eagerly accept them and think we are learning something about Asia.

There is a team of American botanists working in this region. They record the plants, catalogue and inquire into their usefulness. As person amid? “There are no weeds in the botanist’s garden. But when it comes to sociologists, politicos and commentators and “humanists” there are plenty of weeds and often no garden. “All God’s chillum got wings” is simply untrue when we pass from plant and animal cataloguing and come to human beings.

I am now being accepted on an ever greater scale because I firmly believe that “All God’s chillum got wings.” I am faced with the utterly disgusting situation of having or seeing Protestant missionaries go through hills, mountains and canyons, cataloguing people, languages, geography and what not, and having them by-passed. Our so-called “Intelligence” and God save the U.S. And Russians coming in and cataloguing people, languages, geography and what not, printing books and having then the source of the best contemporary knowledge of this region. (Lowell Thomas is, of course, protocol stuff; Rev. Fishface won’t be accepted on a stack of bibles, and a mass of confirmations. This is objectivety.)

Now the Sufi-Sufis are tired of being whipping posts. I have just re-read “Lord” Cantwell Smith who seems to have demoted our European “experts” in this part of the world. I don’t think be could pass a grade school examination here on Islam or what Pakistanis think and especially about the Sufis. I’ll let the other matters passed and stick to the Sufis—or shall I say now $ufi$ because money is going to talk if truth does not.

The Sufi-Sufis, hearing that an American knows something about Sufis are raising funds. The interesting thing is that this is the third group of them. I have mentioned the others before, the big wigs in Lahore and the tops of the actual Pakistani Government in Rawalpindi. And I am going soon on two tours. The first is somewhere toward Baluchistan—I don’t know where but all expenses paid beforehand. The second will be around the Peshawar region, the University of Peshawar and Mardan College always booked and Kohat if I desire. So an American will be lecturing on the relation of Islamics to modern science and contemporary American thought—an American who could not get an interview—a priori rejected—by the cultural attaché at Karachi—this democracy.

Fortunately the USIA stuff in Peshawar is agog and I think I can get the Lahore people too. This is going to make some red-faces at Karachi or shall I tell Prof. Burdick?

The top Sufi, of course is exactly what Cantwell Smith, Rom Landau, Von Grünebaum and the U.S. boys say he can’t be: he is principal of the engineering college at Peshawar, the top physicists of the region, a Pathan and knows more about Indian philosophy than almost every Indian I have met, and I have met them, all our German, English and Hungarian ”authorities” to the contrary.

Mostly Sufis are exactly what we say they are not. The big wigs of all classes in Lahore who have been contemplating sending money and representatives to the U.S. and the top most government officials who have more or less the same idea. Incidentally I have been successful in placing a bug in Ayub’s ear, or portfolio. He used it and used it successfully—off the record, of course and I have received a letter of thanks.

Another Sufi is starting another counter intelligence movement through a school of Central Asian Languages. I am more hopeful here because I have met Prof. Austerlitz, top linguist at Columbia and know he will be interested even if “Intelligence” is not. He is collecting Asian refugees and trying to get them jobs teaching their languages, music and culture.

You know, Rosemary, we simply can’t re-invade Khyber Pass. It just is not done. All the invasions through history go one way. I believe firmly that the Russian chess-players are doffing at the Queen (Berlin) and are going around capturing pawns. I have run into their game too often, have too much first hand-knowledge and don’t care anymore whether I get rejected or not. If there is not God, there is Prof. Burdick and in our days of liberty, democracy and fair-mindedness apparently a piece of fiction carries more weight an all facts.

I had hoped with the new administration the poor peon-creoles here would be permitted to report or suggest. That is hog-wash. If I tell some commentators what I know, they will go the town and this would throw everything into the open to the Russians delight. Fortunately, too, I have a couple of pipe-lines and both Senator Engle and several congressmen are with me. I sent Saund a long and important letter because of the top-level invitations to India and because Jack Shelley sent my last letter to Mrs. Grady. God bless her. I think the members of the World Affairs Council will accept that the Grady’s who did meet big Sufis are at least as fair minded as all the Europeans and Zionists who tell us ??? about “Islam.”

So the money is being raised rapidly and it looks as if this Americans bum will be on the receiving side. I have stuck to objectively whether my ego sticks out or not and I meet the people, a few and en masse and this will no doubt continue. Pressures are tremendous but with social and financial acceptance my tours will be thrown into new light, or lime-light.

Actually I have asked for favors because, I do not know what I shall do or where I shall live but everything looks very fine, very fine indeed for me. Americans can make friends with Asians by meeting Asians and I think even Mr. Blum will agree to that. (Incidentally I shall probably run into Asian foundation a few more times—at least they sit down at round tables.)


Samuel L. Lewis

August 9, 1961

My Dear Vocha:

I have your letter of July 30 written in Pasadena and I am taking it as a sort of challenge. I am sending a copy to Fred & Corinne and making another copy for my diary which never gets up to date. The days are full from early morning until 9:30 at night, complicated by a slight case of diarrhea—the first, thank God, I have had.

Much of my time is now spent getting ready to travel with the Khalandar, I have already written the folks about him, as he is a representative of both spiritualism and spirituality. He has helped me to the degree that since meeting him I have gotten rid, in a sense, of my worst enemy. She was a former friend of mine who did her utmost to destroy me—it is a long and horrible story. My Neptune square Moon has had the curious result that I have always been invited to big cities by women who started as my best friends—indeed I came to each at “her” invitation and it always ended the same—San Francisco (my mother); Los Angeles, Washington, Detroit, Berkeley and I think one or two other places. If I came of my own accord or at the request of a man or a younger woman it was different. The L.A. invitor is long dead and the N.Y. invitor more recently. I think the spell is broken. Anyhow the Khalandar both predicted and did.

When I first met him I placed the Schloss matter before him in passing. But there have been so many other matters, some of which will be described here. Although my personal affairs became much better, the Habib Bank refused the check sent from Bank America and I had to go a whole month without money excepting I got a free ride to Peshawar and there the Americans at the consulate helped me find a way out, which tidied me over. This was a mixture of nuisance and blessing. I met the head of the Pashto Academy and some of the Americans who are doing a bang-up job. No publicity of course and also ignored by Johnson and Shriver who are so zealous for their “Peace Corps” they paid no attention to accomplishments by veteran Americans in the field, and they are some veterans.

I have met a long procession of holy men, saints, and Sufis, perhaps nothing like it. Far more than Paul Brunton and perhaps more effectively so. And with the Khalandar’s predictions my friends grew and my enemies lessened in the U.S. For instance one of my enemies publicly insulted the daughter of Senator Engle. I don’t know whether this grapevined to him or not but he has become more sympathetic and cordial and accepts my reports. Congressman Jack Shelly has sent them to my “principal,” Mrs. Lucretia Grady and they are full of successful accomplishments by a neglected (by the press) American. I did tip off Sam Yorty and more recently sent a good report to Judge Saund. I am in touch with Chester Bowels’ office, etc, etc. In fact my long war against phony Orientalists seems nearly at an end.

Last week I again visited my friend Ghulam Rabbani Khan, one of the world’s leading authorities on religions in general and Islam in particular. The Asoka Rock Inscriptions are on his property. They are placed wrong on the maps so I went over them very carefully this time. I am not only going to make some reports on them but when I get to Arjunta (I hope) send in an objective statistical report which will be so out of variance with what has been written and writers strongly disagree with one another, that it will compel Orientalists to be effective.

I am reminded of the team of American Botanists working out of Peshawar. They study and collect and it is all objective and impersonal. They can’t drop “weeds” because they are useless. They tabulate everything. This is true science, but in the Oriental fields in general, we do not have much of it.

Well, the Khalandar, to prove his powers, either clairvoyanted or projected to the U.S. and he gave so many reports immediately that were correct. I was amazed. He described the City Hall in L.A. among other things and said he would go there. I have myself tested him on a higher plane and it came out [?] Schloss-Reinhold matter to him as soon as possible.

August 10

It is morning. The ribbon is nearly worn and it will be hours before I can buy another. I awakened feeling it is right and just to enter into an area of combat to help friends, especially the just ones of the world. I have failed miserably in efforts to follow the Gandhian trend and I sometimes wonder whether Nietzsche was not right who said: “A just war halloweth any cause.”

Only two or three times I have sailed forth using what might be called “esoteric methods.” There are sciences, so to speak, of prayers, mantrams and concentration, and if one is attuned to the spirit of the universe, one may be able to select, so to speak, help which may be forthcoming. Then there is prajna, which always shows the right way.

I must now instruct Fred and Corinne in the Sufi doctrines of the ego, from agitation to calmness to power, love and wisdom. And in the Indian psychology of the places of persons and beings in the universe of evolution, and what characteristics and faculties are evident. I am no longer concerned with anybody’s reaction in the U.S. It is not only that we have few deep friends in the Orient, it is that we are foolish not to look into the wisdoms and apply them. So I shall try to get the Khalandar—and others—to throw light on these situations.

By “others” I mean persons and forces the existence of which we have totally bypassed in the Western world and have become stuck with quasi-materialisms which hinder our progress in many directions. My standing here with some of the Sufis and disciples of Sufism would be incomprehensible in the West, but I am not concerned with my standing anymore; only the practical application of whatever this means.

Jacob’s ladder was no doubt a symbol but there is an intersession in terms and shrines—and even holy men. There are definite “telephonic lines” so to speak, between this world and the vast unseen. There is a complete guidance of love, beneficence, wisdom, compassion and even mercy. There are no problems excepting those which are manmade. There is a wisdom in having these manmade problems so that we, as individuals and societies can grow and grow. “Therefore fight, O Arjuna” must mean something more than poetry and in a sense each of us is Arjuna. But I am much stronger inwardly and outwardly than most of my friends, and perhaps even than most people. Frustrated all over the place, I have never delved into potentialities—excepting where I should hardly be believed yet.

The challenges that have been thrown at me have been answered by the poetry I have and am writing. I came here knowing I was Iqbal’s successor. I leave probably with the seeds of surpassing Iqbal and joining the ranks of others. It is too early and I have too much typing, too many responsibilities, too many problems, too many invitations. This does not mean that most of all will not be accomplished. But with signs of cracks in the inertia of certain parties and forces, I feel better.

I did send Ayub a suggestion. It was put into practice and worked out successfully, his secretary wrote. It was something so simple that only a child—or sage—could have thought it up. No newsman could possibly believe of accept it. They are more stuck with materialism than the Russians and more hide-bound than the reactionaries and don’t know it, more’s the pity. But it worked and will work again. This is all the more to be wondered because my introduction to Ayub was from the side of profundity and complexity, not of simplicity and practicality.

I hate to throw the challenge of patience. I have had to use it myself, but this was from compulsion. I know its value. But there is a time to reap as well as to sow and other than assuring you of my anxiety to throw all inner attention to the Schloss affair, we shall go on to other subjects.

My war with the commentators goes on. First William Murrow comes on the national hook-ups that he welcomes criticisms and suggestions. Ha! ha! Don’t make me laugh. Talk about “The Ugly American.” There are two things “we can’t” do: one is to entrust protestant missionaries especially in this Islamic country so when they go out—a la botanists—and collect data on peoples and geographies, nothin! doing, we don’t want to offend the Muslims. Instead we are going to send over I.Q’s who can parse verbs in Urdu and teach manual training where there is no wood and give lectures to people who have been lectured all over the place. I prefer to spill to Burdick than to Fulton Lewis, but with the Dull espion-age over, I am keeping quiet. Besides I trust Fulbright.

Joseph Alsop at least acknowledged so I took on Stewart. Stewart has written an article in Satevepost on Cuba. It is exactly like articles written by Muslims: Hero and Noblesse Oblige and Popular and Bigfame were undoubtedly to blame but they have done such wonderful jobs in Antarctica and Nueva Cocos and Christmas Island that we must hesitate to blame them and then he ends: We cannot permit the communist bloc to enjoy a monopoly of the technology of the oblique thrust, but we must find our own ways, believing from our own past and our own kind of society, for carrying the battle to communism.

I mention all this here not to tell about my private war with the commentators, but about G.S. as it is practiced, full of noblesse oblige and Bigfame can do no wrong.

The Sufi’s have not only pipelines to heaven, so to speak, but on earth. There are 50,000,000 of us, despite the Koestlers and despite all the encyclopedia and Cantwell Smith and Von Grünebaum and Landau and Zionist “authorities” on Islam. I was approached in UAR by a delegation of scientists, no less, who gave me the insight into their counter-espionage. American reaction: nothing doing. We will have nothing to do with fanatics, charlatans and can’t mix up with native religions. (The other side of the protestant missionary humbug.) I’ll tell you the whole story some day and it is some pumpkins.

Well here I have been closeted with another Sufi, who is a leading scientist, and he outlined to me his counter-espionage program with the oblique thrust against Bokhara and Samarkand and what he and his colleagues are doing. It was as welcome as the pollen in May to hay-fevered “intelligence.” Words, words, words. We talk about humanity and humanism but omit the human beings. Wasn’t I called on the carpet during the war for saying that Stalingrad was Verdun No. 2. Those West Point grads knew as much about the grand campaigns of Asian generals as I knew about their languages. This is “intelligence.” So I am coming out of the corner fighting and then some—all over the place.

If I get an answer from Stewart other than an acknowledgement I shall know the day has turned, but previously I wrote a letter to Satevepost telling them how the Russian spy system works here. I got my information from the topmost Police Officials. In India the Internal Security saved me from the commies. To the American “intelligence” I was seeking notoriety for myself. The Russians came in as Muslims and boy, what field days they have. We send an American Muslim to this country on a mission! Preposterous, oblique thrust or not. Just like Prof. Moore, who to prove he had no prejudice against the Muslims attacked the Christians openly—and he was “officially” the top American in religious knowledge. What fun I have! But I won’t give up the ship.

I write to Harry periodically because I am ordering books. In addition to normalcy I have ordered al the writings of Inayat Khan and also Shakespeare and Donne which I wish to study as pure poetry, for the words and lines, not for the stories, etc. I don’t keep a record of my orders but I leave it to him.

I expect to go to the Pathan country this week. I understand there is a movement going on to raise funds to help me and the Khalandar, with more emphasis on me. If I secure a nest egg, I wish to buy about a thousand dollars worth of books from Harry. I told him so. It is always possible that some of my writings, already turned over to Pakistanis, will be published and bring revenue and when I get to Lahore there will be a grand effort to raise funds to present real Sufism to the U.S. on a large scale with emphasis on healing, psychology, metaphysics, etc, etc.

My last poetry was dedicated to Prof. Durrani who has been a Sadhu, Sufi, physicists, physician, engineer and God knows what else including being an excellent father. (He is the second all-round man I have met, the first being the Mahayanist Dr. Leung Tat Sat in Hong Kong.) I can easily give talks on the relation of Modern Physics to the Oriental Philosophies and go on to other sciences. Even Durrani with all his Physics had not realized simple parallels. Now I stand in big with the big shots and little with the little shots.

Muslims need a good semantic overhauling. It is not only for religion, but for the whole international understanding. I told them they were trying to measure corn-stalks with a snake instead of a tape or ruler.

My alter ego Puck wrote that he favored federal moneys to Catholics but not to public schools. The public school moneys would go to the architects, materials dealers, gadgets, marble and glass and a lot of space because we have dispensed with stairs and ramps. We make fireproof buildings and then use the excuse not to have an upstairs in case of fire emergencies so the real estate people get in on top deals. No money left for the teachers! This is education.

I have a copy of head-coverings, some long shirts and pajamas and shoes on order so I can return as “Puck of Pukhtunistan.” Incidentally Puck, out of his inherited disrespect for his proverbial ancestor wrote:

Not Owed to Maurice Evans

End me your Lears.

I expect to be in Delhi early in October and India looks like more of the same and then some. I have to go to Pathan-land, then to lecture around the N.W. Frontier, then to Lahore by stages for lectures, conferences and what not. At least the embassy acknowledged one letter. They are now sending over “experts”—always ignore those here and start grand campaigns. The Russians are also sending in experts all the time—“Pakistan Times” was anti-American before and is now but the Forth Estate can do no wrong. I think it would take the whole American colony to refute the stuff politicians and newsmen give us.

Anyhow Paul Keim has returned to Berkeley. He did a job. If he were a Russian it would be spread all over the papers from the Atlantic to the Pacific. He is going to be a tower of strength to me on the campus but the old frustrating boys have long since been removed by revolutions of students and underlings. I look for a welcome there—excepting the Near East Dept. with its Europeans and Zionists—this is democracy and fair play and we continue to make wonderful speeches and offend the Asian-Asians

If I had more the comforting will be lost. Love to Bartlett and yourself

Samuel L Lewis


Sufi Ahmed Murad

August 15, 1961

My dear Harry:

I am trying to clear things up here in Abbottabad. This morning I arranged for my college lecture here and then got caught in a storm, falling down, breaking my umbrella and dirtying my clothes. The storm was great enough to come through the roof—when it is wet you can’t repair it and when it is dry there is no need.

I have written you under separate heading or rather have some enclosures and will try to get the things together but…. There is so much to do and so many details things get out of hand.

My Maize report is not too encouraging. People do not plan to get increased crops or calories or anything, but they want something which will require a minimum of work and attention. There is no coordination of planting date, light hours, heat or water supply, In general the crops that depended on rainfall either did not grow well or else, with plenty of K they get ”tall corn” but somebody else will “have to land them their ears.”

Aslam Shah, the paymaster, who usage sewage and seepage water, has the best results. The stalks run well over 10’ and about three ears each. The tomato underneath did well and his sunflowers, Hollyhocks and everything doing well. Outside of his place I only saw 2-ear averages, but this doesn’t mean that the ears will not set, as the male flowers have not always passed their peak.

S.P. has a lot of stalks running 8-10 feet but average only 2 ears. The rains came late though his soil is in good condition and at my last observance the Grapes were doing fine. His Zinnias are in excellent shape.

Elsewhere you sometimes have an average of 6; or less and not much returns. There has been no decent advisory work here and I have not had a chance to talk things over with the Food Inspector—but will still try. It seems to be there is unnecessary wastage of labour, land use etc. And with a people strong on the side of laziness and grand campaigns—”Plant More Tree” week—with parades and hullabaloo, but “let George do it.”

The great ornamental is the Lagerstroemia. This has a very long blooming season. For many weeks the whole trees are a mass of color, very delightful. I have never seen anything to equal them. Phlox and Salvia are also doing well now.

I had my final talk with Dr. Abdul Hamid, the Forest Botanist and will carry his messages to Peshawar. He is interrupted in Salix and Populus and wants me to look up soil research for them. There is also the problem of root behavior in trees. This becomes all important when one considers the water-logging areas. What kinds of useful plants can go in that area. I know when I lived in the South Sassafras tended to horizontal rather than taproots. Deep rooted plants are affected by the water table and presence of “salt.” The high water level in many areas is just the opposite of what has been described to me for Ohio, and what is no doubt true of other areas with increasing population and water usage.

The other subject we discussed at length was the Olive. The work here has been very haphazard and this in all directions—length of live, years to fruit, drought tolerance, soil and other adaptabilities, treatments to increase fruit, etc. etc. No good “case histories” of varieties, many lost and Olive has become just an Olive.

I do not know what assistance can be obtained in California to help these people out. The impatience often results in defeat in the long run.

You can see up to this point I do not have—and I guess a lot of professionals do not have—enough information on the water requirements of trees and related subjects. Then with the by-passing of pH, organic material in the soil and the “trace elements’ there is a long road ahead. At the moment I have no clear picture as to what to do other than carry the problems they have given me back home. After witnessing the faux pas of Iowa experts in south India, and they were experts according to accepted standards, I do not see easy “solutions,” but of course, could prove wrong.

I am leaving here next week, presumably for Waziristan where men are men and hunting seasons is all the year around. It has been very hot there and with the promise of pot-latch dinners my stomach is not too happy. But they want to see an unusual American. I can only tell you that in their country and among the Pathans generally it is “divided we stand, united we fall.” I am praying either for colder weather or an opportunity to exercise when I get there.

After that I go through the Northwest Frontier, both to colleges and farms and should be reporting. But anything can happen and generally does. At times I get tired yet there is a long road ahead.


Abbottabad, Hazara

August 15, 1961

Prof. Alfred Cantwell Smith

Institute of Islamic Studies

McGill University

Montreal, Canada

My dear Professor McGill:

Although I own a copy of your Islam in Modern History in the States, I thought I would purchase another copy here to determine whether my views on this book have changed in the light of some very objective experience.

My basic training in Mathematical Philosophy cautions me to shun the usual dualistic reactions against any comprehensive work and still less to reach conclusions via such methods in regard to any religion as a whole. I long opposed the whole Hitlerian movement on the ground that no group of individuals could logically evaluate any doctrinal-institution and the term “doctrine” is in accord with the definition given in mathematical, though not always in metaphysical philosophy.

Indeed my own experiences with Islam have caused me to shun personally both dualistic reactions and universalizing personal delight or disgust. I have had plenty of both of these and they in turn make it much more delicate to criticize philosophically Islam in Modern History or any companionate work.

When I was in UAR I was approached by a group of scientists. “We are Sufis and we wish the American government would take more cognizance of us. We are 100% anti-material, the Russians are 100% materialist and you are just between us. They are totally dialectic, we are totally anti-dialectic and you stand halfway between. The Russians do not believe in a god, we firmly believe in God and you stand between us, so we are far more anti-communistic than you are or can be but you will have nothing to do with us. Why?”

The scientists then went on to describe to me their method of counter-espionage and counter-intelligence which it is almost impossible for a non-Sufi to understand. I have met other scientists who are Sufis also engaged in counter-intelligence and I mention this in part because you have placed in your work a number of “cosmic philosophies” in juxtaposition or opposition to each other.

I opposed Hitlerism in full. I did not believe a man or group could evaluate whole cultures and civilizations by any moral or immoral standard. Neither do I believe nor can I believe in “scapegoatism” and I am afraid that your book has made the “Sufi”—who is not a Sufi at all but a figment of imagination, the scapegoat. Indeed I have not found anybody who has refuted Prof. Titus Burckhardt’s claim that European writers do not understand the Sufis because they have not faced Sufi disciplines nor learned about Sufism from Sufi teachers.

It is a curious thing that when it comes to many religions of the world we go to a representative of that faith for some understanding. But with the Sufis we run to a book. There is a book on the dervishes written in UAR by an American who bought all the European books he could get, synthesized them and put out what is a textbook on Sufism, accepted by some colleges. This in a city where I alone met some six thousand (6,000) of them and there must be many, many more.

The “Sufi” then, is the scapegoat. The early Ottoman rulers areby-passed. The great Akbar and his family are ignored. The fact that “Muqadimmah” was written by a Sufi, Ibn Khaldun appears to be of no importance. Writers, both Islamic and non-Islamic are today praising Ibn Khaldun no end; he is regarded by many as the first “scientific” social philosophy, but the fact that he was a Sufi and that ”Muqadimmah” is filled with tasawwuf is treated most lightly.

I met the dervishes in UAR, my dear professor, through the scientists, through leading scientists. Not only that, I was many times a guest of the various top men at the National Research Center and received nothing but good-will from them in my outlines, “Islamic Philosophy and Modern Science.” Even those who were not members of the dervish orders were entirely in sympathy with the Sufi philosophy.

Great Britain is the home of cricket and the United States of baseball. Their psychologies suppose that every man shall have a time at bat; there is a sort of equal opportunity and absolute justice in these games. But when it comes to Oriental philosophies, certain living persons are given no chance at all.

One of your colleagues was adamant insisting that there are no important Sufis today, and another insists they do not take part in politics. When I was formerly in India I was the guest of the Hon. Syed Mahmud who was then Minister of External Affairs, and in cabinet rank. He is today the leader of the whole Islamic community in India. He happens to have been a spiritual brother of my own first Pir-o-Murshid, Hazrat Inayat Khan, whose remains are buried in the Dargah Nizam-ud-din Auliya in New Delhi.

I have recently received a special invitation from Sufis in the Andhra-Deccan section, men of the highest caliber who seem to occupy all the high offices formerly in Hyderabad State and more recently in the local or provincial governments. This was in India.

I have visited at least three Indonesian embassies and found most of the staffs, including two Ambassadors, were members of Sufi Orders.

No doubt there are decadent Orders. This is true whenever succession depends upon other considerations than passing spiritual tests—states and stages. But there are a number of Orders stemming directly or indirectly from Ghaus-i-Azam, Abdul Kadiri Gilani, which are not decadent. And, my dear professor, Sufi-Sufis consider this man and not Mevlana Raum nor Ibn l’Arabi or anybody else the greatest Sufi. He systematized the teaching. If you had access to his books, or lacking them, had any instruction from anybody that has been initiated into the Kadiri Order you could not have reached some of the conclusions that you now have.

I was very much surprised and of course delighted, when some of the staff of a leading American university said to me, “So you say you are a Sufi. Well, we want to learn all you know. Will you come and lecture here.” This is always usual in the scientific field but is rather a new departure and a very welcome one in “Asiatics” where personal prestige carries much weight.

We have today two distinct problems. One is how to check the expansion of communistic polity. The other is to know objectively and factually the philosophies, disciplines and even details of Asian religions as a whole.

My dear Leonora:

This is the news. It is August 17, evening and Feliz Knauth of S.F. and me also of S.F. have been to [R?]axila to look over the ruins. They have been cleaned up in spots. The Museum is in order and all objects d’art which did not find acceptance by the curator have been removed. Grecian, Persian and presumably Jewish things out. And the Greeks are shown to have become Buddhists. It is a pity that the Curator of Peshawar has conflicting views, or it is not a pity. I shall have to do some boning up before I leave Pakistan to say which one I accept, for they involve a lot of other stuff.

I wrote you the other day and then had my picture taken. Inasmuch as I shall have to mail you a picture, I can answer your letter—piker! This saves on postage but not dignity. It is the picture of Puck of Pukhtunistan as he will appear on certain Midsummer Night’s Eve.

I have just returned from a film, “A Night in Europe” or something which shows nightclubs and dancing. I still like the Spanish best, by far. Way behind the Russian. I don’t like the French nightclubs at all. Some days I dream of further traveling. I have two trips in mind—one to England and Sweden; another through the Mediterranean to UAR. But I won’t go alone any more if I can help it. I get tired of this single traveling and attention to so many details.

I may go into India overland from Hyderabad, Sind because few Americans have gone that way. I also hear that few Americans go to Waziristan.

Felix and I have not too much warmth toward the “Peace Corps.” Why do we ignore the veterans who have accomplished things? There are lots of them even though they do not always write books like Dr. Seagraves. And our position is hopeless. Nicol Smith of The Burma Road fame wrote a book on Tibet and made more prophecies; Lowell Thomas, ditto. “Everybody” read Lowell Thomas and you would get an idea from his writings that everything is safe and sound. But Lowell is the man whom the State Department and the press and the radio accept and he has misled the American public no end. But he is he, like “This is the news” Murrow who writes glowing speeches that he welcomes criticisms and suggestions. Sez you. In fact so many of my criticisms and suggestion have been accepted that I am planning to write to President Kennedy.

I just sent in a report to secretary Shahab criticizing one of our “experts” on the Orient and perhaps one of the men who briefed Lyndon Johnson. I think Johnson did some right things here but I have not found anybody who could point them out. He welcomes criticisms and suggestions and the whole Orient is furious with the U.S. with its maudlin sermons and self-righteousness. Well I got another letter today from a friend of another Prime Minister. La meme chose. We sit around the table and prove our position in Laos is logical, righteous, noble, and of universal benefit. The Chinese just infiltrate. After Laos, Cambodia. I would like to see some top-notch commentator or anybody who can tell what language is spoken in Cambodia, what race the people are, etc., etc.

Your letter indicates your life is a hodge-podge and I shall be glad when it is not a hodge-podge and you can sit back in an easy chair and say, “Ah.”

Why should the public library keep open? We don’t need no book learning no more. We can sit back and have the commentators tell us or just put the question to Univac. In Russia—and why should we follow Russia—they keep the libraries open to 10 pm all the time.

Well I don’t practice any Yoga regularly now, only irregularly. Everything is lovely and snafu and why not?

Ruark is probably right. People stay 5-10 years or more in a foreign land and what they accomplish is not a matter of record. Prof. Schmitzel may spend 15 years in Waziristan and Commentator Walter Blah-blah may spend three days and who does the State Department listen to? This is diplomacy. I am for the veterans and I am for trusting all Americans abroad, excepting professional newsmen. They guild lilies and whitewash snow and yet have the public ear.

I am hoping to send news from Waziristan and find out what the people want. I spoke to a big crowd at the college this week. I expect to speak to many more people and it is very likely I have spoken to more Pakistanis than any other American has.

I wrote to Stanford about the Sufis to a professor who is translating Sufi manuscripts. I said it was too bad we are treated as non-existent and that we have to go around and collect money to present Sufism to the American people because our universities insist we are non-existent. I told him—and it is true—that one leading “Orientalist” professor while still holding we were non-existent, was quite willing to accept an endowment from us. Now we have to show ourselves which is against our policy but it seems that dollars speak louder than words.

I have new stacks of introductions and I am told some of the people are overladen with cumshaw. Will accept. Will even try to get endowments. But none to the Mulsims who would not let me speak for them and none to any university which denies our existence. This is very awkward.

There are now three distinct movements among the Sufis to counteract the Russians and I don’t mean with lips and sermons and self-righteousness. I still have three or four months without spilling to Prof. Burdick and I have not given up hope that some Ambassador or Under Secretary will answer one of my letters. But I think I may write Kennedy. Bowles is too busy contradicting Rountree to answer me and Rountree is too busy contradicting Bowles and the Asian-Asians have given us up as hopeless but are quite willing to accept our f$o$re$i$g$n $aid$. And they are right. After all we have plenty of money to endow most players to perform before audiences of Greeks, French, Germans and Swedes all over the world. If the Armenians in Baluchistan are lonely we will send over a fan-dancer; and if the English stranded in Bhutan need entertainment we will send over some strip-tease girls. This is foreign aid.

I am still in a quandary over my own future in dancing. So many of my old friends have withdrawn and these many changes and introductions of made-up dances without social or historical background have loosened my interest. I feel very close to both Madelynne and Magana Baptiste for reasons I would be glad to disclose in person but not in writing. The present control of F.D. by a small group which organize all the clubs and direct everything and get the offices etc. puts the whole thing far away from folks. On the contrary I am more interested to visit certain lands where F.D. is continued.

I received a lot of information about the basis of the American Peace Corps. It is very different sending people to lands which have no grand cultural traditions and history or even religion than to impose, as I called it, the trouser-tractor-gadget-potter-clay arrangements with a choice between the blonde Americans and blonde Russians. Every day the problems of this land seem greater, the solutions are quite evident, but just as sure neither we nor the Russians are going to do any experting without a big hullabaloo about our particular social ways and no attention at all to the local ethos. This is more complex when it comes to minerals wealth which they do have here and how and maybe will do something. But now my attention is to packing, moving and visiting strange parts.


August 22, 1961

My dear Harry:

This is my diary entry. I am assuming and presuming I shall be leaving Abbottabad tomorrow. The immediate destination is a place called Bannu which is the gateway to the tribal area known as Waziristan. The rulers or landlords called Maliks wish to see me and I understand I am the first American who has ever received such an invitation. Other Americans have gone for scientific, travel or political reasons, not just as men or friends.

I am expecting something like a potlatch welcome. As the country is hot, and I am told semi-desert or worse, I shall have to face heat as well as food. I don’t mind day heat but I am told I shall be given comfortable quarters and be well cared for. It is an adventure. And I am rather “flying blind.”

Some weeks ago Bank of America made a mistake in sending me money. The Pakistan Bank acted as if I personally had written out a bum check. It took weeks for me to get the funds and this cut down my tourism. And it was more weeks before either the Pakistan bank, the Consulate at Lahore or even the Bank of America cleared up the matter; meanwhile I did get my funds but only after threats. It is very awkward because I knew all the circumferential VIP’s and if I had done anything drastic a lot of heads would have fallen.

I have written asking that the bank release my savings and checking out and they are taking their time.

Meanwhile the Bank of American made another mistake. I worked ten hours trying to straighten my accounts and could not and then found the error was in the very last entry; either the BA or my legacy-money from Wells Fargo was reported wrong and I don’t know how much I really have in my checking account, and long distance letters have cleared up exactly nothing. It may pay to be ignorant.

The other day Frank Buchmann died. Well you can’t practice “absolute honesty” and “absolute love” here. They are totally contradictory. I have gone so far as to write Pres. Kennedy, the state Department and the embassy that the only way to clear one’s tracks is to tell Prof. Burdick, co-author of The Ugly American and that will bring action. I sometime hope to meet one American here who has had satisfaction from the Foreign Service. It is exactly the opposite in UAR. Besides I have written long ago to Ambassador Roantree and Under Secretary Bowles good honest letters. They both equivocated and since then have been hurling diatribes at each other. Who the heck are we arming against?

Just now I got the Garst plan back. I paid my last visit to the Forestry Station. They are interested in the alternative fertilization plans. But the money goes to Ammosulph and always goes to it and the peasants don’t want it and the soil organizations don’t want it and the monsoons get rid of it. The Garst plan is one alternative.

The other day I called on the Supt. of Police to invite him to my farewell dinner. His flowers are in excellent shape. Salvia, Phlox and Verbena doing wonderfully. But he has the best Zinnia collection I have seen anywhere and I have now seen plenty of Zinnias. The main groups are planted on both sides of the entrance and are so tall and thick they are like hedges. The stems are very long. You can see almost every conceivable color. But what struck me most are the varieties. On the one end you have very simple “singles” and on the other very complex “show” types. They remind me of the Dahlia in the early days. The variations were multifarious. Other than being planted in good -composted soils with plenty of leaf, no fertilizers and only rain for water. The K soil tends to good stems and has an opposite effect say, than on Pinks and Sweet Williams. Previously his Candytuft was in excellent shape. But we talked over private matters.

The S.P. did not show up at my farewell dinner. But at the last moment the Director of the Agricultural Exp. Station at Peshawar arrived. He is the uncle of one of my best friends here and was an excellent substitute—the dinner was all paid for anyhow. So I have a special invitation to go there. My immediate stop is Bannu which is semi-desert. Then to Kohat about which I know nothing. Then Mardan which is the center of the Sugar plantations. Then Melakand for truck cross. Then Peshawar, for fruit. Some day or other you will get some good reports.

But I was especially glad to see the Director for another reason. You have had my reports on Rawalpindi. Well the UN boys and maybe some Pont IV boys went to Iran and then started some new methods of preparing land. They got rid of the traditional irrigation ditches and waterways which had been in use for centuries and put in a modern method. The rains came. The dykes, the water channels, the top soil went and no crops! These things are never reported and that is why I say you cannot have “absolute love” and “absolute honesty.” Things like that are never reported. When you over-organize and impersonalize “expertism,” button, button who has got the responsibility?

This plus the rioting into Ammosulph and the way they plant maize, to avoid work shows what one is up against. Then the maize crop did much better, but that is because of seed selection.

My friend, Aslan Shah, the paymaster, has been promoted and is going away. He tells me that his beans have done excellently this year. Like a lot of roving C.S. people, he has scattered holdings. His sunflowers are about the best I have seen here, but it was new both to him and the B.P. that sunflower seeds could be food for human consumption. Last year the B.P. fed them to the hens and he said he never had better poultry. I don’t know too much but I am in a land where people seem to know much less.

The next Forest experiments are and shall continue to be on hormones for cuttings. I shall next visit the College at Peshawar and see what I can learn. But I am overburdened with introductions. I guess I have already spoken to more Pakistanis then almost any American, but I do it off the beaten track. There is a new USIA director coming to school. These people know or think they know all about the U.S. and lecture to Pakistanis. They are very restricted and don’t know it. Only Asia Foundations gets down and sits at round tables. In fact I am going to report to the Intelligence Section, Collector of Internal Revenue, about large groups who collect moneys to function abroad. Period. The overhead is. Period. Glorious rackets and no checking and it was one of the large chemical companies—Union Carbide, I think, which just saved UAR’s cotton crop; no Russians, no “experts,” no collection agency, but a solid American industry which had to function in the end. My blood boiling days are over; my jibing days are coming into fullness.

It will probably be impossible to lecture on tourism now. Only those Pakistanis who have been educated abroad want to take on responsibility and give our information. The rest want simply respect for their donations. When they get enough respect, they don’t have to inform anybody about anything.

I have, already, listed what I consider the grand problems of this country. What they need are either real dirt-farmers and farm-advisors with divers experiences; men who can talk to and with men. Today I am very tough-minded—after all I have written Kennedy. But the joker is that the tom boys here won’t tell technicians direct and when I get tip-offs I am the wrong guy. But I am not so wrong as a lot of other people who have been here longer: the longer the wronger. This is a situation I shall fight to the death. And enjoy it.

Cordially, Sam

Abbottabad, Hazara

August 23, 1961

Dear Ruth and everybody:

I am about to leave Abbottabad. It will be a strange adventure. I remember one mureed who long ago welcomed into her home persons who spoke about the masters of the Far East. Some of the speakers were friends, which did not prove or disprove the existence of “masters.” When I returned before she closed the doors on me. She did not want to hear about real masters; if they were conjectural, if they were fantastic, if they were metaphysical all right—but real ones—you draw the line somewhere.

In Rawalpindi I found one of Pir-o-Murshid’s compendium books, several together. It is expensive but I shall buy it before the day is over and carry it with me. Aslan Shah lives across the road. He says that he doubts if any Western person has met so many holy men and been blessed by them. This is my history. It will some day be accepted by the world. The mureeds follow exactly what Pir-o-Murshid wrote on “The Spirit of Guidance” in some of this early works—the so called disciples almost never accept the new teacher and the more they acclaim their adherence to teachings, the more they depart therefrom.

Aslan Shah lives across the way but he is moving soon to the frontier. Chief among his guests were Prof. Durrani, both a Murshid and one of the great scientists and engineers of the region. After a career of disguising his spirituality as a wandering Sadhu he disguised it by adopting the exact opposite way of life. The master, the saint, the superman is not bound by rules laid down by metaphysicians and speculators and they appear as they appear. In a few weeks I expect to be with Durrani again and through him present the teachings of Pir-o-Murshid to local Sufis of all grades.

Less than a hundred years before Aslam Shah the Khalandar has been living; living with female relatives while the head of the house is earning his livelihood in distant parts. But his real home is in Rawalpindi where we sleep tonight. Both the Khalandar and Durrani have tested me by methods which only the most advanced know and they have placed me where Pir-o-Murshid placed me but further along. I am not concerned nor are they concerned nor are the Sufis here concerned with personality-reactions against or about the instructions of Pir-o-Murshid. Inayat Khan gave out his teachings and instructions and they belong to the order of God. People who came along and want titles or leadership without the divine sanction may win popular acclaim but in the unseen it is not so. In the unseen it is as it was, but it is in accord with Hierarchy. We are going to present Sufism to America along with Hierarchy and along with realities. It is not the day of secrecy; it is still less the day of closed cults. We say and we insult God by praying, “the whole of humanity as one Single Brotherhood in the fatherhood of God.” We do not realize the effects of these insult-prayers.

I have long gone way beyond the boundaries of race, class, sect or sex. The whole humanity regardless is one and the Sufi Message will emphasize this one-self. But not by proclaiming any leadership in this emphasis. I am sorry for the divided followers of Pir-o-Murshid none of whom accept what he taught and wanted. Well Buddha gave out teachings and a certain group got hold of the Sangha and operated it for centuries but in the end the spiritual souls asserted themselves. Buddhism disappeared from India but it spread far and wide over much of Asia. Now we face the world situation—a message of love, brotherhood and glorification of God, and it will sweep the earth, inshallah.

Our immediate task, and it will proceed before nightfall, is meeting with wealthy and powerful people to discuss the introduction of Sufis spiritually and spirituality into America. Many doors are opening and some will open quite dramatically in the United States. I met wealth in Lahore and authority in Rawalpindi. Now the question is to organize these, and coordinate [?]….

I have seen Sufi healing and heal it can and does coordinate and cooperate with existing schools of medicine. I have seen the clairvoyant Khalander depict many places he has not seen and times which have not come. The percentage of accuracy say, as against the so-called Meher Baba, is tremendous. One does not like to presume phenomena for love and wisdom but phenomena can and will attract Americans. Add to that phenomena the ability to clearly delineate the problems, the pressures, the inhibitions and the pains of people, and who is going to stand in the way of such a message and such people? We want to win by love but we may have to demonstrate many phenomena.

Behind this of course, is exactly the same hierarchy of saint, master and Wali as is described in The Unity of Religious Ideals or originally in what were the Religious Gathekas used in the Universal Worship. The U.W. is based on the super-hierarchy which has made itself known and felt by separate living persons here and now who through their enlightenment or clairvoyance know these things to be true. As Pir-o-Murshid told Saladin Reps, “Many who are not my followers are much closer to the Message than those who call themselves my mureeds.” This is true, so undeniably true that it will be written in history and coming events, inshallah.

To this date there is no sign of any Murshid nor anybody invested with the title and authority. But equally all that Pir-o-Murshid wrote concerning healing and brotherhood is coming. These things which he described to me and predicted in 1923 and 1926 are coming true, and even more than that. In the next world anybody who has taken bayat can stand against Pir-o-Murshid’s words and in this world it will only be for a little while.

The struggling, suffering humanity has just the same sense of justice, honesty and fair play. The removal of these things within the Sufi realm did not result in any great growth. A perfect philosophy does not win hearts or even minds. The perfection must be in something more than the philosophy. All that Pir-o-Murshid wrote on Kashf in the Gathas has been discarded and the prayers are only shadows of the reality they present and represent. But the prayers are truths or truth and not petitions or affirmations.

The world is going to see a real love, a divine love, a divine manifestation in according to its capacity to receive. The Message of God will spread far and wide; no doubt outside of organization because organization places itself above and before God and nothing can stand above and before God.

The love which is real is not verbal; it is a living communication. I can only say here that in 1962, inshallah, Sufism will be introduced in a solid manner in America. Whether mureeds and especially their leaders will recognize it I do not know. A titular Murshid has a grand responsibility but if he does not accept what God has affirmed or hierarchy has affirmed or even what Pir-o-Murshid has affirmed … the Day of Judgment is ever present. I wish more people realize this… I shall break off, not close. There is no compulsion in Sufism.


Samuel L. Lewis


Sufi Ahmed Murad Chisti

P.S. I have been to the cinema. There was a character made up so he looked tremendously like Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan—hair both fore and back, beard, clothing, speech, character. And when he played the Vina I could hardly constrain myself. It may have been just coincidental but [?]….


August 29, 1961

Mrs. Rosemary Benton, Librarian

World Affairs Council

San Francisco, Calif.

My dear Rosemary:

This is my diary and the report will have all the advantages and disadvantages of a personal record. I am, however, making a copy for Mr. Stewart Everts of the Embassy in Karachi and will probably show it almost immediately to somebody at the Consulate nearby. I am hoping some of the things recorded will be taken seriously and I am adding, for the sake of the World Affairs Council—and only indirectly for the Foreign Service, some of my experiences of the past.

There is a newspaperman who has published a book, Asia is my Beat and I don’t know whether to comment “beat it” or “how we were beaten.” There is a long uphill road in this part of the world. Lowell Thomas gave us a fantasy on Hunza and it is taking teams of American explorers and scientists to get the record straight. This will be that college students researching into Hunza will be informed and the public—which will continue to read Lowell Thomas and not the adventure books will remain uninformed. This is our “intelligence.”

Lowell Thomas gave us a book on Tibet which everybody read, Gene Stratton Porter up to date. Nicol Smith gave us a one and despite his Burma Road, nothing doing. That Thomas’ “facts” turned out to be fancies and Nicol’s fancies turned out to be facts mean nothing. The commies go there and we shall go on to read Asia is my Beat.

I am saying this because I was present when Papa Tara Singh met Nehru under “man bites dog” condition which in Asia is never, never, never news. I shall be in New Delhi in about a month and shall meet the men who arranged this meeting which will substantiate my reports. At that time I wrote in my diary that what happened would never be reported in the world and it was not and one of those men is a consummate liar. I leave you to choose.

Or the rumor that the Thais are looking around for a friendly relation with Russia because SEATO has not stemmed the communist invasion. When I was in S.E. Asia I wrote my cayenne stuff that I objected to SEATO because it did not include St. Helena and Uruguay. I doubt very much whether my newsmen would accept my reports with the royal family and how they reacted—some of it in my own presence; or my conversation with the leader of the opposition; or my meetings with the Mr. Big of Thailand. These things being “impossible” they could not be news. Besides what I was told and told very direct, is now coming out and we need more and more and more Laos-Chaos. In the early Spring, if not before, I shall be with my best friend who took the trouble to come to Washington to warn about Ho Chih Minh and not a cough in a carload—he was the trouble-maker. Then he returned to warn about Laos—he had just been working for the King of Laos—and la meme chose excepting, thank God and praise Allah, for Senator Fulbright.

Now I have been to the FBI many times and the usual question is “What do you know?” And I have been to the “Intelligence” and the usual question is “Who are you?” Some day we shall have an intelligent-intelligence which will operate like the FBI and do some screening afterwards. If you ever write my biography, go to Fort Mason and look at the heroes’ book, May 1945 and see my signature and ask how it got there. Right under Carlson’s raiders. But I was born on the wrong side of the trackless tracks.

My theme here is “Fifty Million Frenchmen can’t be wrong, but fifty million Sufis can’t be.” Amen. We have the only “intelligence” service in the world which rejects its own personnel to accept the “findings” of non-American, non-Asians concerning Asia. Yesterday I was in the Pashto Institute and pulled out the Encyclopedia Britannica on “Afghanistan”; you should compare it with the American Encyclopedia. They spell “Afghanistan” the same. Let’s change the subject.

Fifty million Sufis can’t be and I am having a social whirl from early in the morning until midnight with plenty of meals—almost too many and invitations all over the place. Someday I hope to convince some American in foreign service that their compatriot who was one of them in a former generation and wrote The Dervishes—J.P. Brown, should be taken seriously. Brown, being a mere subaltern had the “audacity” to visit the dervishes and write reports. This is not done, you know. I met more dervishes in U.A. than Billy Graham met of peoples there and … I have written a poem somewhere, if you want to call it a poem, “And the Burdick boys will catch you if you don’t watch out.”

I am quite ready to do a c to Prof. Burdick. I have many common friends with both Burdick and Lederer and in all honesty, objectivity and sincerity refused to meet them. But with Profs. Cantwell Smith, Landau, Von Grünebaum, “Warsawovitch,” “Gracowski,” “Minsky,” “Pinsky” and Oxbridge, not a chance. We are the only nation in the world, “only in America” do we see our people relying on non-Asian, non-American “experts.”

I have completed my first report to Secretary Shahab. Why should I go to Shahab? Why can’t I go to our Ambassador, or to the State Department? No, I have to go to the Arabs, Pakistanis, Indians, Burmese, Malayans, and Indonesians to talk facts. Fifty million Sufis can’t be and I am being entertained by them every minute.

Thank God both our Senators are cooperating with me—not on “realism” but on the problems of water supply, saline soils, desert agriculture and the great problems of a nation which is having a hard time standing up. Someday I may meet a Pakistani of importance who approves of our Peace Corps and someday I may meet an American editor of importance who will write on the achievements of Americans in Asia. We start writing off all Americans connected with religion in any way and end up by downgrading our real experts and technical men. I have already written of the countermeasures taken by Russians and am on excellent terms with the Security Police. Indeed it is the Chief Inspector General and one of the Justices of the Supreme Court who are taking the lead in financing the visit of non-existing Sufis to America. I have had to write to a number of Universities that because they have not recognized the existence of Sufis, moneys which would normally be sent for endowments and scholarships are now to be used in financing the trips of us non-existing persons.

Another reason you can understand why sanity is difficult is that President Ayub said “Islam should march with the times.” Result—and you might have guessed it—bigger and better parades. Islam is marching with the times. (This is quite in line with my original discovery of “Pukhtunistan”—“We want no more elections, we demand plebiscites.”)

Congressman Jack Hennessy has been turning my reports over to Lucretia Grady. Mrs. G. was only the wife of an Ambassador. “Some of my best friends are Sufis” which happens to be true of her and a couple of pictures in books will validate this. But this would make Cantwell Smith, Von Grünebaum, Landau, Minsky, Pinsky, and Warsawovitch wrong—so we discount even an Ambassador’s wife. This is “intelligence.”

Yesterday morning I first went to the Pashto Academy and have learned all about their plans for a Central Asian Institute. This group is not only organized by Sufis, they are working out a large and very sensible counter-espionage movement. There are three distinct counter-espionage movements lead by Sufis and it will be one of my jobs to bring them together. They all have the same purport and outlook but their methods are quite different. There is no use discussing these until we first accept that some, if not all the 50,000,000 Sufis are; and then examine the contents of Sufism—not from books by Oxbridge and Von Heidlehausen, but either go to the Sufis themselves or to the American J. P. Brown.

I am writing a long report on this to Columbia University and will send copy to the Department of South Asian Studies, Berkeley and perhaps to the American Friends of the Middle East. The latter group, at least, recognizes that there are Sufis (between my need for Eno’s, Sulphur Tablets and Milk of Magnesia I assure you these are Sufis and my stomach protests, but not too much).

Then I visited Prof. Duley, from Colorado State U., which dominates the agricultural advisory work. This country is roughly divided between Colorado State and Washington State. I may report later, or lecture on the work done by our Universities here and they are doing things. This country is, or wishes to be, 80% agricultural and perhaps should be. So we are going up and over the “Peace Corps” and they are going to be bombarded with questions about religion, negroes, God, religion, life in the U.S., God and religion and they are going to be “briefed” like V.P. Johnson and everybody knows it.

As to the technical side of this I keep writing to my friend Harry Nelson of City College and keep a complete record. Yesterday we discussed Soy Beans, Olives, Avocadoes, Small Fruit, etc., etc. Of course our “social scientists” will say UNO, FAO, UNESCO, UNICEF are taking care of these matters. Also, why a “Peace Corps?”

Later I went to an orphanage operated by Sufis (How come? They never accept responsibilities) and then a grand round of top professors and scientists, all Sufis and we discussed Sufism and the impossibility of having real cultural exchange between America and Asia because the Americans have a potter-clay attitude, the Russians have a potter-clay attitude (which we accepted, that’s right) but if Asians have a potter-clay attitude toward us—that is terrible, why don’t they solve their problems? This is what everybody asks of everybody else.

One professor had visited Europe, specially Leipzig and Heidleberg and I got a report first on the German attitude towards Oriental philosophy and the different reactions of East and West Germans. There is no doubt that communism is breaking down Orthodoxy if not religion in the East Sector and this often opens the doors to Oriental faiths. But the new generation of Germans are not “experts” in Orientalia and they are willing to learn. (Germans in America please don’t copy; why we may have to turn to Asia for “experts” on Asia!)

Of course this idea of having Asians teach us makes me popular and someday we may learn about Asian-Asia and get rid of Phant-Asia.

I have read several books down on village life in the Punjab. I have also visited many villages. I have also siestaed in huts and what-not and eaten food with my fingers with the natives. As I have written before all men are equal excepting women, sweepers, washermen, and villagers. And the number of second-class citizens in this “casteless” land, oh well, we have fun.

I may have written to you that I offered a suggestion to President Ayub which he not only accepted but put into practice and I received a nice letter from his press secretary. I have also had the privilege—and I foresaw it—of meeting one of his spiritual teachers. The meeting was, of course, impossible because there are no Sufis and dervishes have a lot of rules. Do you know what he said to me? “Come to lunch!” And I did. Of course this is only the outside of it.

I am therefore letting the Foreign Service see this. I have three awkward alternatives:

a. Go to Prof. Burdick. The way the Foreign Service reacted to this book of fiction stands n contrast to the way some civil servants react to facts. All he would have to do is go through my diaries and then write to the persons involved and the “Ugly America” would look like a primer. I don’t want this but the second alternative:

b. Go to Fulton Lewis Jr. This would put me on a national hook-up. I have my documentary materials. I would mention names and the next day William Murrow would either be impeached or resigned. “We welcome criticisms.” That is the biggest piece of downright nonsense and Murrow has gained the enmity of foreigners from all over. I have still to meet one who has anything but a fierce word for him. Criticisms and suggestions!

Well, we had an American pianist come to Pakistan and play Bach, Brahms, Beethoven, Tchaikovsky—also Samuel Barber, but how did he get in? The excuse was to raise funds for East Pakistan. The real thing is to entertain the Americans and NATOS abroad at our public expense. Raise funds? Why, in one week in the small town of Abbottabad more people saw “Europe by night” than attended these concerts—what is the difference between an American playing Bach, Beethoven, Brahms, and Tchaikovsky and having Oxbridge, Minsky, Heidlebrun, etc., be our “experts.” It would undoubtedly be “unfair” TO THE Russian to have and American pianist play Grofé, Coplan and Elvis Presley—these things are not done, though they would attract maybe even millions of Pakistanis. I have heard more American music in one Indian film than has been presented by some of our ANTA booksellers.

c. Go to Senator Fulbright. This would be a last alternative and I would have to keep away from the Foreign Affairs Committee. For one peep out of me and Barry Goldwater would subsidize me for life.

Fortunately now I think the American Friends of the Middle East and enough persons and institutions accept objective reports. But I am standing in the forefront of a number of fellow-Americans, rejected even more than I have been, who can’t get factual reports and strongly supported suggestions before anybody. Those who mingle with Asian-Asians are the last ones we need. And I don’t think this will go on much longer. The President has asked for “realism”; I have asked him, “Why not reality”?

Of course I may apologize. It just may be that I will be receiving an answer from Karachi or Washington on one or more of these points. It is possible. Well, the Indians and some top Malayans are waiting for me, but meanwhile the Sufi-Sufis are all over the place. I have invitations and lectures and appointments more than I can handle. And I am “do-it-yourself” American-Pakistani cultural exchange. That’s enough now.

Samuel L. Lewis


September 6, 1961

World Affairs Council of Northern California

421 Powell St.

San Francisco, Calif.

Dear Friends;

This is my diary entry at this time. I continue to have an exceedingly prolix and busy social program due almost entirely to two reasons (1) my interest in and knowledge in soils, crops and food; my knowledge of Islamic culture and mysticism. All despite all our European mentors against whom I am crusading, nearly all the leaders here in every walk of life are disciples in Sufism; it makes my introductions and my becoming a house-guest a comparatively easy thing. The more candor and the more agreement on religious and philosophical attitudes, the easier it is to consider the social, scientific and other problems and interests of the country.

I am enclosing copy of letter to Senator Engle which contains some of the things I am either going to offer or “do it yourself” when I return. Although the President may be very sincere and earnest, I am never sure whether one means reality by “realism,” or some private approach to life which, so verbalized, is presumed to possess charm. Most often it is the other way around.

We do not realize how much neutralism is caused by our inability—rather than unwillingness—to sit down with Asians as we sit down with Europeans, even Russians. We seldom eat with them; until Mennon Williams went abroad we disdained to put on national clothing and we preach incessantly.

I have just been to Mardan to the excellently operated plantations of Jamshyd and Satter Khan at Takht Bhai. They have been to California and expect to come again; they have perhaps even visited you. If not I hope the next visit of one or the other will be more official. I do not wish to enter into the technical side of my visit which will be reported to Joint Minister of Food and Agriculture, M.A. Cheema. I have not been reporting at the moment to the University of California. It is sufficient to say that farming can be profitable, it can be scientific with or without technology, and it can be attuned to the needs of the people. It can be, but wherever politically minded men overshadow the doers, there is bound to be some shortcoming. I do not wish to go into that.

I can, of course, discuss the Sugar situation, the Maize situation, etc., and if it should be that you want me to address you on or off the record, especially on the record I should like first to visit Stanford Research Institution and take up some matters with them. For whatever one’s views, there are bound to be some emotional and sentimental factors which may or not be pertinent and over-all pictures are hard to obtain. In any case I have now a fair picture of most projects which pertain to the activities of a Department of Food & Agriculture, by whatever name it is called. And I will continue to go into such matters.

I have spoken before the assembled Student Body at Mardan College and tomorrow at the Urdu College, University of Peshawar. This latter lecture was easily arranged through the cooperation of Prof. Abdul Qadir, Principal of the Pashto Academy. I have to write a long report on the academy to the Department of Linguistics, Columbia University, copy of which will go to the Department of South Asian Studies, Berkeley; and details will be discussed with Mr. Watan of the AFME when I next reach Lahore.

Prof. Abdul Qadir is another leading Sufi and although a mystic, like most real mystics (about whom we know practically nothing) he is more reality-minded than realists are and we have had long discussions on counter-espionage in Central Asia, a matter I would be glad to report in detail.

I have withheld releasing my Passport for my Indian visa on account of the border situation here. I have been to Warsak Dam which is now operated by engineers who were students of Prof. Durrand, long time principal of the Engineering College, U of Peshawar, a leading physicist and homeopath, and a teacher in Sufism. He is one of the most profound mystics I have met—more profound than some of the leading Swamis in India and V President Radhakrishnan, having also been a Sadhu. I keep mentioning the particulars here of Sufi mystics and will mention more and more of them until we awaken to the uselessness of listening to Canadians, Europeans and Zionists as to the [?] of Islam. Zionists have every right to propagate Zionism but the seizure of so many channels of Islamic thought in the U.S. has made real cultural exchange and social candor almost impossible.

It is possible that Durrand may take me to Khyber Pass. When one is with him no papers are needed. But it is other Sufis who expect to come to the U.S. and present us with some facts of life. I certainly had the Vice-Consul here jump off his chair when I told him that it was a shame and disgrace to take our knowledge of Sufism from Canadians, Europeans and Zionists in a country where the President himself (Ayub) is a disciple in Sufism—and this covered quite a few Presidents and Prime Ministers. My final report on this will come from Malaya. And most of the Pakistanis who have been in the Bay area of late have also been disciples in Sufism and we go on and on listening to Canadians, Europeans and Zionists.

In fact I am going to propose seriously that no non-American professor be permitted to lecture to us on any country but his own without either

A degree from at least one university in the geographical sector about which he is permitted to give instructions, and degrees;

Or the official approval of one such government.

My invitations to India and Malaya have come almost entirely to protest against this utterly fantastic policy of having Europeans, etc., “teach” us about the Orient beginning with “Zen??” Buddhism in S.F.!

On the other hand these American scholars who have made social and other reports on Asia may be taken seriously. It is taking about six writers on Hunza—social scientists, natural scientists and explorers, to counterbalance the folly of Lowell Thomas. And as for Protestant missionaries! Unless they write books like Dr. Seagraves we are overlooking one of the grandest series of operations anywhere, by the most dedicated, self-sacrificing people. But it is hypocrisy to praise Dr. Seagraves and utterly ignore the work of his colleagues on this continent. And as for the Catholics, they have the best education system of all, but as most of them are not Americans, I am not speaking my piece here.

The hot weather is somewhat abating slowly. This is very hard to take. The Pathan hospitality is marvelous but I must confess I generally land at quite a different spot than programmed. I am at the moment at Green Hotel and have been at Dean’s and this gives me experience, etc. But I do not encourage tourism here. For one’s money there are better places by far—there is no coordination in anything. Before they advertised the Lahore region; now they advertise the mountain districts. The tourist lands in Karachi, far, far away and it is most difficult to get information as to how to reach the places advertised. It is chiefly “bums,” adventurers and explorers who go to such places.

I understand that there are now some American geologists around my “home,” Abbottabad, which I may re-visit next week or later. I have preliminary mineralogical reports, very, very fine. I must soon report to Secretary Shahab and then prepare for a “grand finale” at Lahore.


Samuel L. Lewis

September 8, 1961

My dear John,

It has been my fate or fortune to have been the guest of two men who hosted the Sulzbergers when they were in this part of the world and I have written to the N.Y.Times. There is a copy enclosed—I am not sure how clear it is, and there is something to add.

There is one thing that is definitely wrong with our Foreign Service. A number of years ago I heard a lecture in Mill Valley by a Hindu who came out boldly for neutralism and his ground was very simple: “The Russians eat with us and you don’t.” I do not think many of the audience got the full impact of it and certainly the Foreign Service has not.

I again gave a lecture before another college, with excellent results and three newspaper interviews. If Billy Graham or a newspaper man or a Russian had a quarter of the audiences I get it would be news and even world news. But a single American is ignored—at home. I don’t know how much longer this will be. On the surface I may seem speaking for myself but it goes much deeper.

There is one branch of our government which is going to take an earthquake to awaken and that is the USIS which has a stranger potter-clay attitude toward foreigners especially Asians. They are to be moulded; they are not to be studied, they are to be shaped. I had one talk at the Consulate in which the Vice-Consul blanched when I told him: “You probably learned about Islam from some non-American, non-Muslim who told you there are no important Sufis in the world and Sufis have never taken responsibilities and yet you are serving a country whose resident (Ayub) is a disciple in Sufism and I have met one of his spiritual teachers.” There is nothing to do but blanch; we don’t take cognizance of these things.

One professor after another has contacted American intellectuals and found that while they were nice they simply did not know how to learn from Pakistan. It was all one-way. I have been for foreign aid and I still am for foreign aid but a country that can finance an “artist” to come to Asia where they don’t like European music and give them Bach, Beethoven, Brahms and Tchaikovsky—what is that? We have no money to bring them American music or dancing even f it be profitable both commercially and diplomatically.

I had a long interview with one of the leading American professors here. He is stuck. He has been given a big job out of his field. He is not at his profession and he is not permitted to contact and confer with Pakistanis, only instruct them! They sent a “Peace Corps” organizer here and told me that he and his colleagues gave the “Peace Corps” man hell. We are going to send a number of “dedicated” young men into a part of the world where they have thousands of years of culture behind them, impose something on them which they have not asked for, and ignore what they have asked for.

It is universally agreed that the salinity problem is the worst and I am now writing to the heads of the Pakistani government to finance students to Riverside, California in both the undergraduate courses and the graduate school. The former is connected with the University of California, the latter with the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture and is for foreigners only. In diplomacy everything is important but the facts. Washington either does not answer letters or you get white-wash. But don’t assume that the Pakistani or UAR governments are any better. The scientists always so, the business men usually so, but as soon as a man becomes a government “servant” he serves protocol and not the public.

Anyhow after mailing I have another newspaper interview today and perhaps by that time I shall be given more publicity, in Urdu. The Urdu papers have been very fine. Those in English, despite these interviews, may or may not say anything. One was formerly pro-Russian and is still covertly anti-American.

My program has been upset by the disappearance of another host. This is not awkward because I am overburdened and it may enable me to get back on my original schedule. I have to return to Abbottabad to finish some work. Then to Rawalpindi on two important deals. One is regarding travelling companions and financial aid to me, either on my trip or when I return to the States. The other is to conclude my reports to the Central Government.

I have suffered somewhat because of the long heat spell. It has just rained and it is possible that this will cool the atmosphere. It is September now and everybody has promised good weather for this month. Some of my dreams have been thwarted because of the b order troubles with Afghanistan and some because of fine hospitality elsewhere. I hope to visit the experimental farm east of here (Peshawar) tomorrow. I have already met the manager. I am conferring with a rug merchant today regarding imports. I can’t afford to buy much at the moment because of uncertainties rather than lack of funds. And don’t wish to load my bags more.

I am also endeavoring to go to the bazaars and make some purchases of shoes and look around. Habib bank is next door to the hotel where I am momentarily—I am always somewhere else. I got my Bankamerica accounts straightened out. But not the Pakistani banks, although I have withdrawn my funds from Habib.

I hope to be able to leave here Sunday, but can’t tell. There are police regulations coupled with the complex friendly regulations I have with these people.

The main complaint all over is the lack of mingling. I have said this above and I say it again. We mingle even with the Russians. Unless the Peace Corps does some mingling—and I think this is very difficult for high I.Q.’s—we are going to lose more money on useless projects. That is why I am glad Congress pulled the purse-strings tight. The real problems of this country have been touched only superficially by us and self-praise does not win friends.

The comical thing is that now I am placed by the top Pakistani intellectuals as one of the world’s great authorities on Islam, and me, expelled from a college in California for having “false views” on the subject! I am not one of the world’s great authorities on Islam but I know more about it than any European I have ever met. Or Canadian—our present Mr. Big is a Canadian, despised all over the Islamic world. His predecessor was an Englishman, etc. I have to name the important American authorities to the diplomatic corps! They don’t know Americans are highly regarded in Asia!

My meeting with fellow-travelers—tourists, not politicians—brings out the same results and complaints. And on this side they are so anxious to bring in “tourists” that a real tourist is often given short treatment. But the business men are very hostile to the bureaucracy here. With all the reforms of Ayub the government is still full of persons of self-importance and no ability. They do not have chambers of commerce to any extent and no producer’s organizations. My plan for inducing our food processors to train apprentices from this part of the worlds has been commended both by Pakistani farmers and the agricultural experts from Colorado State. Soon I shall be moving into Washington State areas—if they approve my plans I shall shout them aloud when I return despite all the diplomats (who never mingle with the people) and Peace Corps and Lowell Thomases.

The Pashto Academy here is being highly regarded by its counter-espionage plans—rejected by our CIA of course. If Afghanistan goes the way of Laos, what a field day I shall have. It is time to listen to Mr. Little who has been there and not to Mr. Big who has not. As I said before, I am speaking for a lot of little Americans—tourists, adventurers, protestant missionaries, etc., etc.

While this is not directly for the Journal-Independent I hope one of their staff may read my stuff, intelligible or not.

Peshawar, NWF, Pakistan

September 8, 1961

Hon. J. William Fulbright

Chairman, Foreign Affairs Committee

U.S. Senate

Washington, D.C.

In re: Bringing Americans and Asians Together.

Dear Senator Fulbright:

This letter was long ago suggested to me by my life-long friend, Robert S. Clifton, now known as Phra Sumangalo, the Buddhist monk who became an ex-patriate. So long as he remained a United States citizen it was impossible for him to be taken seriously by the State Department and so-called CIA, and I attribute our loss of face in Laos largely due to this strange attitude of CIA and some other agencies. My own experience has invariably been that when I went to the FBI with information they asked me for the information and that when I went to the State Department or CIA they asked me about myself and ignored the information.

I was able a few years ago to give a full report to the late Ambassador Grady in San Francisco. Yet I could not get a facet of that report over to the officials in the foreign service and very little to our newspapers. When man bites dog in Asian, it is not and must (?) not be news. Indeed I am writing at this point only because of impending difficulties in Afghanistan.

I have named Phra Sumangalo and I have named the late Ambassador Grady (this can be substantiated by his widow). The rest of the names will be mentioned in the body of this communication; or if not named can be given. But Senator I am faced with a terrible dilemma and it is a terrible dilemma. If I go to Prof. Burdick of the “The Ugly American” fame or infamy he will have a field day with my diaries and you will see a mess of fiction-based-on-fact; then the Foreign Service will shudder. Fiction, yes; facts?? What kind of realism is this?

Or I can go to Fulton Lewis Jr. and in 24 hours would be on a national hook-up and some of our officials would be forced to resign or be impeached. I refer in the first instance to Ed. R. Murrow. He pompously and piously said he would welcome criticisms and suggestions. He evidently pulled some faux pas while I was on the high seas which made him very unpopular with the foreign colony here. When I did write him I got just the answer I expected—a long white-wash from one Mr. Chatrand, who has the desk for Pakistan and Afghanistan. He told me that if I would only talk matters over with the USIA officials, I would have a different view.

Senator, I arrived in Karachi and was point-blank and a priori refused an interview by the acting cultural attaché. This would not have mattered but since landing I have probably spoken to more Pakistanis than any unofficial American since the foundation of this country. I was given an ovation yesterday at Peshawar U, just as I have twice been given ovations at Punjabi U. But to get a USIA official to take me seriously, Senator, it is next to impossible.

Who are our USIA attachés? They are probably college graduates of high standing versed in the American way of life and able to lecture on it. But where have they learned about Pakistan and Islam? Unless they went to Harvard or Princeton, they probably studied under a Canadian, European, or Zionist professor, the only country in the world that has Europeans, Canadians and Zionists teaching “us” about Asia and Islam, and I can give you a list of top government people and high dignitaries in universities who do not like that at all.

I told Mr. Frisbee, the just retired USIA attaché at Lahore that in the United States outside of Harvard and Princeton, the Hartford Seminary gave about [?]. There they propose to convert Muslims to Christianity so their Muslims are real. But the “unbiased” Canadians, Germans, Englishman and Zionists take anything out of their heads they wish and there is no escape. Why, I was dismissed from a college because I differed from an expatriate European who talked about Islam and point blank refused to permit his students to utilize the late Dr. Duncan McDonald, one of the real great American scholars on Islam.

I have seen now in person one Vice-President make a fool of himself in India and another in Pakistan but no one seems to have examined the persons who briefed them. Have the person who brief Mr. Nixon on India or Mr. Johnson on Pakistan any standing in Asian-Asia? My dear Senator, if I were to list the people who have objected or protested against our strange subjectivism plus an equally strange magnification of degrees from European universal ties on Oriental subjects, your colleagues would become red in the face. I would probably be a hero to Hindt and Hickenlooper and Barry Goldwater would send for me. I can furnish you with the names all right and it is a long and ever growing list, and their conversations were not pleasant.

In 1957 federal funds were spent to organize a UNESCO gathering in San Francisco to bring Americans and Asians together. A highly touted Canadian there had no standing on this continent was introduced as the expert on Islam. The Iraqi, Iranian and American (myself) Muslims were ruled off the floor and after the conference I wrote to the Public Service section, Department of State, warning of an impending mob attack on the USIA library in Bagdad. It happened. No lesson.

I was in Cairo for six months and told the USIA officials I would have to leave. Every day you tell me we have two-way cultural exchange and every night the Egyptians deny it. You people won’t face each other, you are using me as a foil and I can’t stand it. This was after I had warned four times of an impending mob attack. Two hours after the USIA director assented I was probably right the mob came.

You may ask me how I get news. Senator, I am a member of Dervish Orders. They are found in many Islamic countries. They are a solid brotherhood whom we don’t recognize. Prof. Cantwell Smith, Von Reichenbach, Rom Landau and a bunch Zionists either deny their existence or belittle them. Yet one of the best books on the subject was written by one J. P. Brown, of our own foreign service (The Dervishes) and the late Ambassador Grady had his picture taken many times with the late Hasan Nizami of New Delhi who alone had 10,000,000 followers. Never mind our foreign services; the non-Americans say different and we swallow them blindly. And everybody from the Royal Family of Thailand to the heads of the UAR government knows this. It is incomprehensible.

There are some 50,000,000 dervishes in the world—maybe more, maybe less because many belong to more than one Order. They include Syed Mahmud who was once Minister of External Affairs in India and is now titular head of the whole Islamic community—all our Canadians, Germans and Zionists to the contrary. They include President Ayub and most of his cabinet. They include all the members of the Foreign Service of Indonesia I have yet to date, including all you may have met in Washington; and most of the Sudanese and Iraqi.

Through my Sufi brethren I have come upon three distinct counter-espionage movements behind the Iron Curtain. Through one of them I have had a report of China which almost makes the monk-nun report look like a whitewash—so terrible. But we officially take no cognizance of them, we call them “fanatics” though they include many of the top scientists and industrialists of the Islamic world. Just to mention one name—the late Maratab Ali Shah, a leading industrialist, almost the Mr. Big of Pakistan, and an associate of the Ford family. I was twice to his house as a brother-sufi-disciple, just before his death and expect to meet his family when I return to Lahore. This is just one, and I can give you names and names and names.

And I was dismissed from an American college for attempting to name some of those people by a European displaced person who is the No. 1 “expert.”

Again through my Sufi brothers. They include many of the leading security officials in this country. As soon as we proposed the “Peace Corps” these chess-playing Russians got busy (reports from them). They began sending in “experts.” The “experts” first went to the Mosque to pray—a good Islamic custom, then they told the devotees about the wonders of Islam behind the Iron curtain, passed out pictures and shook hands. This is something Americans can’t do; strictly anti-protocol? Why! Even in the midst of a cold war we are bound by a lot of nonsense.

I was in India and where do you think the comrades met? At Shrines and tombs and ashrams. They have full control of one famous ashram from which they can send out “holy” men all over the world. Fortunately the FBI took my report, the CIA did not. Indeed one of my best friends in India, another Sufi, is the Edgar Hoover of that country or was when I was there.

Incidentally, Senator, I am one American who turned a mob on the communist hecklers and they had to flee for their lives (at Simla). Now I see that men who were mobbed by communists have been given very respectable jobs in Washington. But it happens that I know something of Indian history, philosophy, religion and psychology and I did not learn these things either from Germans or Northrups, but either the hard way or from Indians. Indeed I am invited now to India because I have been urging that now non-American be permitted to lecture on Asian subjects without the approval of at least one Asian government or university. And why not? Why should Heidelberg, Leiden, Oxford, etc be given preference over Benares or Calcutta, or for that matter Minnesota or Princeton?

Many of the Americans here complain that they are given no opportunity to mingle with Pakistanis and the Pakistanis complain that American officials do not mingle with them. Or, if an American happens to be a Protestant missionary, it is assumed and wrongly that he is “fishing” for his mission or sect and so while we praise Dr. Seagraves, we equally ignore all his colleagues who have as yet no time to write books. Some of the finest scientific work I know is being done by Protestant missionaries; if the shadow of their efforts were accomplished by newsmen, they would be integrated into our culture.

When I go to India I shall be closeted with Dr. Radhakrishnan:

I can talk to Dr. Radhakrishnan or any professor or swami [?] about Indian religion and philosophy, and have; but not with [?] and Northrups—who have no standing in India.

b. I was the only outsider at a dinner wherein Master Tara Singh “surrendered” to Prime Minister Nehru. I wrote then that it was such a “man bite dog” affair that it would be published in detail. It was not. The truth about the incidents have been kept under cover. I intend furthermore to bring out the man who arranged the meeting—a top Sufi. I was there.

I have been “there” many times. I have seen the Royal Cemetery in Japan, the first non-Asian. I have been a guest of honor in the Imperial Gardens in Tokyo and at the Emperor’s Botanical Gardens. I have seen the stupa over the ashes of Buddha in Japan. The same course of events in Thailand. The same in India, the same in Pakistan, the same in UAR.

I addressed as many Egyptians as did Billy Graham but was introduced, thank God, as “The American,” a sobriquet which I enjoyed. I want to bring Americans and Asians together. I want to see them sit down and discuss man-to-man. Yes, I am a member of the American Friends of the Middle East. They know all about my career.

The two things discussed here most are salinity and Islam. I saw Mrs. Eleanor Clay of the Dept. of Agriculture in Washington who sent me to Dr. Fireman at Riverside who gave me plenty of material which I turned over to Dr. Zohdi, Chief Soil Conservationist at Lahore, etc. I have told Chester Bowles that what he wrote about I would do. I am doing but his department and the Embassy are too busy denouncing each other (in their interpretations) to bother about an American who achieves.

I am now making my final horticultural reports to Mr. M.A. Cheema, Joint Minister of Food and Agriculture; and to Secretary Q.U. Shahab on other aspects of my mission here. It took Secretary Shahab five minutes to recognize me—someday I will get a USIA representative to, without going through the agony in Cairo.

I have been in holy places of Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism and shall probably continue. I have a large itinerary of universities to address. I am invited to Malaya by Phra Sumangalo who is arranging my appearance there with the Prime Minister. I literally stole two delegations of “neutralists” from the Russians and Czechs in Cairo—by very anti-protocol methods—beginning by admiring women’s dresses, etc.

I don’t know how much the Peace Corps will be trained as to the agricultural problems here. But all of us are sure and fear they will not know about Islam or the Moghul or other cultures which impregnate Pakistan and their potter clay policies with all the verbiage of democracy and brotherhood may make things [?] not.)

[?] to have to come to Washington. I have omitted many names here. [?]. Asians and Americans do not sit down together. Chester Bowles [?] things by attempting to associate with Indians. I [?] Ambassador Galbraith and as for Reischauer, I have been [?] to Japan for a generation.


Samuel L. Lewis Passport 1919228

Ahmed Murad Chisti

Peshawar, NWF

September 9, 1961

Hon. Q. U. Shahab,

Secretary to the President,

General Ayub National Park,


My dear Mr. Secretary:

I have reached the furthermost point in my visit to this country and am gradually returning toward Karachi. I should be in India within a month, inshallah.

Tourism: This is positively the worst aspect of my visit here. I had hoped to introduce something of this subject into my country, but it is absolutely impossible. Since writing the article of which copy is enclosed I have spoken to four more tourists, two Americans and two “British” and they confirm my statements. There is not much concern for the “tourist” that any tourist that does not fit in with this imaginary person is given short-shrift as we say.

All the real tourists I have met fall into two classes and two only, although these classes overlap: (1) adventure-hunting-fishing type; (2) Islamic-historical-Asian culture type. Both abhor liquor, European dancing, and the kind of entertainment that is offered at luxury hotels. Both would like to see more Pakistani dancing, which fortunately we get at the cinema.

No letters or inquiries of any kind have ever been answered by your officials. Fortunately one receives courtesies, assistance and information from the GTS and railway people who are very kind and hospitable.

Cultural Exchange: I have been received most excellently wherever I have talked on “Islamic Philosophy and Modern Science.” Several newspapers have printed excerpts of my talks and I have another newspaper interview coming up. I hope to go into this subject in more detail in Lahore, etc.

Agricultural Missions: I should say they have been most successful and I shall be sending in reports to Joint Minister M.A. Cheema whom I hope to see again before I leave. My last report can not be made before visiting Lyallpur.

Islam in Pakistan: I have met, I am told, more holy men, saints, and spiritual teachers than any foreign visitor to date. My last was to Golra Shereef; very, very satisfactory.

Poetry: I am now engaged in one grand epic, “Rassoul Gita” and in several smaller ones. A few of the latter have been accepted for translation into Pashto.

Salt Water Conversion: I have material covering the latest projects in the United States which I hope to turn over to the proper authorities either directly or through your good services.

Return to Pakistan: This will be no doubt when Allah wishes.

Islam in America: I have now two offers of cooperation—one from Faquir Zulfaqir Ali Shah Mastana of Rawalpindi; the other through Major Sadiq of Lahore. Both hope to come to America either with me or later travel with me in the United States with rather harmonious programs of spiritualism and spirituality. A large number of high officials are interested in each.

As I hope to visit the East Wing after my tour in India everything here is, in a sense, inconclusive. But the cordiality and hospitality received with the above single exception, has been pretty universal.

When I am in Rawalpindi—probably next week—I shall telephone your office for any appoint or request; an appointment is only necessary in so far as you feel it is proper. Again thanking you for your hospitality and council,

I remain,


September 10

Dear Friends of the World Affairs Council:

This is my diary rather than “the news.” I am enclosing a copy of a letter written to a famous person whom “I knew when.” I have had to write also to Senator Fulbright as a last resort. I have long been urged to this by my friend who failed to get my interview with the press or State Department and his warnings over Annam and then Laos have developed until he became a ex-patriot. He has turned to Fulbright in disgust and was accepted but not by the Dullas regime. Then, after he met Fulbright, the State Department and CIA hounded him, but not before.

I am in the awful dilemma of having to go to Burdick or what is worse Fulton Lewis Jr. The opening wedge is simple. Ed Murrow loves to preach and does not want any criticism or suggestions and the animosity toward him everywhere is great. I received a letter from one Mr. Shepherd in charge of Afghanistan and Pakistan political relations who told me if I only seriously conferred with the USIA officials I would have different views of their work.

No. 1 refused absolutely point blank to see me.

No. 2 the brush-off until I collared him and then only personal talk

No. 3 the brush-off

And here I am talking to thousands and thousands of people, getting publicity mostly in Urdu, sending in reports to members of the Cabinet, meeting bigwigs all over the place and unable now to make proper diary or other records – simply too much. I have spoken at Mardan College and at the Urdu section of the University of Peshawar on subjects for which I was declared totally uncredentialed in California led by the “expert” Rom Landau – the others are no better. I was not even qualified to be a student. And here I teach teachers on the same subjects!

I have visited the Americans who control the Department of Agriculture at the Peshawar U. and the chief advisers in the same field (from Colorado State). Have visited the fine Sugar Plantation at Mardan owned and operated by Sattar and Jamshyd Khan, both of whom have visited California and yesterday the Agricultural Research Station east of this city. Have visited Warsak Dam which is now operated by former students by my quondam hosts. Have long reports to make on the Pashto Academy (excellent) and the Peshawar U. (not excellent). And keep on meeting Sufi after Sufi in all walks of life—and we deny their existence. And they control the country!

I have learned considerable about the language and idiom complexes of this part of the world. I have seen agriculture at many, many levels; have discussed all of the problems listed in the letter to Chet Huntley, etc. I am not a social scientist and have not had time to review carefully recent books in these fields. But if anybody says there is no caste here—the more “shocked” people are over our treatment of Negroes; the more likely one is to find plenty of declassed persons in the weed pile! And I have just had an American teacher go into detail on the white-collar complex of most college students who want to be gentlemen.

Perhaps one of the most dangerous elements in the quasi-socialistic approach I have seen is that only too often promotion depends more on scholastic degrees than on work records.

I am sending a number of counter-proposals to entrain Pakistanis in California, mostly (a) undergraduate and graduate salinity research at Riverside (b) apprentice trainings by our food processing industries. I am ready to do all the interviewing myself, but at the moment have no faith in our newsmen who could accomplish this in a few editorials.

I have conferred on this with both the Afghanistan advisors and the research agriculturalists of Pakistan. Also with the actual growers and at least one food-processing man. This is a large complex study. The waste and shortage, the issues of packaging and grading and the great inefficiency in the whole food industry makes some resource imperative. However as Sugar is involved I should go to Stanford Research. Russia made a botch in the Beet industry, etc. by its very loose philosophy in the use of fertilizer and here I am pretty near an “expert” if there is such a thing as an “expert.”

Unfortunately I have had almost as much short-shift from the agricultural attachés as from the cultural people. In this nothing but cooperation. This makes me want to see Burdick. But why can’t we accept facts; must they be impressed only as emotional fiction. Fortunately our two senators would take me to here and there is no question of Congressman Hennessy (who after all is close to Mrs. Grady).

I have to complete my financial arrangements at Abbottabad then go to Rawalpindi, the temporary capital for some short but “heavy” conferences. I hope to track the American mining employers who are said to be stationed in Abbottabad (you can’t always accept rumors). But I get more and more of a most pleasant picture of a tremendous mineral wealth here about which little is done. Between oil and propaganda there is little real examination of basic facts and potentialities.

I avoid such matters as comparing India and Pakistan but do talk about UAR because that is in the people’s minds, an Islamic country. I do not know how much my reports will be considered but my manuscripts left in the U.S. have gotten nowhere. It is not easy to break into print and I have had located an agent.

After Rawalpindi I must go to Lahore for a still heavier program. I shall then try to record the people whom I may be meeting socially—it is a “400” list. Then go to Karachi and out. My “previews” for India are excellent and they are drawing together but then it is the one bug-bear—we teach there are no Sufis and my presumable hosts include Sufis who are friends of the Gradys and in one case an actual associate!

I may do a small amount of research on Buddhist art. I have visited some museums here but at present the “experts” are in conflict and an examination in situ shows it is very difficult to come to conclusions without a vast amount of knowledge which is hard to obtain – such as Indian stone architecture prior to this era. There is a conflict of opinion as to the relative Roman and Grecian contributions. I think we have been taught too loosely that Greeks are artists and Romans engineers. For my part it is not that simple. But it does affect that theories announced from this region. The Tuscan and toga elements make me lean toward the Roman view which the Pakistanis uphold, the Europeans generally support the Greek basis and there is some strong evidence for it too.

This city being the furthest inland, petrol is scarce and expensive so no taxis, just tongas. The buses and good are very cheap. I have visited the bazaars and bought folk-shoes, a couple of things for the Rudolph Schaeffer School and last night was given a prayer rug by a Sufi. I shall probably carry this with me, not ship, but I now have excellent bazaar-connections if one is interested. I expect to get some silverware from Abbottabad.

In the next two weeks there is also the complex of a travelling companion or two, both for Pakistan and for my journeys therein. If successful it will redound to my financial advantage. At Lahore I must confer with the AMFE, etc.


Samuel L. Lewis


Sept. 16, 1961

Dear [?],

I am using odds and ends of paper here to make some diary entries from [?] period. Each time I have purchased paper it has been of a different size and texture and there is a tendency to keep small remnants of each. In trying to cut down on my luggage—nine pieces – I am making every effort to get rid of waste knowing that I must keep letters, souvenirs and purchases with me.

During the last few weeks I have had many adventures. Have spoken before three colleges and had three newspaper interviews and should say, to date, that I have certainly spoken to more Pakistanis that most Americans. One of the chief barriers to cultural exchange is the almost protocol series of restrictions put on our advisers. This was particularly true of my last interview with Ted Thatcher, our Cal. Forest Entomologist and compelled to be chief adviser in agricultural instruction at the U. of Peshawar. He is getting a big salary for doing what he does not wish, had not yet seen a forest and the chief bugs he meets are those that invade his home. Nor has he met his aids and professional colleagues nor done anything he had wished to. Indeed on top of that he is now the compulsory instructor of “Peace Corps” apprentices who are coming here soon to be briefed and trained. The further I go into this subject the more doubtful are my opinions.

If the Peace Corps learn any language it will probably be Urdu which is a city language both in Pakistan and India. It was originally the language of the army, but later replaced Persian at the courts. It never became the language of the masses excepting through its gradual introduction into Islamic schools. The unschooled, the non-Muslims, the “scheduled classes” and in general the peasants do not speak Urdu—and they are the ones who need help. The rich, the cultured, even the school kids speak it and they don’t need help. Besides almost none of the help is coming in the lines of the problem discussed herein and before.

I am about the make my final report so Secretary Shahab and will make a long report to Secretary Cheema, the Minister of Food and Agriculture.

a. Salinity. This is the big problem here and the further I go the more it is emphasized. We are still “sending experts” here. I have found nobody who knows about the US. Dept. of Agriculture Research Lab at Riverside and few that know about the college there either. I have presented and will continue to argue for Pakistanis to send both undergraduates and graduates to that region for training and then for primary work in their own country.

So far as the U.S. Government is concerned, I have written my last warning to Senator Fulbright and given him three months to answer. Otherwise I am coming out in the open and have a grim choice between Prof. Burdick, Congressman Judd, and Commentator Fulton Lewis Jr. Any Foreign Service that reacts more strongly to the fiction of “The Ugly American” than to facts and personal presentations is schizophrenic. The CIA which bonered in Cuba had every reason to know about Laos and I warned four times about Cairo and once about Bagdad—no use. The whole emphasis is on superficialities.

b. Food Processing. I have discussed with the Americans at Peshawa—the principal at the University and Dr. Thatcher, with my friend Abdul Quddus Ravi at Rawalpindi and at Tarnab Farm and Takht Bhai (see below) and two editors about proposing to have at least 12 Pakistanis given apprentice training by our large corporations or farm organizations:

a. Prunus canning, b. Plums, c. Small fruits, d. Vegetables

e. Dried prunes, f. dried other fruits, g. canning and pickling; h. jam and jellies;

i. processing as Heinza; j. grading and sizing for the market; k. conditioning and preserving. There might be others. So far I have had nothing but favorable reactions.

Afghan Situation: Although this is or was basically political and intrigue, in practice it has resulted in the shutting off of fresh fruits from the Pakistani and India markets. The most important are the grapes. They had many good grapes, but the harvest had not reached its peak. Thompson seedless stood out. Most melons are off the market. There are several pears some of which I do not know and also varieties strange to us. With the exception of the one Pear—I will write further on this when I get out my notebook, there is little I can recommend. Many of the Apples are soft and mealy and I am inclined to believe those are mostly from districts where there is little frost or snow.

University of Peshawar is both one of the largest and poorly organized institutions I have seen. Some sections are integrated and some are run as separate institutions. The Agricultural College is in this last range. The students there have to take Chemistry, Physics and Botany in their own labs. This means duplication and especially between the Agricultural and Forestry College there is duplication. This is the worse because the Chemistry Dept. has good labs. The Mardan College has very poor labs, but those at Peshawar are fine.

At Peshawar if you go in for Engineering or Medicine, you take your two years of undergraduate work in the basic sciences at the university, but the Ag. and Forestry have duplicated colleges, labs, teachers, buildings, etc., all useless. Then these colleges have their special courses in history, literature (humanities, etc.) are separate and duplications—waste in every way. Why they should be so and the Engineering Colleges should be organized and integrated I do not know. Indeed the Civil, Elec. and Mechanical Departments do not duplicate any course of the other and they are not only highly efficient but controlled by personal friends.

I do not know whether I wrote about my visit to Warsak Dam. The operators are entirely engineers who were students of Prof. Durrani, one of my best friends. The dam is on the Kabul River. I often wondered why the river should go through a gorge canyon and not through Khyber Pass. Some stream must have gone through this pass once and been diverted, like our San Joaquin. It was comparatively easy to dam this river and get considerable power. There is a huge power station which looks like a science-fiction setting for Hollywood movies. Everything is duplicate and not only push button controlled but there is a control over the controls. Any repair work can be done by switching over and there are mechanical means of lifting any machines or dynamos up to one floor level where they can easily be reached and repaired. It was 1961. Now they are opening flumes and canals for the water. The presence of this dam and the forthcoming ones on the Indus may attract industry here but that is a long story, some elements of which may be recorded here.

My most interesting time was at the Pashto Academy which is thoroughly modern and operated like it were part of Columbia rather than Peshawar. Indeed I have to write a long report about it which I shall do from Lahore where I shall be going shortly.

Takht Bhai. I think I may have written you previously that I expected to visit the largest farm in Pakistan operated on modern lines. This was so. Sattar & Jamshyd Khan are Sugar producers. Before planning they manure their land and add superphos. They said they use a great deal of manure and I did see both buffalo dung and leaf-mould deposits in quantities. Sugar is a 10 month crop.

Maize does not do well and Sorghum comes in between. I am not surprised because this is high pH soil with K in abundance—good for sugar and starch crops, but others need K and P, not to say trace elements. Some Jute is grown also. Indeed I am interested in doing work on Malvaceae, etc. but this is only a hope and dream.

Time out

September 18, 1961

This is a diary entry, no copy to Satya. On the contrary please share it with the Connaughtons, Bill Hathaway, Yvonne, Norman and anybody and everybody.

It is very definite that this pupa is coming out of its skin; whether he is a moth or butterfly, pest or beneficial insect is to be seen. The story of “Mr. Isaacs” by Marion Crawford is that of a Sufi, originally of Jewish ancestry, who was protected by the Indian and Buddhist “mahatmas” and rishis, who fell in love with an English girl who was Episcopalian, but his lot was to work with the spiritual forces and not marry her! I have always said this would be the story of my life and it is the story of this trip.

Pir Azlan Shah, the Police Treasurer and Paymaster, said to me before we both left Abbottabad that I had probably met more saints and holy men than any other foreigner. What I have gone through makes Paul Brunton and Yeats-Brown look like amateurs. My talks at the colleges have been very well received and I have been promoted socially in a sense, rising in turn above the mullahs and maulvis to become an alim, rising above the “ulema” to become a dervish and Sufi.

My plans to visit Waziristan were stalled spiritually and instead of following the Khalandar I met one Pir Golra Shereef about 10 miles west of Rawalpindi who gave me the exact same blessing I had seen in a dream and in the same way. When we arrived at the shrine, there was a tremendous celebration going on. Then everybody crowded around the “Pir” and he was having a hard time dismissing them. Then an attendant came and told him a foreigner wanted to see him. He got up abruptly—his back was turned to me—and came up immediately and said in Urdu, “Come to lunch.” I don’t know much Urdu but you can bet I know the words about eats.

He then gave me the same blessing that all the holy men have given me, adding more about my work in America—each adds more. Then I went to Peshawar, then to Mardan and back to Peshawar where I was given the run around which proved to be the best thing possible. I had time on my hands and went into the Kabul Pub Store on Sadlar Road. I bought a few things for the Rudolph Schaeffer School in S.F. Then we got into a long confab over prayer rugs and carpets. I told him I would not buy because I have no home and therefore would not know the size of the rooms. He made me a most attractive offer which I accepted. Then he invited me to dinner.

I was not hungry that night a/c heat and he wanted to invite friends and delay the meal which suited me fine. We then got into the most complicated and sometimes heated discussions. They asked me why I could not assent to their terms and I told them I could not without the consent of Allah and my Pir-o-Murshid. They asked me who my Pir-o-Murshid is. I replied “Maulana Abdul Ghafoor of Dacca.” Absolute silence. Then one after another they came up and embraced me. It was unbelievable. They had doubted my stories and there was the evidence in front of them; they accepted them all and we had a most delightful departure.

Next day I called and was given a proper rug to take back to the U.S. which I may keep or donate to a mosque or use as a “come on” for business.

Then in three days running in three different cities I ran into one Mohammed Saufraz, a brother Sufi. The last time was in Rawalpindi. I went out to look for him—in the wrong direction—and there he was out looking for me—in the wrong direction and we bumped into each other.

From those I learned that my Pir-o-Murshid is in Lahore and I am expecting to see him tomorrow, Inshallah. Meanwhile we are planning to visit the shrine of Mian Mir.

Besides the plans of the Khalandar to come to S.F. there are those of my brother, Major M. Sadiq. Each wishes to bring Sufi spiritualism and spirituality to the States with emphasis on healing. This is going to make Rom Landau ?happy? There are no Sufis, of course, of course.

ps. Jim

Now I am getting frightened. The Khalandar had built up a fortune and in the last two weeks an uncle got it all away from him while he was busy at law-court fighting for a sister. It means that “Punjabi Scam” was making a fine living getting hold of dispossessed Indian properties and selling them to incoming Muslims. He sold them very cheap and sometimes, as in this case, to two persons. He let them fight it out and after collecting enough “opted” for India. So there was the Khalandar’s sister living in a house somebody else had also bought. With four legal codes and four languages in them, what complications. So the Khalandar went to help his sister and his uncle did that while this was going on. Nize peepul!

The Khalandar was in tears but I went and prayed for him. I do this without thinking. That night he rushed over to my rooms. It seems that a very wealthy woman, who is one of his disciples, is unloading her properties and offering him 50% not commission, but of the principal—and there he is back in the plunks—six figures!

Then I decided not to call on the Khalandar’s disciple, Abdus Ravi, but to go to Dawn Hotel to say good-bye to my Sufi brother, Mr. Huq, who operates it. This proved to be right as Ravi is in Lahore (I am to meet him here later anyhow). Huq was in danger of losing his hotel. A hospital wanted it and was greasing the judge-advocate. Nize peepul. So at least I prayed.

The next day there was an auto accident and the judge is hospitalized and the case transferred. These are wonderful coincidences.

Meanwhile they have been organizing a real Pakistani-American Cultural Exchange movement. They wanted me to inaugurate it but I could not come. I said I wanted to help and plan, the door opens, a maufti comes in and tells me that he had really come to see me, not the Major, that he wanted me to address the next meeting. Boy, that was it. It is to be Tuesday night and we are going to collect chips to introduce Sufism, spirituality, and healing into the U.S. as introductory wedges in real cultural exchange.

On top of that another dream is coming true. The Egyptian Sufis (they don’t exist but they make lots of noise and have lots of influence and affluence) want to align with the Pakistanis and also with the Americans. I was asked whether I would welcome UAR guests. Welcome them! I nearly fell over. So I have to go to the police tomorrow and then to the U.S. Consulate both to report and get help on my Indian trip. At the moment I am dizzy from the heat, welcomes, constant travel and ego-ego.

I forgot. Before leaving Abbottabad (Shangrila), the Khalandar introduced another man whom he said was one of the greatest clairvoyants in Pakistan. Well he got the picture in S.F. perfectly and was not a bit sentimental either. He told me I must be firm, honest, strong, truthful and this will defeat my enemies but said I had many, though not necessarily important ones. My firmness could defeat them. As for spiritual forces behind me and in all the blessings and predictions, this had better not be put on paper.

Finally another Khalandar slept in these rooms and insisted a great holy man had slept there before. The Major denied. The Khalandar said he was not a Pakistani, a foreigner who had come a long way and said the Major had better tell the truth. It was all right to play Puck of Pukhtunistan and have Puck play “Ah Yaint, a saint” but there is more in this than meets the eye. If I write it is ego; if I do not write the record is incomplete.


Lahore, Pakistan

September 18, 1961

My dear Senator Engle:

I did not expect to be writing you before leaving this country. The grapevine has it that I shall be having a reception in San Francisco and I may sometime be meeting you either through Yvonne or Mrs. Grady, or it may be worth your while to have a representative present should the World Affairs Council of Northern California or the American Friends of the Middle East program me. At the same time there is activity in Southern California and if I did not tell you before I saw my former neighbor Norris Paulson beaten by a former pal, Sam Yorty, in the Mayoral contest. I have lived all over California and if my past showed no laurels, there is a very different picture now.

I have already spoken to some 15,000 people in this country which is probably more than any unheralded person as ever addressed. My suggestion to President Ayub was utilized by him to his advantage. And I was rather amused on reaching Lahore that not only is a group of VIPs arranging a meeting for me, but this is exactly on the lines suggested by President Ayub himself, to promote real, two-way cultural and other exchange between the United States and Pakistan and no nonsense.

This is impossible at the present time. Imagine an American citizen going to a government servant and saying: “I bet 10 to 1 that you learned something called “Islam” from a professor who was neither an American nor a Muslim.” No taking. What kind of nonsense is this? I am now using my contacts in California protesting against my being kept off the air by an English educated man who never was in Asia, and yet has been put in charge of Buddhism and then all religions; and by being blacklisted in the college by a questionable ex-patriate who had a superficial education in Islamics and happens to be a friend of the sultan of Morocco? I continue and shall continue to campaign against our totally nonsensical reliance upon non-American, non-Asians to “brief” us on this continent. I have seen two Vice-Presidents make asses of themselves. I was greeted on a large scale in UAR, on a larger one here and have top invitations to India, Malaya and Indonesia. As to Thailand and Japan, I was a guest of honor in the palatial grounds of both countries and without “credentials”—whatever those mean.

I continue to harp on “Fifty million Frenchmen can’t be wrong: fifty million Sufis cannot be.” This country is in the hands of disciples of Sufism from President Ayub down but we take a lot of humbug from non-American, non-Asians and think we can reach the hearts and minds of these people. No, I am not going to predict any mobbing of libraries here. I hope I never have to again, but if I did it would not help anyhow. The greatest complaint I have had and heard from both Americans and Pakistanis is the lack of social intercourse. But how can Americans, who either are not interested or totally misinformed about real Islamic sociology and philosophy, talk. The ignorant ones at least would not make errors. The latter do and have and will make faux pas, and these will be by-passed by the top people.

I am giving a copy of this almost in despair to the consulate to ascertain whether either they or the USTA will send a representative to one of my gatherings, official or social. Some day someone will—some day—and they will see how it is possible to promote real heart-to-heart friendship and intercourse and stop a lot of nonsensical, non-communicative self-praise.

I am not belittling foreign aid. Far from it. But without public relations, there is often wrong emphasis. Sometimes accomplishments which impress or benefit the public—included the mass of peasants—is not "good copy" and when it is not "good copy" it is by-passes. The people here are not particularly interested in the scientific accomplishments of the United States excepting where it benefits them. They are at the same time much more spiritual than we are and much more self-centered even to the point of paranoiac. That is why, though I greatly appreciate president Kennedy's emphasis on "realism" I question how far "realism" is "realityism."

Tomorrow night some progress will be made toward establishing real, honest cultural exchange wherein Pakistanis will take measure to present to the United States their poetries, their philosophies, their medical and healing systems, their traditional and modern arts, etc. Jesus Christ has given us many parables about sowers. yet neither in our politic or agriculture have we followed these "truths." We pour our propaganda—not bad in itself—without regard to the sensitivities and sensibilities of nationals. This country claims to be "Islamic." We learn subjective Islamism from Canadians, Germans, Englishmen and Zionists—each with his own brand of subjectivism and present ourselves before peoples who have their different brands of subjectivisms, and none very measurably by the text book theories of the religion; and the folk-ways are totally different and often ignored.

If an American is a newspaper man he is taken over-seriously. If he is a missionary he is not taken seriously at all. But the Pakistanis—and a lot more Asians—have the deepest respect for a praying and prayerful man and no respect for a non-devotee. Now although the President has placed perhaps the best man as Ambassador for India, he has also places some newsmen who made fools of themselves on this continent in positions of authority and responsibility.

I have written to a large number of persons highly placed in our government, and receiving either no reply, or the worst kind of white-wash reply. I have written to Senator Fulbright. My complaint is simple and elemental—if I go to fiction-writer Burdick and show my diaries, he will write more books and then the Foreign Service will have to take notice. Fiction Yes! Fact, No! And Alsop will write more articles explaining or explaining away. Or I could go to Fulton Lewis Jr.—God save the mark—and there would be impeachments and resignations and I am not fooling. I have my references. I contact all kinds of people at all levels and the program ahead is based on just that.

Or I might write to Senator Dowd who sees communists in every corner. And it is better to see communists in every corner than hush! hush! There is trouble on the Asian side. If we had a few American Muslims we could go in and counter-balance the whole situation. We can't. The Russians can and so send in "Muslims" and it is easy and when their political and economic program does not work, this sort of propaganda is all too easy. And no counter-propaganda. And what does a nation, briefed by Canadians, German, Englishmen and Zionists, know about practicing and practical Islam?

Then there is Agriculture. I have had conferences at top levels with so many leaders in all branches of this science and industry. In UAR I was taken seriously. The Embassy here has ignored me, not replied to my letters and has and is compelling me to do legwork when I return to California. What are public servants?

At my own expense I have visited villages, farms, plantations and gone deeply into salinity, soil analysis, erosion, forestry, plant protection, crop improvement, introduction of new crops (particularly soy bean and avocado), etc. I have my diaries and have contacts with several important persons and institutions in the U.S. I shall go also to Stanford Research in regard to sugar, maize, and rice with the particular problems and inquiries presented to me by the proper people in this land. I also have contacted editors and heard their story.

But the main thing at the moment is what the Sufis are considering about communism. I have had so many reports from them and within the next 48 hours I expect to get more material which I can’t present to our so-called Intelligence because they deny the existence of these people or take one for a crack-pot, etc. As I wrote President Kennedy, it is a shame to have such subjectivism when he himself has hosted quite a few disciples in Sufism and if he wanted names I would give them. For the Sufis, though mystics, are more open-eyed than anybody else and the reports I have had both on what is going on behind the Iron Curtain and the counter measures which they are taking is splendid materialタ??for a Burdick, for a Dalles never.

The idea that Berlin might be a feint while Afghanistan is being occupied is at least an idea. And so on. I wrote William Winter years ago and I have stopped writing him—that I could tell the next moves because I have contacts. I have, thank God, been able to report to Chet Huntley (another old California friend, etc.).

Efforts at book writing have not been successful but every effort will be made. But while some editor is considering a manuscript the “enemy” will make their moves. I shall learn more in India where I go soon and much more in Malayan. I may have to go to Indonesia myself.

Here is a country with a grand government, all kinds of services, etc., but a private citizen who cannot even get some report taking seriously, is invited by a foreign nation to come and try to better intellectual exchange. It is nonsense but it is true.

Most people here are very anti-Russia. They claim to be more anti-Russian than we are. They would know nothing about dialectics excepting that some of our USIA libraries have a multitude of anti-dialectic books and a dearth of pre-American material. You may understand why I object strongly to ANTA and indirectly to USIA who can finance a pianist to play Bach, Beethoven, Brahms, and Tchaikovsky. Not even Grafe and Copland who wrote American-American music. You can understand why I sympathize with Judge Saund. Real foreign help yes, but nonsense, superficial boon-doggling no.

I follow the path of Richard Burton and Gertrude Ball in Islamic lands. Too bad so few of our diplomats know about them. I have made enough suggestions to pull the rug under the feet of many neutralist lands. Today I am faced with a choice—Senator Dowd or a foreign nation. I may have to try the Senator unless Fulbright answers. Washington and to some extent the Foreign Service here is too full of self-adulation. Do we have to have another Laos?


Samuel L. Lewis

2 Elgin Road

Lahore Camtt.

September 19, 1961

To the Indian High Commission,

3 Hans Road



You will find enclosed:

2. Copies form of Application for Visa

2. Copies Incidental explanations requested

10 Rs. Pakistani

U.S.A. Passport 1919228

Passport photos of myself

These forms were obtained from your representatives at Murree.

I am not exactly sure of my residential address in India as my good friend, Satya Agrawal has moved. In the case of emergency mail would be sent at the embassy U.S.A., New Delhi. But I am writing Agrawalji in this regard.

I think you will find my reference quite in order and I have answered question with candor. One of my first hosts will probably be Dr. Radhakrishnan whom I hope to see at an early date; also some of you colleagues in the Ministry of External Affairs.


Samuel L. Lewis

Lahore, Pakistan

September 20, 1961

Rosemary Benton, Librarian,

World Affairs Council

San Francisco, Calif.

My dear Rosemary:

I am trying to catch up on my diary and am compelled to utilize any kind of paper I can purchase. In each city or town it is often different and this has led to the collection of odds and ends of which I am trying to get rid. This morning I am going to try to meet Col. Shahar Khan who is one of the heads of Punjab University. I was going to go there anyhow but last night I met this gentleman and he acted as chairman. I do not know whether he is Chancellor or what. But I am to arrange or try to arrange two kinds of lectures at this university, roughly on Islamic Art and Islamic Philosophy.

Last night I was the guest speaker of a group which is organized to study and spread the cultural and spiritual values of this country. Some day inshallah, we shall have two-way cultural exchange. We have plenty of money to subsidize pianists to play Bach, Beethoven, Brahms and Tchaikovsky but we have no money whatever to spend for the training either in school or on the job in situ of anybody who will study the cultures and folk-ways of foreign lands and thus promote real two-way cultural exchange.

When the Afghan pot gets hot, we shiver. The Russians send in Muslims and scientists who study ethnography, linguistics and stir up people in the Mosques. What is our answer? We shiver. We can’t send out Muslims as diplomats and I bet the Vice-Consul in Peshawar 10 to 1 that he studied Islamics under somebody who was neither an American nor a Muslim. Blasted face. This is diplomacy 1961 and this is the way to fight a cold war?

Now I have spoken to some 15,000 people which is not news because I did it by stepping out of line. I am living in the home of a man who has become a famous Sufi. Of course this can’t be—go to any college or university in California. This can’t be. He is also close friend of President Ayub. I never met the gentleman but I am always with friends of his and now I am embarking on exactly the program he has requested of me. That is to introduce the historical and spiritual cultures of Pakistan into America.

Anybody can learn these things excepting:

a. European and Canadian professors who teach? Asiatics?

b. Diplomats including the “Peace Corps.”

The Russians and Americans, bound by their rival potter-clay, trousers-tractors cum dialectics have stirred up other peoples. But despite the news it would seem that on the whole Russians and Americans are more peace-loving than the inhabitants of “peace-loving” nations who gather at Belgrade and decide to fight in Algiers, if they can only stop fighting each other. We have no formula! Russia has one and Nehru has all the rest. If anybody can find a formula for Algiers, Katanga and Kashmir at the same time, I bow before Almighty God or mighty man!

In Peshawar I not only was warmly received by cultural and Sufi leaders, I had the most astounding meeting with a Sufi, more dramatic than anything you can read in Paul Brunton or Yeats-Brown. To the skeptics I shall show the prayer rug I so received. It may be placed on exhibition at Gump’s’s or it may land in the Los Angeles-Hollywood Mosque. I can’t give it to the Muslims in S.F. because they learned from “Von Plotz” there are no Sufis and so believe.

Paul Brunton has written about a “strange encounter.” In three different towns in one week I ran into Mohammed Saufraz, a leading Sufi. The last time we both went out to look for each other way out of our destination we literally ran into each other in the streets. Some psychologist please explain. This gentleman is leading Sufi despite Von Plotz and is a high official in the telephone company, especially with the installation of long distance connections. Sufis are never practical, but of course, they don’t exist—which is putting a lot of Prime Ministers and Ambassadors in a strange position. This is diplomacy and cultural exchange?

Anyhow last night I got along fine and when somebody challenged I found they were not challenging me but other speakers. To really please an audience and have them come and greet you, one and all—well diplomacy died with Lodge and Root. Wilson was captivated by Clemenceau and now we leave Dale Carnegie at home and try the opposite to “influence people.” We do not study them.

I have not gotten answers from any of the big-wigs in Washington or at the Embassy and half in despair have written to Senators Engle and Fulbright. I am seriously thinking of going to Burdick—but there is a chance that with Galbraith in New Delhi I may get a serious reception. Yesterday I threw up the sponge, called the acting Cultural Attaché into the closet and gave him one suggestion. He is a Pakistani, not American, but he works for us. He hit the ceiling. I knew he would. When you understand this hearts and minds of these people which you can’t learn from Canadian, English, German and Zionist professors of Islamics, it is easy.

I have sent a copy of a letter to the Chronicle asking for an interview someday. No doubt I shall see Dr. Radhakrishnan. He is one of the directors of the World Congress of Faiths. I hope to confer first with Bishop Pike with regard to establishing a chapter in the S.F. Bay area where we can study the living religion, especially as explained by their proponents and not get some “unbiased” side-shows of non-American, non-Asians—and I am not kidding in the least. I have not abandoned the idea of a petition of a million names—and I mean a million names—to present to our President, Kennedy or not, asking for two-way cultural exchange with Asians. They have much to give us.

I am taking some technical material with me to the University and will stop here to see what happens, if anything. I know what these people want and some day we shall really meet Asians face to face. The big complaint I get form Pakistani’s at Peshawar was that Americans did not associate with them socially and the big complaint I got from Americans at Peshawar is that they are so red-taped they do not get opportunities to associate with Pakistani’s or see the country. I don’t know what this is because diplomacy is a strange beast.

I am writing several reports on this country. Although I am 90% satisfied verbally this does not appear so. The complaints are chiefly about a most subjective form of “tourism”—in the name of the “tourist” the tourist is ignored. The “tourist” is a free-spending, night-club roué who is seen in pictures. And if anybody thinks this sort of person wants to come to Pakistan he is crazy. So the “bums” and adventurers and mountain climbers, etc, who come here are discommoded to satisfy the non-existing “tourist.” I was unable to convince the Japanese of their error and they changed the system. Here to suggest is to criticise and to criticise is to insult. Outside of that no basic complaint.

My stubborn adherence to an E. Phillips. Oppenheim career continues. Last night I was the principle speaker at a gathering of intellectuals. The subject assigned to me—at the last minute—was “Spiritual Islam” How “only in America.” I would never, never (or hardly ever) be permitted to speak on this subject. But I was gradually raised to imam (not imam who knows the prayers), Khatib, alim and now dervish which is higher than alim and an alim is supposed to know everything. A dervish fortunately does not, but he ranks higher just the same. Everybody stayed behind to shake hands and I mean everybody. But the chairman happened to be Col. Shabhaz Khan and who is the colonel? Well he is the acting Chancellor at Punjab U. which is the top intellectual institution in the country—and which incidentally does not recognise the Von Plotzes and Epoops whom we sit google-eyed before.

Now it happened I had to visit the university on official business today so after going to the Art Department I was guided right into the uppity sanctum sanctuary, gave the colonel some literature on Salt-Water Conversion to start off and have a date for 12pm on Friday at his request.

Now Rosemary, I have always said that the authorities on Asia were European professors and American newspaper men and never, never must they be American professors and European newspaper men. In this I was wrong. I forgot Miss Cloudnine. She knows all about rishis, mahatmas, holy men, saints etc. They are all in the Himalayas. But it seems that the west end of the Himalayas is in Pakistan, not in India or Nepal. The mountains did not opt? Neither did the springs, caves and holy places. Many of them were and are in Punjab and most of Punjab is in Pakistan.

Despite Miss Cloudnine’s well as the Europeans professors and American newspaper men, I can say that the saints, holy men, seers and sadhus are on this side. I am not going to argue, I am arranging to bring one or two. So help me. You won’t recognize them; they don’t look a bit like those described by Miss Cloudnine. Among those whom I am not bringing are the top Physicist-Engineer, a Police Paymaster, and the very old, who are usually hajis; that is, have been to Mecca and are now veterans of tourism and don’t want to travel anymore.

Of course all these holy men are “fanatics.” This is easily explained – if they are Muslims they are “fanatics”—otherwise they are not. But I am Afraid that our European professors, American newspapermen and friends and relatives of Miss Cloudnine are going to have a shock. The chief fanatic of Pakistan is none other than General Ajub Khan. Of course he is not a fanatic. He is a very devout man in a way we can’t understand and would not understand unless we stop facing realism and come to facts—more easily said then done. Anyhow I have visited shrines and holy men whom he venerates which is an awful thing to say—and I agree with him—which is worse, because I am an American.

For the moment I am living in the house of Major Mohammed Sadiq. Like all seers, saints and spiritualists he does not preamble in the slightest, the presumptions of Miss Cloudnine. He happens to be a military man and military men are out! Positivul. God has nothing to say about holy men; that is for Miss Cloudnine & Co—or else for Prof. Schmeercase, who does not cross into Pakistan and finds them all over India.

Major M. Sadiq is a spiritual healer. Far from Miss Cloudnine’s followers he works closely with doctors and hospitals, especially hopeless cases. He has healed a large number of hopeless cases and they are on record. Most evenings between 5 and 6 you will see a crowd gathering here for either healing-by-touch or have his magnetized water. There are cases all the way to the Afghan border on one side and the Indian border on the other.

The “worst” about this situation – despite the European professors, American newsmen and Miss Cloudnine—is that President Ayub has faith in him, is a close friend and has consulted him on many occasions.

I have written to Duke University about psychic powers and ESP cases here. But again, you see the effect of Miss Cloudnine—authentic cases which would upset our equilibrium are not wanted. So in addition to Major Sadiq I am preparing to cooperate with the Khalandar who has faculties all over the place, or as I sometimes put it, facu£tie$. For both of these men are well healed, have all kinds of £$£$ and even if they collect on our side, they are more than protected here. So far as Major Sadiq is concerned, he does not charge and will only charge in America because we are so monetary minded and appreciate it more when we do pay. And he wants to establish a solid Sufi Brotherhood despite all the European professors and Miss Cloudnine.

The substance of this is that we need to get down to earth and away from “realism.” I am getting a smashing welcome to India and Malaya just on this point. The big complaint here about Pakistanis is that Americans don’t mingle with them socially and the big complaint by Americans is that they are hamstrung in every direction making social intermingling most difficult. This is foreign aid.

How do you want to make some money? Just start the Biophysical Association for the Benefit of the Orphans of South Waziristan. Put in some pictures of wretched orphans and appeal for funds. This is a grand racket. There are hosts of organizations collecting funds with massive mass appeal and tear-jerking that would make the missionaries of an earlier time look like rank amateurs, which they were. Pick up the magazines, listen to radio and television and you would find 30- 40 organizations engaged in international charity. Come to earth and you can point them out on one hand. There is more racketeering of which the American public is victimized than there is any idea and this in turn greatly impedes the functional organizations such are CARE, AFME, Asia Foundation and the World Church Service.

As you can see from this letter the curry agrees with me. Everything does excepting the heat and tourism. The heat is nearing its end. I did something terrible today. I went into the Tourist Bureau and asked how to get out of the country—I know but I just wanted to test them. (Horrible foreigner just as the lady was finishing an exciting newspaper item and the gents were gathering to joke with the lady—awful interference and bore, very rude and I did not get much help either. So I changed the subject and fortunately got some help, but even that only showed I was rude.) The Tourist Bureau is by far the worst feature in Pakistan and everybody knows it. Fortunately the Travel Agencies, railroads, bus and air lines are courteous and help.

Oh, there’s lots more but I have to hold back something so you will welcome

Samuel L. Lewis

September 22

I have been so busy during the last week that I could hardly get to the typewriter. I had to pick up what paper I could and am trying to get some notes down.

Takht Bhai is Persian for Mountain Spring. It has ruins of old Buddhist monasteries and cities. Most of the last nearby is owned and operated by Sattar and Jamshyd Khan. Months ago I informed you that I hoped to visit the best farm run on modern methods and this is it.

Sugar is their main crop. They plant only on rows and hills and never broadcast. Both rain and irrigation water is used. But we ran into a difficulty—their harvest was much greater than expected per average and there are not enough mills to handle the cane.

Sugar is treated as an annual, running 9-10 months and is staggered as much as possible to maintain an employment equilibrium. They use two composts, one of decayed vegetable matter and the other of buffalo dung. These are spread on the ground usually with or near the time superphosphate is added. They go in much more heavily for organics than is usual in Pakistan and also have green manure fields.

I had come from UAR hoping to find some solutions for some problems and here there was no problem about Sucrose or anything excepting on the economic side and there, there is no system. There may still be some trial-and-error in obtaining the maximum of Sucrose but the whole thing at Takht Bhai was combined with the handling of labor and proper utilization of soil.

They are still working in the dark as to soil analysis. It is known there is a maximum of K but not of N or P, but there is no work on trace elements. I should imagine Copper might be important but this is something to look up. The tendency is to use small modern machines. Thus they have three disks and these are kept at various places some distance from each other. These are disconnected for other machines such as harrows, plows, etc. The operators are happy and proud of their work but the tradition in this “casteless” society—boy! It is bad enough to have dirty finger-nails but even the kind of dirt is classified. No castes.

After everything has been systematized they run into the bugaboo of countless government controls. The farmer is free. Period. From then on the editor of Khyber Mail was particularly rambunctious. He thinks that Sugar can be a crop like Cotton in UAR and he may be right.

Other Crops. I have mentioned Sorghum and Maize. I found myself in one of the most beautiful orchard gardens I ever visited. If it had been more Persian it would have been a “paradise” but there were no fountains and few ditches. The predominant tree when I was there was a Pear, but I never found the local name of it or the variety. Somewhere around I have some seeds. It is the one that is very firm until it becomes overripe and is tasty during the hard period after its color has changed to yellow. The sugars reach a maximum and when it ripens the esters do not increase but very ripe it is still good with milk and sugar. Some are cooked for fruit salads and ice-cream dishes.

The Dates were just coming out. There were a few Bananas but in general Prunus and Pome fruits. Quinces or a Quince-type fruit is now on the market but I have not examined it.

The whole fruit situation is complicated by the Afghanistan, Pukhtunistan, on-again, off again cannotunderstand situation.

Tarnab Farm is supposed to be the largest successful experimental station in West Pakistan. Unfortunately the day I visited it all the soil men, chemists and fruit men were away and my putative host was the chief of the orchardists.

The tree stand in the landscaping was the best I have seen in Pakistan and so far as Eucs are concerned perhaps anywhere. If it were not for the host I should probably say it is one of the finest and best kept gardens anywhere. Unfortunately I could not get a soil program. The men are so specialized they do fine jobs, each in their own field.

It is between seasons for vegetables and usually there are two crops a year. Cabbage grows well but is not relished; Cauliflower is. Most green vegetables are not wanted and anyhow we are told to keep away from uncooked ones.

There is both interest and success in Potato-growing. In this sector the soil was not heavy and it is also over-abundant in K and I think these are prime factors in this crop. The general soil program—from the Vegetable point of view, was more or less the same as at Takht Bhai. But while at Takht Bhai Ammonium-sulphate is used, here other N-products are applied. They are still experimenting but the government pressure is on the Ammosulph side and there are going to be misgivings.

Plant Protection. Here at least I can make a report. At Takht Bhai they use aeroplanes in massive spraying and it is safe as the cane, of course, is not edible and the program is such that the work can be adjusted safely enough before the harvest period.

With regard to the Locusts. I wrote humorously or cynically that there had been an international conference to deal with this situation. The “experts” got together and the Locusts were not invited. When the “experts” went home to their various countries, the Locusts started their depredations as usual to the curse of every farmer and to the delight of the city poor who went around collecting and eating them. I understand they are very good but the invasion was around Karachi, and close to the sea-coast, far from where I have been.

Peaches are attacked by Siponaptera daddine (not sure of the names). There is a spray called “Dimicron” (?) which is 100% successful. Toxaphane, the next best is only 50% efficient and others less so. This attacks only Prunus fruits. For the Fruit Fly which is a general pest on all orchard trees they use Malathion, Dieldrin and Toxaphane.

There is Paralla potisilla (?), a hemobera which is controlled by aerial spraying with Endrin, very good. And Thibolrea enticatalla controlled by both Malathion and Endrin. These last two seem to be affective, will report later.

Prospectus. I have been most fortunate in having as chairman to my last talk Col. Shahab Khan who is now Chancellor of Punjab U. and with whom I have been closeted twice. This is opening a lot of doors for me. And there is a new Agricultural Corporation in charge of all future research whose Chairman is a close friend of my present host, Major Sadiq.

September 26

Dear Florie,

This is the news: You can breathe easily. My first consignment of books has already been shipped to me-I in S.F. sent by I-me in Rawalpindi. I don’t know why I did it but maybe the Jinns are on my side or yours. I was contemplating the same thing for Lahore. I await my bank mail which will determine how much more I may or may not spend.

I have been urged to purchase “The Lotus and the Robot” by Koestler but I am also persuaded more and more to write. The document came when I visited the Consular and USIA offices this morning. This time they had to take me into account. The Sufis may not exist but the Russians have not found that out and in they infiltrate. Only this time our paths crossed—where no American should be because there are no American Sufis and where no Russians should be because there are no Sufis anyhow and besides the Russians are godless.

Psychically we have crossed trails. I feel very uneasy as if some strong forces were pulling me home and I can’t come home for a while. The two Pakistanis who are my potential traveling companions are both concerned with spiritual and physical healing. I have seen miracles and I mean I have seen miracles. But both the Khandalar and Major Sadiq want to come to America. You would be a “natural” for them to meet.

At the moment in a way I have a “waiting list” for my prayers and I am not permitted to pray for myself. I do not wish to go into esoterics or sensitivities but some shrines seem to open the doors to heaven. I have met my Calcutta host here in attendance on our Pir-o-Murshid (Maulana Abdul Ghafoor) and he remembers my exact words when we visited the Dargah of Dadajan—“The doors of heaven have been opened for me.”

The American officials now recognize that I have spoken to many thousands of Pakistanis and certainly my interviews with the Chancellor of Punjab U. have been excellent. This E. Phillips Oppenheim incident pushes me back one day—which for the moment is no loss. I can’t move until I get my visa with the passport for India, the police OK and my money reports.

Now your problems are more or less the type that the Khandalar would like to face. And while sundry Pakistanis wish to help America spiritually and otherwise they come and ask me to pray for them and for me this is a most serious business. There are a few things in Islam—with all its faults—that are so magnificent that one can easily and readily overlook or forgive many of the faults. No matter how selfish a man is, he has great respect for prayer.

Now I come to your statement “average people are not really concerned with matters that are not tangible.” You should come to Pakistan. Hosts of people are only concerned with matters that are not tangible. That is why there is “foreign aid.” They don’t like to face things. You can go around to any tea shop or café and have a huge audience discussing religion or metaphysics or the coming of the Mahdi, but not on the question of salinity or desert agriculture. So I live two lives here as in the U.S. but they are exactly the opposite—I live the scientific life and preach or write about the spiritual and in the U.S. I live the spiritual life and discuss the scientific. Now I shall rest until after lunch and resume.

In my last days here I may have to make some heavy decisions. The copy of letter enclosed has some hints in it. Naturally I think it has awakened the Consulate here more than anything else. An American may suggest or warn or report and he is liable to get short shift. But there is o longer “Target You,” there is definitely target the Peace Corps. These people are not like the theoretical folks of books. I have differed from Landau yet I must admit that the criticisms he has made of many Muslims is true. Actually one has Punjabis, Baluchis, Sindhis, Pathans and others—and the Urdu culture is being imposed on them and we are studying Urdu culture which represents a very small number of people on this side and none at all of the East Wing.

I am encouraged enough not to work despite the long continued summer. This was the subject of my last talk with Mr. Watan of the AFME and with the consular staff body. The Consular people think I should be writing books and I guess very well I am going to check some editors of publications into giving me at least a chance.

I have still so many colleges to visit and what not. I cannot write on “the Real Pakistani” but I can write or talk on real phases of reality. The big gap is that those people do not live in time and the big weakness is the amount of Indian blood and folk psychology in their veins—with it inertia and lethargy which are treated as principles instead of as the absence of principles.

It took me some time to get over our weakness in cultural interchange. This will come out when the Peace Corps arrives. I do not see any easy time to them. They will have to face questions because these people like to debate and argue rather than do. This will not be opposition; it is part of the folkways and folklore. But they may react as if it were opposition and this will increase the opposition.

In a few days Parviz, the son of major Sadiq, will have his vacation and he will take me to the Shalimar gardens, the tomb of Jahangir and other places. I carefully collected postcards and mementos when I was here before and sent them to Rudolph Schaeffer—but since the adhesion of Spiegelberg and Chaudhuri I have never been permitted to speak on the Orient—before yes. As Spiegelberg and Koestler differ so much one of them is going to suffer when I return—make no doubt about it. But even if I refute Koestler—which I can—it will not leave Spiegelberg in a good spot. As to Chaudhuri, say anything, but the Sri Aurobindo movement is not what it is cracked up to be—the details I shall relate to you in person rather than by mail.


September 28

My dear Bob and Adelaide,

This is my diary and at the same time it is an SOS. And as it is full of favorable reports you may also think it is madness to be sending an SOS, but again it may be the natural thing. I have not heard from Dorothy and there is one thing wrong, that her horoscope has not worked out its promises, yet. And I had hoped not to have my manuscripts accepted so much as to have an agent. The denouement of all that is written below is that I have been urgently urged to write an answer to Koestler’s “The Lotus and the Robot” and by God, I shall. I may be able to get it published by that house in Vermont which concentrates on Buddhist material but should much rather get an agent or publisher in New York.

My life, after going through a complete “Mr. Isaacs???” of Marion Crawford, has become a compilation of Paul Brunton, Talbot Mundy and E. Phillips Oppenheim and anything that you find here that you don’t find in one of them will mean a forfeit on my part. Like Mundy the center of transformation has been and remains Lahore and like in the later works of Mundy there is a complex of occultism and communist infiltration. How much that man knew I don’t know but for years only Mundy and Brunton stood between me and absolute madness because I was rejected all over. And here it has been exactly the opposite accepting that the insistent American refusal to accept my reports seriously has prompted a grand commie effort and the plot to torpedo the Peace Corps—unheeded of course, would have gone the same way as the intrigues in Iraq and UAR.

Our strange and stubborn refusal to recognize the existence of Sufis is not only getting us into severe trouble, we might just as well give up the ghost. It is not communist infiltration which is destroying us, it is American non-infiltration. Our strange delusion that we can combine democracy and a superiority-complex potter-clay attitude is going to ruin our country. No amount of warning seems to penetrate the minds of editors and although I have written to the “Times”—having been the guest of the same peoples who hosted the Sulzbergers—and Satevepost—my present position is so extreme that I shall almost be compelled to dedicate my diaries to the John Birch Society!—but having nobody else to leave them to, in case of emergency I shall leave them to you. However—though we don’t accept occultism and mysticism seriously, it is they who are saving me. The same thing happened to my friend Nicol Smith who got into the same Talbot Mundy-E. Phillips Oppenheim complex in Tibet, without the Paul Brunton. But the U.S. accepted Jean Strattford Porter Lowell Thomas, and zoom. And it is taking about six writers to clarify the humbug Lowell Thomas did for the northern portion of this country. The king can do no wrong but the pen is mightier and smightier than the sword. A nation dedicated to peace, freedom. European professors of Orientalia and newspaper commentator experts cannot remain half democratic and half dogmatic.

I was in Abbottabad. Across the street from me lived Azlam Shah and the Khalandar. Each represented a different kind of Sufi, which are reflected by the Arabic words Hubbubiyat (Cosmos of Love) and Rububiyat (Cosmos of Power). They gave me exactly the opposite predictions. The Khalandar has offered to finance my return to America and inshallah it will be done and I think I have told you a little. For very practical reasons I must tell you more. This looks very Arabian Nights too and it is.

Rawalpindi Adventure. The Khalandar invited me to Bannu, Waziristan, which was just the place for Puck of Pukhtunistan. We got off a lot of letters and the Waziris began planning rival potlatch dinners, just as Puck had been writing. And if there is anything I fear in this long summer, which only just now shows any signs of abating, it is those feasts. But God was good.

Pir Azlam Shah Insisted I would not get to Bannu. I did not. Instead I had a dream and in this dream suddenly Secretary Shahab sent for me to see Ayub and it was an emergency. But when I got to Ayub he paid no attention to me. Instead his Murshid (spiritual teacher) came to me and gave his blessing and embraced which so startled me I awakened.

When we arrived at ‘pindi the Khalandar told me his own Pir-o-Murshid had appeared and forbidden us to proceed. He and his disciple Abdul Aziz asked me what I wanted to do and we went to Dirgah Gelra Shereef nine miles away. There was a huge celebration on (The Prophet’s Birthday)’ and I heard the same wonderful spiritual music as we have at Ajmir, never recorded—for which I want a tape recorder. After we performed the necessary we approached the attendant and asked him to go to the Pir.

There were more women than men at this celebration. Men go to mosques, women go to shrines. When the attendant approached the Pir and told him about me he immediately dismissed everybody, got up and said to me in Urdu, “Come to lunch.” Now Sam Lewis does not understand Urdu but he understands food in all languages. We went to the Pir’s room and instead of giving me lunch he gave me the exact blessings and instructions as in the dream! He went out but I dined with his disciples.

After returning I outlined with the disciple A.A. Arviz a long plan to send apprentices from Pakistan for training in food processing. I have still the article for you in mind but far better in objective form. I hope to write it when I get to Delhi.

Peshawar Adventures. At Abbottabad one Mohammad Zehdi had begged and begged me to address the Urdu College at Peshawar University. On my second visit there the Urdu people came after me so I arranged a lecture. But I had to go to Mardan which is a long series of excellent adventures in the agricultural complex. So I came to speak on “Islamic Philosophy and Modern Science.” The chairman was Prof. Maulana Abdul Qadir whom I met first in S.F. and then in Peshawar both off the record and then twice on the record and I have written to my friend Bill Hathaway and to Columbia U. about his next project—an Academy of Central Asian Studies.

This is, of course, crazy. Nobody ever went up the Khyber Pass. It is protocol that the Russians may infiltrate us, it is unthinkable, impossible and against international law that we anti-infiltrate, and we must not take the load off Berlin; what and put Clay out of a job and end NATO? We aren’t that mad. In general, she must proceed, but only in ze deep freeze, n’est-ce-pas?

Suddenly I was told I had to move. My host, Prof. Durrani, had disappeared. This is quite usual in Pakistan and someday I’ll tell you more about Durrani, although this seems more Yeats-Brown and more Yeats-Brown than Yeats-Brown. So I went to Green Hotel because the high priced Dean’s has no method of keeping you cool excepting the over-cooked air-conditioned dining room.

Having nothing to do I was almost pushed into the Kabul Carpet store. We wrangled and haggled—the proper thing to do—I made a small purchase. I came back. We made a larger contract—money, monnaie, l’argent, ze black market, etc.

Indeed with his brains and my money we figured an honest way to pay my next trip—just a few free ports with money exchanges, etc. and the carpets will start rolling (pun intended and all meanings true). So he invited me to dinner. I came, I was not hungry. He begged leave to delay to invite neighbors. The delays keep on piling, the neighbors too so by the time dinner was ready I had recovered from loss of appetite. Then a bunch of arguments and they threw the $64,000 question at me and I told them I could not proceed without my Pir-o-Murshid’s consent and when I got through I had to submit to a bunch of embraces—they were all the disciples of the camp Sufi teacher, Mualana Abdul Ghafoor of Bacca—how’s that for synchronization or something.

The Khalandar’s Tale (Put on your Scheherazade records and proceed.) When the Pir-o-Murshid warned him about Bannu he began to look after his business. It was spurlose varsankt His uncle, he got rid of everything including his Pakistani citizenship and opted for England, Lloyd’s and God Save the Queen. This was awkward.

It seems that when partition took place “Punjabi Pal” made his living by selling unoccupied homes. He not only sold them, he often sold them to more than one person. He sold a house to the Khalandar’s sister and to one other person and then opted for India and the National Bank of Hindustan (What’s this, a game? Yes!) So the Khalandar, like a good he-man went to bat for his sister and while he was so occupied his “loving unkie-wunkie” took care of the pounds, shillings, pence and rupees.

The Khalandar told me the whole story why we could not go to Bannu and asked me to pray. So I did.

Next night he rushed over to my house. A rich lady was getting rid of property—she had too much; and collecting rupees—she had too many, and was giving a 50-50 divvy with the Khalandar and when he got to the last figure to that hour by adding machine, abacus and Univac, he had long passed $100,000 and was headed for the stratosphere. So I have to wait to hear how the books balanced, and barring income tax Khalandar is now a [?] again. (This will be continued.)

The Other Khalandar came and foretold my future. All the saints, seers, Sufis, sadhus and sages are unanimous for Ahmed Murad Chisti that he is in for a great career in U.S. with troubles, rich widows, money and fans; so watch out, I may have to dedicate my diaries to you and also my biography.

Ye Tale of Mohammed Saufraz. He is a Sufi teacher of the Naqshibandi School. While I was busy—trapezing Peshawar, Abbottabad, Rawalpindi, he was doing the same. After we met the second time—out of nowhere—he said I should call on him in ‘pindi. I dodges that but walked in the wrong direction; he dodged too and we bumped into each other within five minutes after we started. More synchronicity and how does one explain it?

Huq Sahib manages Dawn Hotel at Rawalpindi. I knew intuitively I should say farewell to him so I came to his place instead of calling on my friends. It was right because the Khalandar and the Arviza were both away and I did not see my other friends at expected hours. He is a brother Chisti. He told me he was in danger of losing his hotel; a hospital had put in proceedings with baksheesh, cumshaw, rupees and silver into the hands of the “honest” Muslim Judge who had already decided the case. I prayed for my brother. The next day the “honest” judge was caught in a motorcar accident and is now a patient in the same hospital which cumshawed him. The case was transferred to another court.

Shabaz Khan is a retired colonel. He was chairman of the meeting which greeted me back to Lahore. It is wonderful all these meetings and greetings and greetings from “non-existing” Sufis. And who is the colonel? He is now Chancellor of Punjab University, the largest and best educational institution in Pakistan, and next to the American U. at Beirut the highest standing on the whole continent. Well I have called on the colonel twice—no newspapermen or European “professors of Oriental philosophy” present.

So the doors are open wide and I have some more conferences today about my further lecturing today here. Local papers don’t copy; must not.

The Communists: There have been two station breaks since starting this and they partly concern this. Fifty million Frenchmen can’t be wrong; fifty million Sufis cannot be. We have “realism.” The Russians did not import an Englishman to teach them Zen-Buddhism or a German to teach them Yoga; how come? This is “realism.” We don’t recognize the Sufis who are basically anti-communist. So the Russians have their agents here—the top banana is the same guy who was pulling stuff when I was here before. And if there is anything more “untouchable” than a newspaper editor it is a movie magnate. Our press will attack the Rockefellers, Fords, and even Texas millionaires—but the “sacred professions” of communication and hogwash, nevaire! This makes it a cinch for the Commies and I have a straight and actual story now. Although I have written as above no “Pope” ever accepts a criticism of another “Pope,” even if a rival, if he be in the same profession. So the Commies are doing exactly, exactly as we say they never, nevaire do and doing it quite well, putting on robes, a sack cloth, anything but praying and eating with the hoi polloi—verboten for diplomats. And who is going to win out? I can tell you some things about SEATO; after it breaks up my editor will listen. Ha! Ha! More treaties and more sermons and more infiltrations. The Chinese do not read English and trespass signs.

So betwixt and between. Anyhow the solution is agreed on. I shall write against dialectician Koestler and I shall need an agent somehow, or fight for a publisher. This seems clear. I have also a series of “I was there” which will be in answer to this correspondent who wrote “Asia is my Past”—I should say, deadbeat! I was there when Master Tara Singh surrendered to Nehru they are at it. I said then—with 40 reporters present—that I bet not one of them would really report. They did not, enabling both the big shots to get out. If the reporters had reported—oh well, that is another story. Truth, she is wonderful; too bad she is not used more.

Address letters to c/o S. Agrawal, Lajpat Nagar III, D-17, New Delhi 14 India.

Love and best from

Samuel L. Lewis

Sufi Ahmed Murad Chisti

P. Puck and the rest


October 4

Stockwell Everts,

Embassy, U.S.A.


My dear Mr. Everts:

It was the cooperation and sincerity of the Lahore legation in 1956 which turned me against “The Ugly America” and it is the cooperation and sincerity of the whole staff here which now deters me from going to Professor Burdick. But until our foreign services stops treating Americans abroad as subjects, we are going to have more Laos-Chaos and I know exactly what I am talking about. When I get to S.E. Asia I will get the low-down which will make Senator Mundt and Rep. Judd turn red and ferocious, only there is not too much difference between administrations. When the War started every little report I had for intelligence was taken down and when it was over my name was recorded on the heroes registrar at Ft Mason, Calif., immediately under Carlson’s Raiders. But in peace times the old “Wolf! Wolf!” complex is thrown at us Marco Polos—and I am not alone.

I must now thank the communists for making me famous. But I am indebted to the “ugly America” Rev. Samuel Brown, and he walked right out of the book into real life—native idioms, geography, commingling and bumping into commie spies but he was the wrong guy. Not being a Protestant missionary I am not quite an outcaste and I did run in to the communist, of course, exactly where our press says they won’t be, and always are. This is old hat, only this time the encounter was entirely accidental on my part. They were preparing to torpedo the Peace Corps and it going to be very easy until the Sam Browns and Sam Lewises are regarded as citizens and not as subjects.

I came to Lahore having addressed some 15,000 people in various parts of Pakistan. I did make and have some lectures “on the record” at the colleges, chiefly on subjects totally verboten when our colleges and universities employ some German, Englishman, Polish Zionist or Canadian to give the instructions in Islamics or other Orientalia. Can you name one non-America professor on these subjects that is accredited by any school on this continent? No wonder I had to ask your colleagues when he questioned the central government about “neutralism”—what else do you expect when we employ Canadians, Englishman, Europeans and Zionist to “teach Islamics and dogma to even our own graduates! No answer.

The Sufis “don’t exist,” despite the first Ambassador each form Pakistan and India (even Pradad had a Murshid I have found), and the Presidents of the respective countries. And I hope to teach Brother Dibble the facts of life. Not only do Sufis exist but they have faculties and powers which should arouse Duke University or the psychic researches (no takers). And they have some counter-intelligence systems which are not out of Sax Rohmar.

You will please advise your USIA officials—who would not give me a tumble—that thanks to the commies, and besides my on-the-record talks at colleges and universities, I have been given two big receptions and now the whole community is getting ready to give me a monster welcome Saturday night, one of the largest ever given to a foreigner. Even the attachés here are now interested. News is news. I spoke to more people in UAR as Billy Graham did and merely as “The American.” I have spoken to far, far more here. The grape vine from other parts is working in my favor and this is at least 50% telepathic but of course, we will have nothing to do with that! (I worked under an intelligence officer during the War and he knew all kinds of things we repudiate today. Why one thing in war, another in “cold war.”)

So far as the agricultural attachés are concerned, it would appear at this writing that another brother Sufi (they don’t exist!) is going to be appointed to the new Food & Agricultural Corporation and I am be working full blast without their cooperation or acknowledgement. I had it in UAR. Don’t think my Senator does not know about it and soon my other Senator and a lot of other senators. Instead of Burdick I shall probably go write to Mr. Marcy on my own. Or rather now there are some strong trends underneath to send some Sufis to America to present the actual spirituality and spiritualism of Islam to our people and carry on other missions, including this one on food. Well I gave the officials here their first list of salt-tolerant crops and am going back home with a bunch of problems on Sugar, Soils, etc., etc. But it won’t be Burdick, it will Marcy and even on the communists Dowd.

I had the story of “the commies” before from security police (also Sufi brothers). The Sufis don’t want communism and so far we have totally ignored the Sufis. I have placed some things in confidence to you but when I get home the whole picture will be put into retired admiral, Evenson, who is in charges of the Americans Friends of the Middle East in S.F. and whatever he does will be all right with me.

Well I turn back to the mob on the commies in the India—this is not news. And I stole some “neutralist” delegation for then in UAR and I run into them here as I did in India in a “most holy” place. I am going into India and shall have no difficulties about meeting Dr. ~Radhakrishnan or Mr. Nehru (I was there when Master Tara Singh swore “eternal fealty,” or the ailing President Prasad about whose Murshid I just read…. I am praying there will be some answers from Washington when I get there. All these letters to be addressed to the Embassy there. So we shall see.


Samuel. L. Lewis.

Lahore, Pakistan

October 11

My dear Harold,

You may be very surprised to hear from me. I hope you are alive and that some of the weight of previous years has fallen from you. I told Dorothy that I believed there was a future for you in Pakistan and unquestionably there is a future for you in Pakistan. But I know that the legends about me have made the objective acceptance of what I am and what I am doing difficult. Briefly the Lahore Legislation is now receiving me as the Embassy did in Cairo (but not in Karachi). I have spoken I should say, to at least 30,000 Pakistanis due in part to my own accomplishments and due at the moment to my inadvertently running into a communist cell. This was of course where our protocol says it would not be. But the communists are no different here than in Hollywood or in Noel Sullivan’s but they do not shudder at the word “Peace Corps.” They are getting ready to torpedo it; a very simple process because we have arms but no armor. What will happen there may be beyond my control. However by their advertising me I have had a full program put on top of a full program, plus the fact that the Indians have not returned my passport with visa.

During the course of this letter I shall be interrupted to go to dinner with the Mayor of the Cantonment. Just before I left San Francisco, Mr. Russell Smith, former Vice-President of the Bank of America, tipped Luther Nichols of World Affairs Council off to me. This did not need much convincing, for L.N., in contradiction to all people who knew me earlier in life and all newspaper men whatsoever had seen me meeting with Prime Ministers, Ambassadors, Dr. Radhakrishnan, etc. He did not see me meet Mohammed Ali Bogra, intermittent Prime Minister of Pakistan and the man who selected General Ayub. That worthy made everybody in the room line up and shake my hands. In America this is braggadocio; in Pakistan I am tired from doing what I call “the arsenal exercise,” getting up and down from your seats. When a man finds generals and justices of the Supreme Court rising for him, it is liable to go to his head; or it may just be that those gentlemen know me better than you do.

I am not going to tell my story here. This is part of my diary, not my reminiscences. I came here on two big missions, both of the larger than some organizations or commissions take up. As to my cultural missions, it is now recognized and I find the Foreign Service one by one admitting they do not know the culture of Pakistan. I have just written a reply to Burdick and Lederer who peppered the Satevepost with absolute lies. And so long as our press and CIA do not trust its own citizens we cannot win any cold war. This is about my fourth brush-in with the communists. Now the Americans, after Laos and Cuba, cannot afford to pull any more faux pas of this kind. I did not know about Cuba; I did about Laos. I warned four times in Cairo about the impending mob attack and told the staff I could not stand being pulled apart by Arabs and Americans who never sat down together.

The last man I saw when I left Pakistan, the first man I saw on return was M.A. Cheema who is now Joint Minister of Food & Agriculture. I asked him the forbidden question: “What do you want?” I have been working o the saline soil and desert agriculture problems with side issues of tomatoes, soy beans, fruits and avocados, with much more to come up. In UAR I was the constant guest of top scientists. In this country I wrote Ayub a suggestion which he put into practice in USA and got a fine letter of thanks. This would be “unthinkable” at home. The road block thrown at me by the compilation of Canadians, Europeans, Englishmen and Zionists who teach us Asiatics and Islamics is smashed even if I have to investigate every university and phony peace organization in the country. Can do and know what I am doing.

My specialty is agricultural literacy. Research workers do not know how to use libraries and librarians do not know the sciences. Give me a problem and if there is an answer in the USA I’ll get it and—it, I do. I brought him the first line of saline tolerant crops, etc.

In S.F. I met one Jamshyd Khan who operated the largest successful farm in Pakistan. I had to go to Mardan to deliver a lecture at a college on a subject verboten to me in California with its Zionist, English and European “experts” on Asia. The Khan farm is not far from it although in our country it would be considered a plantation. I know something of soils and had two courses on Organic Chem., not sufficient, perhaps, to understand thoroughly the growing of Sugar Cane, but enough to know certain things. In UAR I found the chief Plant Physiologist beginning a series of experiments on photo periodicity and light quantities on the creation of sucrose, etc. in the cane. Of course the answer is not ready. The sugar problems in the UAR are complex. The soil is fine for Beets but not so good for Cane. The Cotton Moth thrives better on the Beets than on Cotton. So an impasse. I thought I would find an answer here.

The Khans have a thoroughly up to date plantation. But alas, the mills process the cane in proportion to the acreage, not in proportion to the crop! This leaves them stuck. They have partly gotten around this by staggering their plantings. I have sent or am sending a pretty full report on this to my friend, Harry Nelson, Greenhouse, City College.

Now sugar is in short supply here. The Beet, which tolerates saline soils to some extent, is shunned because the theoretical recovery is less than from the cane. But they are running into the same problem as in UAR, the formation of disaccharides, etc., and in the end I found the percentage of profitable recovery about the same. Added to that, there is as yet little done to industrialize cane wastes.

Just as Iron and Coal may be associated, so Sugar and Fruit. The Indus Valley has the Sugar and the Kabul Valley the Fruits. Now we come to a hodge-podge combination of comic opera and tragedy. Unlike the Khans there is little staggering in plantings and the harvests come of a sudden. The result is often an oversupply. In the case of the Pear, they have a hard Pear which is somewhat like both an Apple and a Quince and can be picked for there are large percentages of Sugars and Esters and the acid content is small; the same with pectin although there is some pectin. This lessens as the fruit “ripens”; a long slow process. In the harder stage it would be wonderful for canning. But no canning factories excepting one small one.

The mango is the great fruit here. The seconds are marketed and often rot rather than being sold at a low price. There is no grading as in our canning industries. Actually these seconds should be turned into Mango Juice. The latter is excellent and if a little ginger or such flavoring were added it would make a wonderful dish. There is a mango-ginger sauce served to me by my good friend the Mayor which is wonderful. It functions like our applesauce.

Pakistani farmers have one-track minds. If one plants a crop another plants the same. So there is an oversupply of Mangos, Apples, Sweet Lemons (which we do not have) and a dearth of Grapes which come most entirely from Afghanistan. That country also supplies most Cucurbits excepting Watermelons. There is no system, no grading, no anything.

An Agricultural Development Corporation has just been formed and I met the Chairman. I did not get I on the ground floor; I got there before the cornerstone had arrived. But my good friend and host, Major Sadiq, may be drafted to work in that department at a better salary and with better opportunities than he has as an army officer.

I have worked out a plan for the training of about a dozen Pakistani apprentices: Canning companies, Calpack, Prunus fruits, Small fruits, other fruits, Vegetables, Heinz, Food & Agr. Machinery Corp. at San Jose, etc., etc. After I had the plan worked out I found myself the guest of a man engaged in the food processing industries living in Rawalpindi. His home was full of magazines which gave me ideas. I now have discussed them at length at the Consulate; notes were taken and will be passed on to Secretary Freeman who arrives this week.

Farm mechanics and processing machinery. The general policy is to give people 1761 and 1961 models. Nothing in between. This country is full of engineers, empty of mechanics. So are most countries. The whole foreign aid program, the whole cold war, in fact, overlooks this. I told somebody I measured the standards of countries by their telephone system. We are way out and don’t know it. I had a chance to do leg work research in UAR on a lot of subjects. My conclusions are not the same as those of the press.

The British have a magazine devoted to this subject and I find there is a glut on the market of outdated processors. Why should not Pakistan, and other countries, get some earlier models? I had a long talk with the McCormick people in India in 1956 on this—or rather conferences. We realize that anything that does not fit into protocol and propaganda is to be rejected, business or no business. While we are very busy giving aptitude tests for everybody from pre-kindergarten kids to candidates for housing in coffins, the Japanese are making careful aptitude surveys of farmers and peasants and then bring them just those improved tools which they can use, and repair.

Even countries which seem to have little buying power (often nonsense) may be sold with outdated machines and simpler ones. Not only is there a dearth of skilled mechanics here but there is caste and caste and caste. This is something. In UAR at least nobody necessarily looked down on an iron-monger or peasant. In Lebanon the answer is simple: "How much does he earn?" Here it still is: "Who was your grandfather?"

Actually this country is full of mineral wealth. The American geologists are making surveys and I hope to have some ores later on in S.F. for assaying including Uranium. At the present moment it looks as if I shall not go to the Far East and may return this way. This means I shall have a more complete report on minerals—and this is going to be a wow! This will bring the country dollars or credits. With these dollars or credits—if a program is rightly worked out—the older time models of John Deere, McCormick, Food & Agric. machinery and the whole canning and processing and grading industries could be sent here. They have not even simple grading devices.

I went into details today at the Consulate with the idea of sending about a dozen apprentices to California. I have written to James Wilson at the C. of C. and also to others. When I return I shall also go to Stanford Research which has done excellent work on Rice and Sugar.

I don’t know how much interested you are in these matters. There is a big world of pioneering here and a marvelous world of opportunity. There is no problem about meeting people; indeed our Americans here fail to take the opportunities they have to meet people.

I have met the farm Advisors in Peshawar University who come from Colorado State although one is a U.C. graduate. In this district they are from Washington State. I may not complete my tour of agricultural experimental stations. When I see things done wrong or not done at all there is a tendency to react strongly. Gross errors have been made of omission and commission. The more illustrious the body handling affairs the more difficult it is for an unattached person to correct or criticize. The mistakes I have seen in growing Strawberries and the even worse mistake of growing the Artichoke as a flowering ornamental are small compared to the errors concerning Soy beans One is left to laugh, cry or get mad. Fortunately I do have connections in unexpected places. But I am not writing books on these matters. I shall have enough to do if I can write against Koestler ("The Lotus and the Robot") or the newspaperman's "Asia is My Beat." The next generation will look at my exploits as I do those of Sir Richard Burton (who gave us the real "The Arabian Nights"). But already the grandchildren in age are appearing and acceptance is much easier in some quarters.

In a few days I shall be 65 and don't look it. At the Mayor's house where I have been to dinner they are discussing the next mass meeting for me and the preparations to get full publicity in the Urdu papers. The main English paper is anti-American. In fact it was definitely pro-commie when I was here before but the gentlemen of the press pay obeisance to each other, cold war or not cold war. Anyhow I have the USIA publicity people on my side which is a great gain. And on Saturday in the morning I have the university for a farewell (I hope) address. Here I just enter a campus grounds and it means an invitation to address the students. So I have not had much tourism except what is incidental.

My host, the Major, took me to his farm which contains a palace. He is doing some experimenting and I suggested Cotton and Tobacco to find he was growing Tobacco and Cotton. Also some rare oil seeds. I have suggested an herb and medicinal garden as he works closely with so many physicians. There are four schools of medicine here and among and between them they have concoctions from about every herb that grows and then some. But far from having medical "trusts" here there is no organization or coordination; just hit or miss. A great opportunity for some enterprising people.

My invitations to India and Malay are exactly the opposite of what would be expected of me and I should rather wait until I return. My reputation among the actual Asians is absolutely contrary and contradictory to that among the non-America "Orientalists" who are our mentors.

In fact one reason for my being invited to India is my campaign (a failure so far) that 50% of the teachers in Indian philosophy should be Hindus. The other is that many want to hear me talk on subjects where I have been road blocked at home. However that is over. I have friends, friends in high places and more than would be expected of me. I am not mentioning them here. I spoke to more Egyptians than did Billy Graham and was introduced simply as "The American."

Well, Harold, I have been to "Shangri-la." It is, as one might suppose, near or in the Himalayas but not necessarily when Miss Cloudnine—who has never been there—insists. The mountains did not divide at the time of partition. I have met a lot of people we regard as mythological or unreal. They foretold my story of the beginning of this month. If the rest of the story is correct I shall be well received when I return and this time, despite my age, be married. Either this seeing in the future is hokum or real, but one thing stands out—the unanimous agreement. If this week means anything, it is a portent. Anyhow, my mail has been sent to India so I can't find out what the home and American reactions are. Next I have to write another speech, then reports. But it is wonderful to have been accepted seriously by so many people, both the big—the very big; and the small—the very small.

My own benefactors here happen to be immensely wealthy although our friendships were based on quite independent factors and processes and at no time I have sought the company of "big shots" with any motive.

There is nothing particularly private here and I leave it to you whether we should confer on my return. My love to Dorothy and yourself.

Samuel L. Lewis

PS. My host, Major Sadiq, is a spiritual healer. I have seen him work miracles but only in the presence of physicians who kept case histories! This is exactly the opposite of what one might expect. I hope he can soon come to California and demonstrate.

October 11, 1961

My dear Jack:

This is my diary. I am very tired and also behind in my work. The tiredness comes from relaxation which in turn comes because it is the end of summer and my body now feels normal after a long, long warm spell. It still hits 90° in the daytime but there is not much energy in it.

Snafu and then some. The Indian High Commissioner has not sent my Visa and I sent a tracer to the Embassy and found the man had been transferred. So I am sending another tracer. This means I am off beat and off schedule. It also means that my Pakistani rupees have gone down and my dollar reserves up. But I have a permit to cash checks as the American Express and for the moment am not spending much. So I pray and smuggle and hope it will be all right. If you can’t use will redeem on return at Eastern daylight standard black market normal quotations. (consult univac).

Then the Snafu is shamued. I have two big mass meetings coming up Saturday. Thank God and praise the devil. The commies have done more for me—or maybe it was fate, kismet. Three men told me previously that I would undergo a rapid change of events at the beginning of October. It has come, and how. I have the amalgamated union of saints, seers, sages, Sufis, sadhus and psychometrists working for me. They say that on my birthday I will have more luck and it may even strike my pocket book favourably.

What is fame? Anyhow now the American Foreign Service is agog. They are finding out what they don’t know. How the devil can you learn about Pakistan from a bunch of non-American, non-Asians who teach without ever having visited this country? It is Tarfuristan to begin with and that is only the beginning. There are some Americans here who know something and that invalidates them. If there is anybody that the CIA does not want to hear it is the Americans who have been there—notoriety seekers, of course. Laos chaos here we come.

I spoke to 20,000 people last week and when I walk around this district people come for blessings. It is only the little kids who did not hear me that ask for bakshish and every now and then I drop 2 annas which is about 5c U.S.A.—aren’t we generous!

Then I have found my two hosts are very wealthy. Major Sadiq took me to his farm near here. He has other lands. This one has a palace on it and he is going to repair it. He is quite a good business man when it comes to farming. He asked for suggestions and I put out Cotton and Tobacco, both of which he has. I spoke against Sugar Cane and he may drop it because he is losing money. I have suggested an herb and medicinal garden. He works with doctors and there is no system here for getting these things. He evidently owns lots of land and besides him being a big shot in the Army he is also as a Sufi and again as a landlord and again as a healer.

My other host is Mr. Ahmid who is the Mayor of this section. He has at least four cars but they are rather family owned. They have three generation families here. Grandpa rules the roost. He is arranging my Saturday night meeting as he did the last one. I had to write out my speech which may not only be put in the papers (the last one was) but brochured also. I am writing Delhi to send me any mail they have because it may be highly important. So far it has been highly important. That’s a pun son. (My other pun is that I prefer bulletin boards to bullets). I have been writing every which-way to big shots and old friends tell them what is going on.

On top of that the business consultant at the legation accepted my plan for training technicians in food processing. He took notes and may pass them on to the Secretary Orville Freeman who is expected here this week. This was some pumpkins at it; it is my prize so I have written it to some old friends but I am going to hot-foot it when I return.

When the Consul-General sent me to American Express to exchange Dollars for Rupees I placed my tourist plan before them. I got sick and tired being given the gate or go-by the Pakistanis. Wow! Did he eat it. So I have another project to present or sell and can do, when I return. This will also require some lecturing to closed audiences of tourist bureaus.

As I look back now I think this covers everything.

a. Romance went flat. Girl met old sweetheart.

b. Folk dancing got nowhere, but then this was to be taken up when I reach Karachi. It is possible I shall return via Karachi and New York.

My return is complicated by this Khalandar-Mayor Sadiq deal. They both want me to collaborate and travel with them. They both have Rupees. Major has the good-will of President Ayub. Both have disciples on the Supreme Court. The Khalandar has two disciples, top officials in the Pakistan Airlines. I had hoped they would get together. Anyhow I see now reason to return via Japan and if I travel with Major Sadiq we would stop off at Egypt; but with the Khalandar I should fly.

My long war against these European professors of Oriental philosophy is liable to close in triumph. They mislead us regarding Asia and the Russians take every advantage. Imagine no Sufis here! And 20,000 the other night all connected with Sufi Orders. And this only for the Cantonment, not for Lahore. As Secretary Qudratullah Shahab is away I may write President Ayub a final report. Why not?

I shall next finish my book-buying and ship them to Clementina St. I have no idea of residence. The aforesaid disorganised union of saint, sages, seers, Sufis and sadhus foretell good fortune and marriage when I return. As they don’t know each other and have not met and three of them got the beginning of October, I am beginning to be satisfied. Besides America has a lot to learn about the occult and mystical side of Sufis which you won’t get in books.

The other night the lights went out. I took my flash and said to the guests, “Well Allah Nuri” (God is light). They went on immediately. Today they went out at the Army camp and the Major said: “The other night the lights went out and Sufi sahib said: ‘Allah Nuri’ and they went on.” The lights immediately went on! This is good copy if it be not good occultism, picks your choice. Sometimes not only Lady Luck is with you but more.

I want to visit Shalimar gardens again but gosh, to find time. I was supposed to relax today. I did get in the walks, one to a shrine. This is some story about shrines which I shall not relate here. I am hoping that either the Major or the Khalandar hurries so we might do something about Gavin. Of course “you asked for it” just as my own money-troubles here. I wanted the experience, I got it.

I donno from nothin about the World Series. But I am now in good with the Press section USIA so will consult tomorrow. Of course Time will be out Friday. Newsweek has accepted my first brochure so I have given them my whole story. I have given Satevepost hell for publishing another Burdick-Lederer stuff, all of which is wrong so far as UAR is concerned and the same partly here. But the big man who ain’t been there is always better than the little man who has. I criss-crossed the commies twice in UAR, but broke protocol—I always do, so you know what. This is the way to fight the cold war? I have sent for the mail address to the Embassy in Delhi hoping somebody has recognized me. But for you, unless otherwise, send mail to S. Agrawal. Gosh, I can’t tell where I’ll be or what…. I expected to go to the “Shalimar Gardens” today but could not. They are on the objet d’art enclosed.

October 13

My dear Rosemary:

This ought to be the news. Anyhow it is my diary. I am stuck. Weeks ago I applied for an Indian Visa. I had met the Asst. High Commissioner. I filled out the questionnaire and although I did not put down my grandfather’s maiden name but I did offer as reference almost everybody but Nehru. Now I have to air-mail to Delhi. I have written the American consulate before—with a prayer. My one contact in Karachi has gone to Murree and I suppose my letter to him may be forwarded rather than read. If for any reason it was opened and read I have a chance. Then the AFME long-distanced to Karachi. The call went through and it was red-tape recorded, if you know what I mean. And I am tired—having a full program to begin with—all this and heaven too and then some. I don’t know when to begin or end but I have to diarize.

Every night I meet somebody who has been in the Sufi center captured by the commies. Of course this did not happen because the vast array of non-American, non-Muslims who said this cannot be are the authorities. I was solemnly told that they never discussed me and that is all I hear excepting my closest friends, the Majors (I guess I’m the minor) and the Mayor get in for licks. And tomorrow I have two overwhelming meetings—which could not possibly be. For in the morning I address the top scholars in Islamics and notices have been sent to all the leading institutions. They don’t hire Europeans but they do hire UC graduates which is horrible because he was never intended for the job he got here by the Near East bunch in Berkeley and he was intended by the South Asian bunch. Which is “realism.” Anyhow I hope to see my fellow-sufferer Abdul Rahman Barker who was helped also to get out because he was interfering with the non-American, non-Asian experts in Orientalia.

Of course this did not happen but I am telling this to my diary. I visited the tomb of saint Mian Mir. I got stopped several times by people who knew me in Abbottabad or who have heard me here. Everybody wants my blessing but the bakshish-wallahs. I should not have gone to the tomb. It is all right for commies to go—I was cited there and a howl of protests went up, why should the tomb guardians permit a Feringhi to trespass on holy grounds. But between my bakshish and my prayers and my explanations the tomb guardians have been on my side, which shows the effectiveness of insidious, invidious American conspiring propaganda.

Then I went to another saint’s tomb. This one has been written off the record because the saint did not reveal himself to the commies. It is unfair for saints to take sides in the cold war or any war—excepting, of course, occasionally when they are “on our side.” Saints are supposed to serve Allah and who gives the orders to Allah! Anyhow when I went to the saint known as Data Ganj Baksh whose real name was Ali Hujwiri—drop it. No self respecting former student of any European Prof. in Orientalia would possibly believe—anyhow I got in the grand game of hand-shaking, embracing and blessing which shows how easy it is for me to fool Asian-Asians.

Even the Americans here are now taken in. Two days ago I spent over one hour with the commercial attaché on the plan I hope to submit to the S.F. C. of C., the Canners league and others about the training of apprentices in the food processing industries. Not only that, he took down notes and may submit them to Secretary Freeman who is due not later than tomorrow. Every point was approved down to details.

Now, as I can’t get out I wanted to change dollars for rupees instead of doughnuts. I had a letter to American Express, the manager of whom I had already met through one of my non-existing Sufi brothers. The cashing was a cinch. Then I placed before him my Tourism plan which has been snubbed by the Pakistanis. Because their “normal” Americans are strictly Bevhills and Losvegas. Anything else is a special case. But the American Express Manager, who is an American, not a European, favoured everything down to the fine print and little punctuation marks. So at his behest I shall call at their offices when I return and give them the low-down and high-up on a lot of points on tourism which others have not considered.

The next morning I called on Press Secretary Morlock. That --- fool kept me over an hour when we wanted a ten minute interview. Alas for his inefficiency; I did not learn who has won the World Series. What are they there for? Instead I told him about my meetings and we discussed what that grand “anti”-communist Pagler would never dare touch—the super millionaire leaders of the left of the left bank. And by the way, he does live on the left bank of the Canal! I never thought of it until now! It is my old theme song: “Who ever saw a commissar in overalls!” The working-classes are fur, fur away but the lies that go out about America, they are there.

But Morlock and others seriously realize the problems that the Peace Corps are going to face and the fear is mounting that they will not be prepared. Without Laos even we have learned nothing from the disastrous visits of two Vice-Presidents and very little from the Japanese welcome¿? to a President’s Press Secretary (actually the worst type of diplomat in existence). Earl Warren was not mobbed. Let’s forget that!

The heat has abated—I mean weather—and my health is up again. But otherwise “the heat” is on. Between the Indians on one side and the reds on the other and the welcomes from mobs of non-existing Sufis and the reaction against Russia and for America—from the wrong place, of course, means I am going up in the hearts of some countrymen. And now the Indians want me; they prefer me all around the Prof. “Von Plotz” our “expert” in such matters!

My host may be transferred to the new Agricultural Development Corp. which will be of great use to me. Etc. Will probably write as soon as I can, advising whether I am inflated, deflated, reflated or flated by the forthcoming meetings. No, this ain’t Beatric Fairfax but it is to be continued.

October 16

Dear Jack:

This is my daily diarrhea or diary and I feel in a pun-ish, punnish manner, such as saying “Happy Birthday to Me” for that event is on the 18th. I have not followed the prognostications of the saints, seers, sadhus, Sufis and sages who said that Saturn would be off my belly or backbone on that date. So far he has shown no signs of it. I did get an official report that the Indians are “working” on my visa and here I am without a passport, etc. The one nickname I never objected to was “Sorowy Lewis.” You can see that left me with the same initials and fitted into my pun-ish punnish ways. But alas, this one never took. I have been called all kinds of things but the best way to avoid an offensive, offending name is to “do it yourself.”

I did not name all the members of the cabinet in my references because two have retired and one is dead since I was there last. But maybe it is like my description of the UAR civil service:

First requirement—be suspicious.

Second requirement—be efficient (the two are identical).

I am writing another letter to the Bank of America to release more Indian rupees because today is payday for us. I have also written to my friend Satya Agrawal and to the Embassy to forward mail here.

The news:

I have now spoken to about 50,000 people. These crazy birds never heard of Prof. Von Plotz, excepting the top bananas and they would not give “him” a visa for anything. “Only in America” we just luv his nice voice and his sw-eet smile and he can’t possibly be wrong. This is due to the combination of the Grace of Allah and the commies, but most of this has to be given to the latter who advertised me all over. Now the Urdu papers are taking me up. Not the top “Pakistani Times” which used to be commie operated and still one high muck-a-muck is there. But the American press—and especially the veddy, veddy anti-commies will continue to quote “Pakistan Times.”

Maybe I have been howling my head off. And my mail went astray and “Newsweek” sent me a very favorable letter and Satevepost sent me an acknowledgement. They were supposed to answer to New Delhi. So I have told “Newsweek” all. I already did for Satevepost especially after they put that b.s. article of Burdick and Lederer. You know my friends, Leonard Austin and Gavin Arthur, who did not otherwise see eye to eye both promised to introduce me to those gentlemen. I am still waiting. A big name plus commies is worth all the truth in the world. Still if these are signs aforehead it may be something. Pray for me, pray for me, prove for me, anything.

All my other mail to various Senators (whom I hunch will answer) and to Washington authorities (place your bets) is directed to India. This is my fifth encounter with the red-reds who aren’t going to bomb us but prick us to death and we have no come-back. The more we look for another Pearl Harbor, the more they will infiltrate and we can’t do that—protocol you know.

But all men are not diplomats or editors. The Legation here has accepted my plan for apprenticing In the Food Processing industries and I have written to the C. of C. on Pine St. The American Ex. has accepted in toto my tourism plans. This is very encouraging.

I am more interested to find out if Sulzberger of N.Y Times and do-it-too-Murrow will answer. If that guy does not, there is going to be some fur flying and it won’t be mine. I did write Chet Bentley but again the answer, if any, is at New Delhi. So I have written to send some mail here as I don’t know when I leave.

While I am here with no rent to pay my rupees go along way.

Now Sunday some people came here to see what it was like to meet the American whom my former teacher, now commie, was attending. By the time the evening was over I got another lecture to a woman’s college. The teacher who is arranging this is very beautiful and sometimes I get in places where “I ain’t so dumb.” I have spoken to girls’ audiences before.

When there is a mixed group they either sit behind a screen or way in the background and don’t like to speak. But again, the commies are in and I have been warned I am going to be challenged. As it is a School of Domestic Science (although college graduate level) I shall speak for ye good old U.S.A. (and gas and electricity are cheaper in California.) I guess I’ll try to electrify them and give them plenty of gas anyhow.

I have spoken to so many colleges now and met so many people that this neck roll of “Ah Yaint, a saint” operates like a reality. I bet I can lick old President Harding when it comes to hand shaking. And free tea! No wonder I went out. My friends Paul Reps and Bryn Beorse could not stand the stomach hospitality—they looked at it as hospital-ity.

Lahore is a very beautiful city and now “the heat is off.” Next I have to go to the man who acts as Mayor here. He is also a big shot in the In(f)ternal Revenue. I have to make out some forms even though I never earned anything excepting Rs.10 given to m by a Sufi teacher, but as “there are no Sufis” I guess I won’t have to declare that. Besides it was in a mosque for preaching.

I also have to have some pictures. Well I asked for it. I am still hoping for acknowledgment by the press in S.F. I have written to a lot of big-shots and maybe, just maybe, I can get an interview with a cosmopolitan daily. Meanwhile they prefer to quote from commie-controlled newspapers than take first hand stuff from citizens abroad. This is the way to win the cold war, for the Russians. Well profits are profits, and it is the American movies that are paying the commie’s here. Quite a story. I never left Hollywood. And I don’t’ know when I shall be where, beware,


Sufi Ahmed Murad Chisti


October 18

My dear Vocha and Bartlett:

This is my birthday and under other circumstances I should be “The happiest man in the world.” Actually it is a comedy of errors with comedy beating the errors all over. The Indian officials have held up my visa so I am sitting without a passport, with my money in two other places, with my mail directed to two other places, with my expenses way, way down while I am here but with no reports not knowing what kind of budget I have and compelled to “trust” hoping. Yet something has been thrown at me—and after and at a time I am offered nothing but the greatest of courtesy and consideration, that I do not know what to do.

While I did not meet President Ayub, over the phone he expressed his wish that I assist in introducing the culture of this country into the U.S. Now so much money and assistance has been offered I do not know where to begin or end. I am throwing the ball back to his Excellency and according to his personal, or official decision, my future may go up and up and up, at a time when it is going up and up and up. This makes it most difficult to get anything into a focus. I shall come back to that.

The whole upshot of communist infiltration into Sufism has been on the one hand a vast increase in both lecture opportunities and offers; and on the other the extreme seriousness which is given both to my personality and ideas. This is such a reverse to the long years of absolute and a priori rejections that it is hard for me to remain stable.

I have written to New Delhi to forward any mail on hand up to next week. If there is not a letter from Ed Marrow there is going to be a real flare-up and I do not mean maybe. To be summarily rejected and ejected at the Embassy and within one month to be in “The White House” naturally brings up the question, “How come?” The two letters from his services in Washington were pale white-each with a perfume which becomes a stink. I have talked and talked now to so many attachés and they admit they do not know what passes for “Islam” in these parts. And yet the masses are fanatical over “Islam.” Which calls up G. S.

I have certainly gained the good-will of both Pakistanis and Americans that it is time to face this utter nonsense of calling in Europeans to “explain” Asia to us. Already there are rumblings of difficulties with the so-called “Peace Corps.” The Americans have their stooges with questions that will not be answered. If the “Peace Corps” people do not resign we shall soon see anti-American outbreaks. The papers are filled with articles calling for a “united Islamic front.” There will be no such thing. The Egyptians have called for such action again and again but Pakistan sends neither delegates nor reporters.

I spoke to 10,000 people last week. It was a falling off from the 20,000 the week before. But the 20,000 were disciples in Sufism—which our non-American, non-Asians tell us has no strength; and the 10,000 were Sunnis and Shias with more enthusiasm than education. On top of that we had another Sufi Prime Minister visiting the White House last week. How much longer this travesty of honesty will go on I do not know.

Newsweek definitely accepted my first report and Satevepost tentatively. This was fine because their answers were supposed to go to India and reached me here.

This coming Saturday I discuss with the Asia Foundation my plan for training apprentices I the food-processing industry. This was tentatively accepted at the Legation and notes were taken for Secretary Freeman. I have sent same to C. of C. in S.F. but by the guile of writing it to “Mr. Big” who is my friend and letting them get the copy. I am putting all the pressures now on friends, arming them with facts and facts.

Last week I also visited American Express Co. which will cash checks for me until I get out. And they accepted in toto my plan for tourism—which is pliable and can be used for any part of Asia, or even more extensively. I got nowhere with the Pakistani authorities. I am to be present it at New York or S.F. whichever I reach first.

I meet people in the streets all over and this always means another lecture. I have tentatively agreed to speak at the Govt. Art College next week where my topic will be on the meaning of architecture and the decorative arts in the world of today. There will be a special plug for the Rudolph Schaeffer School in San Francisco and for all the movements which extended from Sullivan of Chicago. I shall also speak on the relation of the Keyser-Reiser philosophy to these movements, in regard to space, movement, harmony, etc., etc.

Now I have had three offers of collaboration from Sufis here. All of them occupy positions in society so out of line with what is taught in the U.S. it is totally and absolutely ridiculous. I was almost ashamed when I mentioned Sufism that one of the attaches went out and purchased a book by the English Arberry. Oh, yes, if you want your degree you had better. He offers an excellent approach to the ideal philosophy of a thousand years ago and tells you absolutely nothing of today. Yet I have been to Ashraf, which is in Lahore and world famous for its stock of books on Sufism. And the city is full of Sufis, some right within short walking distance of the Legation.

All of the men who want to come to the U.S. are independently wealthy—and this excludes all the big men I have met previously. The amount of money they have expressed willing to put forth in their efforts is staggering. For the moment I do not know where to begin but shall write President Ayub.

Universities. I have written and will write against the American college and university method of honoring degrees in Orientalia from Canada, Great Britain, Holland, Germany and even sundry parts of Europe over such degrees in either Asian or American universities! I was challenged about the availability of Pakistanis to speak English. I remember that old Sokei-an was rejected because his English was not good enough but when I visited a leading university I found a Hungarian refugee, Jewish on top of that, in charge of Islamics and his English would make Sokei-an of Senzaki sound like Wilson or Churchill! Whom do you think we are fooling?

I can name school after school and professor after professor begging for money to further their courses in comparative religion or Orientalia who never answer letters but beg and beg and beg. What is one supposed to do?

I spent a whole hour with one of the USTA officials on the subject of valid interchange in the in the cultures of Pakistan and U.S. and he did not know much about Pragmatism, G.S., Peizce, Keyser or Darcy. (What am I going to tell Ed Murrow?) So I went down to the library. I had to spend over an hour in the library with the Chief on the relation of modern psychoanalysis methods with oriental and religious ones—this was more delectable because there was communication. I found that the library, like the others I have visited, may have actual books on Asiatica but their works on modern philosophy are tops. I am reading one and read the article on Semantics. The writer was so objective and so much against the ‘”General Semanticists” that I glanced to see his name Rappoport! Knock me over with a feather and bake me for a clam.

I have told Asia Foundation and the American Friends of the Middle East that the last thing I propose is to raise funds for any rival organisation. Now what to do? I need Semanticists; this country needs Semanticists. Maybe I’ll write Rappoport but I shall distinctly insist that no Californians are wanted or admitted unless they have degrees in at least one basic science, and not psychology! I have cried for chemists, physicists, even medical doctors. The description of operational methods is not operational. (Incidentally all the articles on Logics and modern movements are very, very good—and this does not mean I shall agree with them.)

I am now strong enough to go to the Berkeley Campus and compel the Near East section to accept facts. The Department for South Asian Studies does. I shall continue to argue for the true integration of Zen and Mahayana. I don’t care what the whole kit-and-crew of Englishmen and Europeans say; if instead of looking inside their heads they examine some of the ruins here, it is so obvious that Meditation Buddhism existed long long before Bodhi-dharma, and the architecture reflects the philosophy. And incidentally we had quite a discussion on the relation of architecture to both philosophy and function at the Arts College. (I am already known now for my talks on Arabic art and I am not expertタ??but I am far, far from a speculator or an opportunist.)

Visited Shalimar yesterday. It is lovely at this time of the year. Had the time to observe details. The advanced engineering there proves beyond a doubt that Europeans had very little to do with Taj. I went over the brick work, the cornices, the fountains and engineering, with wonder and admiration.

Just now an interruption. I have to speak Friday at a woman’s college of Domestic Arts and Sciences. The teacher under whose auspices I function is in the art department. Actually there is an under-current of Russian vs. U.S. which I think I can handle.

How far the arts can be used in the betterment of world understanding I do not know. Certainly the last word has not been said by either East or West…. We visited a saint’s tomb and by intuition I picked up his character. Although a Sufi, he used veritable Zen methods and had some of the greatest disciples in this part of the world.

There is some discussion of the future, agitation over wars and what not. As I have observed, it is the “peace-loving” nations that are busy killing off each other at the moment.

If the physicists and chemists since 1894 had been like the professional humanists, sceptics and literati, there would have been no radium, no atomic sciences, no radionics and electronics. It was by observation and acceptance of the “unusual” that the keys to the behaviour of the usual were found. Even today all inorganic chemistry is taught with the same approaches as organic chemistry. Where does life begin?

I have seen enough sages and mystics and Khalandars to know that we have not studied the “rare-earth” types or the radio-active types among human beings. We talk about anti-Aristotalianism but are bound by the same time and space-psychologically. The possibility of their being spaces and spatialities around us comes in the words but not in the consciousness. There may be many kinds of fourth-dimensional consciousness according to our definition of fourth-dimension. The possibility, nay the probability of unusual types coming to America may set off some commotion. We shall, of course, try to “normalise” them. But radioactivity is now ubiquitous and people with strange faculties may not continue as did the one-eyed man who got into Wells’ kingdom of the blind. We cannot have world understanding so long as we wish to remain ourselves the measuring sticks, the callipers, the micrometers. The Russians and we are both trying to potter-clay the rest of the world. And all propagandists put mikes in their mouths and wax in their ears. I fear for the Peace Corps.

“Time” had an excellent article over the comparative agronomics of the Iron Curtain and the West; this was very objective and may put a crimp on those parrots who emote that Russia is ahead in that and this and the other. Objective studies, impersonal and honest, are needed and they can be our strength.

I am not going to worry anymore about receptions. I wanted the strength of integrity and honesty. Now I am getting, inshallah, the strength of moneys. If they are released here they are not going into the hands of the emotionalists, the ego-centric and the sycophants. I think each philosophy should be examined on its own merits or demerits; and each type of exotic or aberrational personality at its own merits or demerits. To be democratic does not mean to reduce us to a common clay. (I sound like Stevenson at times and maybe I ought to.)

It looks like 10 days more here and I am only hoping I can catch up with my typing. Only I do not know what mail may be awaiting me, and après news le deluge! (Wow, that ought to be patented.) Incidentally, news about Gavin very shaky. Have written Hugo, hoping he is still with us. Well his prophecies have come true.

I only hope I can return this side up.


Samuel L. Lewis


Sufi Ahmed Murad Chisti


October 22

My Dear Norman:

This is my diary. It is late at night. I have had to remain in Lahore. The Indian foreign office, not knowing whether to grant me a 3-month or 6-month visa has equivocated by granting neither and I am stuck while bureaucrats bureaucrat. This has knocked my schedule sky-high but it is also showing signs of knocking my pocket-book sky-high. For there is one thing very certain about these non-existing Sufis. They certainly have it in the pocket-book as well as in the heart.

Today I reap my karma about phant-Asia versus real Asia. I am, of course, assuming that the people who are going to fête me and promise what I am going to write about are real. Let us start with accepting their bank-accounts as real. Charles Moore and Louis Gainsborough, of course, deny that there are Sufis but would be quite willing to receive some of their largess.

The Khalandar. In this country a man fights for his sister, not for his wife. When partition took place and the Indians left here (the other side did the same) some Louis the Bimp got hold of properties, sold them right and left, and then left and right, collected and opted for the opposite side with plenty of plenty. This put the Khalandar’s sister in a fix because she has been living in a house also sold to somebody else, and on the same day, so nobody knows who has the property and Brother has been in court going to bat.

My conclusion is that I shall probably return to Pakistan after India and Malaya and return via Karachi and New York unless there is some break. I have so written to the Stices.

Major Sadiq is in more or less of the same fix and in the same general district. He is my host and brother Sufi. He owns plenty of plenty. I have been to one of his farms and there is a palace on it. He showed me the palace and told me its history. It is now managed by one of his brothers.

He has also introduced me to the head of the new Agricultural Development Corporation and may be transferred therein. We are trying to get the President’s promise and blessing to send him to America. As the Major has been in Rawalpindi he may even have called on Ayub. If so this will be added before being mailed.

Malik Abdul Hamid Khan has plenty of plenty, far more than the others. He and the Major are my hosts. He told me he has no family any more but one son who is now well heeled. We have invited the American Legation, the A. Friends of the Middle East, Asia Foundation and the ICA to a tea Sunday to discuss real two-way cultural exchange. I do not know how many will come. The Malik will provide the food. The Malik will provide everything but ideas. The Americans may offer ideas. This is not done you know but we doo’d it.

Mass Meetings. Between the Major and the Malik I have had two mass meetings, one of 20,000 disciples in (non-existent) Sufism. The other 10,000 of Shias and Sunnis. Meanwhile I am invited to Sufi gatherings and to colleges.

Boy, you should have been with me today. Nothing but lovelies, a whole college of them and I the speaker and only one other man there. And did I get an ovation. The girls were much more intelligent than the boys whom I have addressed. And I was in wonderful form. With the abating of the heat my health has reached perfection. Besides I have had with me the unamalgamated association of saints, Sufis, sadhus, seers and sages some of whom did not go to college and none of whom went to universities in Europe, England or Canada. How come! Anyhow they psyched me for this month and it is coming out exactly.

But when the Malik put his stuff to me the other day—my birthday too—I nearly fell over. He has offered so much in the financial way, but gives two years to work out the program. So Sunday we meet and discuss. Already President Ayub has given his ideas; we now need his blessing.

Dr. Robert Blum was injured here when he was going to Ayub to get ideas. Anyhow tomorrow I meet Mr. Metz at Asia Foundation and place before him my idea for apprentices in certain industries. The legation backs me up. Everybody backs me up now. No Uncle Louies, no Landaus, no Spiegelbergs, just Americans and Pakistanis and they are with me to a man, and woman. And we ought to meet some conclusion on Sunday.

Anyhow, so far as you are concerned I shall look in all directions Mr. Kibbee, the USIA director here is also of African descent and is the only USIA man I can positively recommend. Instead of filling the people up with Bach, Beethoven, Brahms and Tennessee Williams he gives them folk songs and square dancing. He actually mingles! He does not sit in an ivory tower and use microphones. It is almost impossible to believe. He really wants to win the cold war.

Next week I have been informed will be my investiture as a Sufi Murshid. This is going hard on my erstwhile personal enemies in the S.F. Bay area. This had a long history. I entered the Sufi center (which could not be) and found it occupied by commies. Why not? Under our European professors who give us the degrees these people don’t exist or are knaves and fools. What better place for a hide-out; and for plotting against the Peace Corps. Well Lewises rush in where fools and angels alike fear to tread. They attacked me; the non-existent Sufis gave me a feast; they attacked me some more; the non-existing Sufis gave me a party; the attacks continued and the non-existing Sufis gave me a mass-meeting. And so on.

Now with the accumulation of popularity, fame and éclat, this possibility of financial support comes up. Well the unamalgamated society of Sufis, sadhus, saints, sages and seers have long predicted it and given me their blessings. I cannot walk anywhere without being greeted.

Rom Landau may talk about Baraka but he has never been here and he would not believe if he saw; he would say it is a put-up job.

Well I’ll do the praying and we shall see. But if there is an overflow $$ as well as an overflow audience, I know Barkis is willing, meaning you. Just sit tight; this is still a prayer and not a promise, but the Ides of October have been excellent.

And 65 or not, give me another college of lovelies. Won’t you join me?


Sufi Ahmed Murad Chisti


October 25

My Dear Harry:

So much has happened during the last month that I feel it imperative to go over all my notes and reports. My journey here is the result of my reading too much fiction concerned with the region and so much of my life is now concerned with events either paralleling that fiction or so much more exciting or interesting, at least to me that I want to re-write and revaluate. In short, fame is already here and prosperity looks very close. I have spoke to over 50,000 people and there is another mass meeting for me Tuesday at which time I shall either be given a title or official recognition. These titles and recognitions are hardly the type one can get from a university abroad, accredited or not; and if it were not for the accidental or divine walking into the communist cell, some of the deeper parts of my nature would not have come out. But the Legation here is with me and not only with me in this but in my not so merry mix-up.

Weeks and weeks ago I applied for a visa for India. Not only whether to grant a six-months or three-months visa. They slept over it. When finally the American Friends of the Middle East, the Embassy and delegation got after them they passed the buck to New Delhi. On top of that I have had no word from New Delhi and I am half afraid they may do the same thing as the Karachi Embassy did, send my mail back! Then the fir or fur will fly, because by this time both our Senators know what I am doing and am up against.

By favourite accident I did receive two letters which were sent to my Abbottabad address. One was from Newsweek accepting my report on communist infiltration, which happened before I walked into it. But it is the most unfortunate thing even in the cold war that a newsman’s imagination may start a war, but if Protestant missionaries saw a whole army enter another country, it would mean simply that Mr. Alsop, or his brother, would write another article complaining the situation. The old adage, hit-them-where-they–ain’t is one we cannot officially accept and those darn nice, protocol observing communists would not do anything like that, despite Korea, Viet Minh, Laos and Afghanistan, and pushing young parolees, what’s the next article and go and build your bomb shelter which means more money for the account people. You don’t see Russians building bomb shelters here because that is honestly what they won’t do. We have mind players out-fielding and they are bunting and they keep on bunting and bunting and we have no real short stops (indian variety).

Peace Corps and Peshawar University. We have a fine bunch of men from Colorado State U. and they have intelligence and experience and all tied up tightly in red tape. Ted Thatcher, graduated from U. C. in Forest Entomology and this is badly needed but what is he doing? Arranging scientific courses and training Peace Corps! They have some system at the University. The Forestry and Agriculture Colleges give all their courses each separate from the other and so duplicate each other and the rest of the campus. The Engineering colleges duplicate nothing, sending their students to the really well equipped physics and chem. labs and requiring the upper division students to walk from one building to another for such courses as sanitary engineering, dam building etc. It is terrible to say they make these men walk—even 100 yards!

Salinity. Thank God the experts have been here. Now Germany is sending experts. Russia has been sending them in since before I arrived and is still sending them in. The leading paper using English, “Pakistan Times” was pro-communist and is now just anti-American. They have blamed us, through misprints for every error made by anybody and everybody in Katanga. I still have visit Riverside and will go more deeply into saline tolerant plants. I understand there is one variety of cotton. This information I may be able to get at Berkeley, too.

Food Processing. I had a bright idea after visiting Takht Bhai for sending a dozen Pakistanis to the S.F. Bay region to learn different types of food processing—canning, packing, grading, etc. My idea became brighter and brighter. Anyhow after I walked into the Communist net suddenly everybody began to listen to me on everything and this idea took on. Notes were taken and soon passed to Secretary Freeman who has been here.

I have since written in detail to James Wilson of the C. of C. and also discussed it with Asia Foundation. Many of our big corporations such as Calpack, American Can, Citrus Industries, etc. give money to Asia Foundation, etc. to help Asian students. Now I suggest they train apprentices from this country and get some kind of income tax alleviation. But if they invest, or if machinery is sold here there would be the proper type of personnel. I would not only be glad to discuss this with you, I think it may be a must before I go down to San Jose, or even visit Stanford Research.

I have also written to my foster sister’s husband who is an old hand in the field. I do not expect or need answers through the mails but I need conferences before I run off unprepared to any of the industries involved.

Afghan Situation. I am not getting into the politics. Until the break between the two countries Afghanistan grew practically all the melons, Grapes, Cucurbits and other items. There is no diversified farming here. When the crops are too great there is spoilage; when too small there is depression.

The University of Peshawar is one of the largest in Asia and perhaps the most poorly organized. There is duplication so much I can pun Botany-Botany who’s got Botany. Boy you never saw a place with so many Botany teachers—four different departments that I know of and I did not look around. This includes only those who use English in the class room!

I visited Warsak Dam, the whole staff of which has been trained by my friend, Prof. Durand. He is a fiction-like character in himself. His existence belies our whole teaching about Islam and India, mostly by big men who do not go there, and whose knowledge, outside of books, is totally superficial. And incidentally I have had the not too enjoyable experience of breaking down every one of the Americans here to find they do not know much about Asiatics and are given little chance to learn after they get here.

Pashto Academy. This has by far the best and most scientific section. It is directed by my friend, Maulana Abdal Qadir whom I met in San Francisco years ago. He has been most cooperative in arranging both lectures and social contacts. My theme, “Oriental Philosophy and Modern Science” has gone over everywhere.

Takht Bhai. I have written that I expected to visit the best farm using modern methods. It is owned and managed by Sattar and Jamshyd Khan and my existence there was definitely idyllic. Sugar is a 10 months crop. Takht Bhai is Persian for mountain spring, and there used to be a big spring from which water was drawn for the Buddhist monasteries on one of the hills within the Khan’s land. The places have long since been in ruins, but excellent architecture. I only hope I can visit the place again for a longer stay, for many reasons.

The Khans plant only on rows and hills and never broadcast. They stagger the planting to establish a rhythmic program for their workers, the most happy I have seen in Pakistan. They use two composts, one of decayed vegetable matter and the other buffalo dung. Those are spread on the ground and superphos is added before planting. This family goes in much heavier for organics than is usual in Pakistan. They also have an excellent system of green manuring.

The soil is known to be high in K but low in P and N. This shows up in poor Maize and not much better in Sorghum.

I stop here and am going to Lyallpur to visit the Agricultural Research College and may continue tonight or tomorrow night.

October 26. I am now in Lyallpur living up to my new nickname, Tarfusan. My affairs have become so complex I simply can do nothing but sit by but when I return, if I return to Lahore tomorrow, I shall have to get the diplomatic circles running—no mail, no money, no passport, no visa, and on the other hand another grand public mass meeting coming up. The plane changed its schedule without notification. I came by express bus several hours later and did find my putative host at a late hour. He was Prof. of Agricultural Engineering but went into private business some time back. The motto could be “Tarfusan mindabad” but I hate to translate that.

Takht Bhai, Sugar. In my original notes I wrote that I thought Copper would help in the solving of certain two-way equilibria in Sugars and information thereof. Since then I h